Calendar overview 1854
|siege of Sevastopol begins in the Crimean War .||Elisabeth in Bavaria marries Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria .|
Battle of Balaklava
it comes to the death ride of the Light Brigade .
|1854 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1302/03 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1846/47 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Baha'i calendar||10/11 (turn of the year 20/21 March)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1249/50 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2397/98 (southern Buddhism); 2396/97 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1216/17 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4187/88 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1232/33 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1270/71 (23/24 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5614/15 (22/23 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1570/71 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1269/70 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2164/65 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2165/66 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1910/11 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 27 : Britain gives Russia an ultimatum to withdraw its troops from the Ottoman provinces of Moldova and Wallachia .
- 27 / March 28 : The British and French declaration of war on Russia the entry of these countries into the effected Crimean War .
- June 3 : The Austrian Empire calls on Russia to withdraw from the Danube principalities. After the Russian withdrawal, it occupied them itself, but without intervening in combat operations during the war.
- September 14 : The Allied British and French land on the Crimean peninsula .
- September 20 : In the Battle of the Alma, the British and French win their first victory against Russia.
- October 5 : Allied shelling of Sevastopol begins in the Crimean War . The battle for the Russian port city on the Black Sea will last eleven months.
- October 9th : The siege of Sevastopol begins.
- October 21 : Florence Nightingale and 38 nurses set off for Crimea to care for the wounded. She arrives at the Scutari hospital in November , where her team is initially met with suspicion and resistance from British military doctors.
- November 5 : The trapped Russians attempt a sortie from the besieged city of Sevastopol , which the British and French prevent in the Battle of Inkerman .
- December 2 : Great Britain , France and Austria sign the December alliance against Russia in Vienna .
- May 25 : Bamberg Conference to strengthen the “ Third Germany ”.
- July 13 : Workers ' and workers' education associations are exposed to intensified persecution in the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundestag . The General German Workers 'Brotherhood and all other political workers' associations are banned; in Prussia this ban had already existed since 1850 .
- August 9 : change of throne in Saxony; on Friedrich August II. follows his brother Johann .
- March 27th : Duke Charles III. is stabbed by a stranger in the street in Parma . The deceased was hated by the population because of his arbitrary regime.
- February 28 : In Ripon ( Wisconsin ) which is Republican Party of the United States established the against the spread of slavery turns. You belong to many opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act .
- May 30 : Signed by US President Franklin Pierce , the Kansas-Nebraska Act comes into effect, creating the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory as United States Territories . At the same time, part of the Missouri Compromise that banned slavery north of the 36th parallel will be lifted.
- August 19 : In the Grattan massacre , Lakota Indians kill a 30-man US Army unit who wanted to arrest an Indian cattle thief, with the exception of one severely wounded soldier who escaped . A soldier had previously shot the chief while he was leaving from the palaver . Immediately a punitive action takes place against the Indian tribe.
- March 31 : Commodore Matthew Perry and Shogun Tokugawa Ieyoshi sign the Kanagawa Convention . With this the closure of Japan ends .
- October 4 : Japan agrees a friendship treaty with Great Britain similar to the one that came about shortly before with the USA under military pressure.
- December 3 : The Diggers uprising in Australia known as the Eureka Stockade is crushed by British police and military forces. This survey has a signal effect on a democratic development on the fifth continent.
- March 1 : In Mexico, on the dismissal of president is Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's targeted plan of Ayutla proclaimed.
Voyages of discovery
- April 11 : The Frankfurter Bank is established as the central bank of the city-state Free City of Frankfurt .
- June 27 : The Canadian geologist Abraham Gesner receives patent protection in the United States for his invention of kerosene .
- July 15 : The First General German Industrial Exhibition takes place in Munich . For this purpose, the specially built glass palace based on the model of the Crystal Palace in London will be opened.
- October 17th : The Austro-Hungarian state railway company is founded with mainly French capital .
- October 18 : The first German seaman's home is put into operation in Bremen .
- November 1 : After an exhibition of over a year, the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations in New York City closes its doors with a loss of $ 300,000.
- November 30 : Mohammed Said grants Count Ferdinand de Lesseps the concession to build the Suez Canal .
- December 5 : The Berlin police chief Karl Ludwig von Hinkeldey grants the printer Ernst Litfaß the first approval for his " advertising pillars ". Litfass also received a monopoly from the city of Berlin, valid until 1865, for the installation of its pillars.
- The craftsman Louis Vuitton founds the Louis Vuitton Malletiert suitcase company in Paris .
- The Bolsa de Comercio de Buenos Aires stock exchange is founded in Buenos Aires as the successor to Banco Mercantil .
science and technology
- February 7th : The Swiss Federal Council passes the federal law establishing a federal polytechnic school, today's ETH Zurich .
- July 17th : The Semmering Railway, planned by Carl von Ghega , is the first standard-gauge mountain railway to be opened for passenger traffic in the Austrian Empire .
- August 26th : French inventor Charles Bourseul describes the telephone in L'illustration magazine . However, he is not taken seriously and does not pursue his idea any further.
- November 3rd : The Catholic University of Ireland begins its first lectures .
- The Italian doctor Filippo Pacini discovered the bacterium vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera .
- JE Taylor rediscovers the Sumerian city of Eridu (see 1918 and 1948 ).
- Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci invents the telephone .
- Foundation of the State Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe
Music and theater
- February 16 : At the Paris Opéra-Comique , the opera L'étoile du nord ( North Star ) by Giacomo Meyerbeer premiered. In a modified second version, the opera will also premiere on July 19 at the Royal Opera House in London. For this work Meyerbeer used six numbers from his Singspiel Ein Feldlager in Schlesien . Ludwig Rellstab translates the libretto by Eugène Scribe in the same year, and in late 1854 can be brought opera in Stuttgart on stage.
- March 22nd : The world premiere of the opera Die Nibelungen by Heinrich Dorn takes place in Weimar.
- April 20 : The opera Die Iconsturmer by Johann Friedrich Kittl has its world premiere at the Estates Theater in Prague.
- May 30 : In Bari , the Teatro Piccinni opera house, named a year later in honor of the composer Niccolò Piccinni , who was born in the city, opens.
- June 11 : The song Die Wacht am Rhein of max schneckenburger is with the music of Carl Wilhelm occasion of the silver wedding of the Prussian Prince William, the future Emperor I. Wilhelm , premiered.
- June 24th : 26 years after the composer's death, the opera Alfonso und Estrella by Franz Schubert is premiered under the direction of Franz Liszt at the Weimar Court Theater . The libretto was written by Franz von Schober .
- October 18 : The world premiere of the opera La nunne sanglante ( The Bloody Nun ) by Charles Gounod takes place in Paris.
- December 21 : The world premiere of the comic opera Der Advokat by Ferdinand Hiller takes place in Cologne.
- April 24 : Franz Joseph I from the House of Habsburg-Lothringen marries the 16-year-old Wittelsbach princess Elisabeth in Bavaria in Vienna .
- The leisure activity of letterboxing , a form of scavenger hunt, is born in Dartmoor in the English county of Devon .
- November 22nd : In Elberfeld , Hermann Heinrich Grafe and five other men founded the first Free Evangelical Congregation in the German-speaking area.
- December 8th : Pope Pius IX. proclaims the dogma of the Immaculate Conception with his letter Ineffabilis Deus .
- July: Around 1,400 people die in a cholera epidemic in Chicago , which leads to an uplift of the city two years later . In Munich, too, there was an outbreak of cholera during the industrial exhibition, which Max von Pettenkofer was researching.
- August / September: A cholera epidemic breaks out in parts of London , killing around 600 people. This is caused by contaminated drinking water, as proven by the doctor John Snow .
- January 21 : The iron clipper RMS Tayleur the White Star Line goes on its maiden voyage in the Irish Sea under after being in a storm and fog on the rocks on the shore of Lambay Iceland went. 362 people die.
- March 1 : The British passenger steamer RMS City of Glasgow leaves the port of Liverpool on a crossing to Philadelphia and disappears without a trace with 481 people on board.
- September 27 : The American passenger steamer Arctic collides with the French steamer Vesta at Cape Race off Newfoundland and sinks while trying to reach the coast. About 350 people die, including all women and children on board.
- November 6 : 77 men, women and children are killed when the barque Johanne with 232 people on board is stranded in a heavy storm off the East Frisian island of Spiekeroog . The victims are mostly willing to emigrate to the USA . The accident is one of the triggers for the establishment of sea rescue stations on the German coast, which finally leads to the establishment of the German Society for Rescue of Shipwrecked People (DGzRS) in 1865 .
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
- August 24th : Stephan Steinberger says he is the first person to climb the Königspitze in the Ortler Alps on his own . His statements have been questioned for a long time, but today the majority are classified as credible.
- January 1 : James Frazer , English ethnologist († 1941 )
- January 2 : Theodor Kösser , German architect († 1929 )
- January 3 : Lee Slater Overman , American politician († 1930 )
- January 5 : Edward Curtis Smith , American politician († 1935 )
- January 8 : John Rahm , American golfer († 1935 )
- January 9 : Jennie Churchill , American-English philanthropist and author († 1921 )
- January 10 : Ramón Corral , Mexican politician and Vice President († 1912 )
- January 10 : Heinrich Köselitz , German writer and composer († 1918 )
- January 10 : Richard von Perger , Austrian composer, conductor and music teacher († 1911 )
- January 15 : Károly Senyei , Hungarian sculptor († 1919 )
- January 15 : John T. Watkins , American politician († 1925 )
- January 19 : Elisabeth Dauthendey , German writer († 1943 )
- January 20 : Furnifold McLendel Simmons , American politician († 1940 )
- January 20 : Frank B. Weeks , American politician († 1935 )
- January 21 : Karl Julius Beloch , German ancient historian († 1929 )
- January 21 : George Musgrove , Australian opera and theater entrepreneur († 1916 )
- January 24th : Erich Giersberg , German firefighter and inventor († 1905 )
- January 24 : Paul Natorp , German philosopher and educator († 1924 )
- January 26 : Eli Marcus , German writer and actor († 1935 )
- January 26 : Frank D. Jackson , American politician († 1938 )
- January 31 : Ludwig von Pastor , German historian († 1928 )
- January 31 : Stefan Stambolow , Bulgarian politician and Prime Minister († 1895 )
- February 2 : Hermann Weigand , German architect and local politician († 1926 )
- February 6 : Korl Biegemann , German poet († 1937 )
- February 10 : James O. Davidson , American politician († 1922 )
- February 11 : Adolf Gröber , German lawyer and politician († 1919 )
- February 12 : Georg Hieronymus Roderich Stintzing , German doctor († 1933 )
- February 13 : Konstantin von Gebsattel , German officer and propagandist († 1932 )
- February 13 : Arthur Strasser , Austrian sculptor († 1927 )
- February 17 : Friedrich Alfred Krupp , German industrialist († 1902 )
- February 19 : Louis Georges Gouy , French physicist († 1926 )
- February 19 : Emil Sigerus , German folklorist († 1947 )
- February 24 : James H. Kyle , American politician († 1901 )
- February 28 : Hugo Spieler , German sculptor († 1922 )
- March 1 : Samu Pecz , Hungarian architect († 1922 )
- March 5 : Philip Hale , American organist and music critic († 1934 )
- March 7th : Oskar Arke , German pioneer of the electrotechnical porcelain industry († 1926 )
- March 9 : Richard Henrion , German composer and military bandmaster († 1940 )
- March 10 : Arnošt Muka , Sorbian writer, folklorist and cultural organizer († 1932 )
- March 10 : Joseph Maria Stowasser , Austrian classical philologist († 1910 )
- March 12 : Gottfried Strasser , Swiss pastor and poet († 1912 )
- March 13 : George W. McBride , American politician († 1911 )
- March 13 : Heinrich Tramm , German politician and administrative officer († 1932 )
- March 13 : Emil von Zelewski , German officer and commander of the Schutztruppe for German East Africa († 1891 )
- March 14 : Paul Ehrlich , German chemist, physician and serologist († 1915 )
- March 14 : Thomas Riley Marshall , American politician, 28th US Vice President (1913–1921) († 1925 )
- March 15 : Emil von Behring , German bacteriologist and serologist († 1917 )
- March 17 : Josip Lendovšek , Slovenian philologist and educator († 1895 )
- March 20 : Claudius Blanc , French composer († 1900 )
- March 21 : Friedrich Göler von Ravensburg , German art historian († 1896 )
- March 23 : Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner , British politician, High Commissioner for South Africa and Governor († 1925 )
- March 23 : Ernst Otto Taschenberg , German scientist and professor († 1922 )
- March 25 : Max Grube , German actor, theater director and writer († 1934 )
- March 25 : John Lind , American politician († 1930 )
- March 26 : Braulio Dueño Colón , Puerto Rican composer († 1934 )
- March 27 : Elijah B. Lewis , American politician († 1920 )
- March 29 : Max Oscar Arnold , German entrepreneur and politician († 1938 )
- March 29 : Friedrich Neelsen , German pathologist († 1894 )
- April 2 : Andrew Price , American politician († 1909 )
- April 3 : Berthold Hatschek , Austrian zoologist († 1941 )
- April 5 : Joseph Gagnier , Canadian clarinetist († 1919 )
- April 9 : Marie Andrae , German writer, pedagogue and nurse († 1945 )
- April 11 : Luigi Vanoni , Swiss engineer († 1940 )
- April 13 : William Henry Drummond , Canadian poet († 1907 )
- April 13 : Erich von Gündell , Prussian general († 1924 )
- April 14th : Max Kruse , Berlin sculptor and stage designer († 1942 )
- April 16 : Vicente Casanova y Marzol , Archbishop of Granada and Cardinal († 1930 )
- April 16 : Jacob van Rees , Dutch author and anarchist († 1928 )
- April 19 : Charles Théophile Angrand , French painter († 1926 )
- April 19 : Emma Pieczynska-Reichenbach , Swiss abolitionist and women's rights activist († 1927 )
- April 20 : Alberto Orrego Luco , Chilean painter († 1931 )
- April 21 : Adolf Lorenz , Austrian orthopedist and father of the behavioral scientist Konrad Lorenz († 1946 )
- April 22 : Henri La Fontaine , Belgian lawyer and politician († 1943 )
- April 22 : Georg Froböß , German Protestant clergyman († 1917 )
- April 29 : Paul von Rennenkampff , Russian general of German-Baltic origin († 1918 )
- May 3 : Otto Behagel , German Germanist († 1936 )
- May 3 : Franz von Segesser von Brunegg , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and educator († 1936 )
- May 4 : Władysław Floriański , Polish singer and opera director († 1911 )
- May 6 : Jean Bungartz , German animal painter and author of various books († 1934 )
- May 11 : Léon Ehrhart , French composer († 1875 )
- May 11 : Ottmar Mergenthaler , German-American inventor of the Linotype typesetting machine († 1899 )
- May 13 : Otto Schubert , German architect and builder († 1930 )
- May 17 : Georges Gillet , French oboist, music teacher and composer († 1920 )
- May 22 : Paul Fromhold-Treu , German-Baltic clergyman and evangelical martyr († 1919 )
- May 24 : Ludwig Alexander von Battenberg , British admiral († 1921 )
- May 25 : Hugo von Preen , Austrian painter and local researcher († 1941 )
- May 28 : Germán Riesco Errázuriz , Chilean politician († 1916 )
- June 6 : Dawid Alexandrowitsch Aitow , Russian cartographer and revolutionary († 1933 )
- June 7 : Max Kretzer , German writer († 1941 )
- June 7 : Charlotte Niese , German writer († 1935 )
- June 9 : John F. Shafroth , American politician († 1922 )
- June 10 : Josef Kaizl , Czech politician († 1901 )
- June 11 : Alfred Müller , German folklorist († 1935 )
- June 13 : Charles Parsons , British mechanical engineer († 1931 )
- June 14 : Georg Domizlaff , German civil servant, President of the Oberpostdirektion († 1937 )
- June 14 : Nell Kimball , American prostitute and author († 1934 )
- June 16 : Hugo Thimig , German theater actor († 1944 )
- June 17 : Ossip Schubin , Czech-German writer († 1934 )
- June 19 : Alfredo Catalani , Italian opera composer († 1893 )
- June 21 : Andrew Jackson Houston , American politician († 1941 )
- June 22nd : Heinrich Eugen Abt , Swiss politician († 1937 )
- June 23 : Leonhard Atzberger , German clergyman and dogmatist († 1918 )
- June 24 : Konstantin Jireček , Czech politician, diplomat, historian, Slavist († 1918 )
- June 26 : Erich Kling , German officer and explorer († 1892 )
- June 27 : Scipione Tecchi , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1915 )
- June 30th : Thomas Scott Baldwin , American balloonist and aviation pioneer († 1923 )
- July 3 : Leoš Janáček , Czech composer († 1928 )
- July 4th : Victor Babeș , Romanian pathologist and bacteriologist († 1926 )
- July 8 : Otto Krümmel , German oceanographer († 1912 )
- July 12 : George Eastman , American entrepreneur ( Kodak ) († 1932 )
- July 14 : Rollin S. Woodruff , American politician († 1925 )
- July 15 : Jacek Malczewski , Polish painter († 1929 )
- July 17 : Ludwig von Schröder , German admiral († 1933 )
- July 23 : Birt Acres , British photographer and film pioneer († 1918 )
- July 23 : Ernest Belfort Bax , journalist and philosopher († 1926 )
- July 24 : George H. Utter , American politician († 1912 )
- July 26 : Aram J. Pothier , American politician († 1928 )
- July 26 : Ernst Bassermann , German politician, MdR († 1917 )
- July 27 : Takahashi Korekiyo , Japanese Prime Minister († 1936 )
- July 29 : Georg Kerschensteiner , German educator, politician and Member of the Bundestag († 1932 )
- July 30 : John Sharp Williams , American politician († 1932 )
- July 31 : Fritz Hommel , German orientalist († 1936 )
- July 31 : Willem Nolen , Dutch medic († 1939 )
- August 2 : Eugène Luffy , Swiss politician († 1919 )
- August 3 : Johanna Ambrosius , German writer († 1939 )
- August 3 : Fernand de La Tombelle , French composer and organist († 1928 )
- August 6 : Louis de Gramont , French journalist, playwright and librettist († 1912 )
- August 7th : Hermione von Preuschen , German painter and writer († 1918 )
- August 11 : Felix von Luschan , Austrian doctor, anthropologist, explorer, archaeologist and ethnographer († 1924 )
- August 11 : Paul Hoecker , German painter († 1910 )
- August 12 : Ignát Herrmann , Czech writer, humorist and editor († 1935 )
- August 13 : William C. Adamson , American politician († 1929 )
- August 18 : Eufemia von Adlersfeld-Ballestrem , German writer († 1941 )
- August 18 : James Paul Clarke , American politician († 1916 )
- August 20 : Paul Schlenther , German theater critic, writer and theater director († 1916 )
- August 22 : Milan I , King of Serbia († 1901 )
- August 23 : Louis Armand , French cave explorer († 1922 )
- August 23 : Moritz Moszkowski , German pianist and composer († 1925 )
- August 24 : William Oscar Atkeson , American politician († 1931 )
- August 31 : Carl Wilhelm Samuel Aurivillius , Swedish zoologist († 1899 )
- September 1 : Engelbert Humperdinck , German composer († 1921 )
- September 1 : George Adams Post , American politician († 1925 )
- September 2 : Hans Jæger , Norwegian writer and anarchist († 1910 )
- September 3 : Nahum J. Bachelder , American politician († 1934 )
- September 3 : Wilhelmus Marinus van Rossum , Dutch Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1932 )
- September 6 : Max Wladimir von Beck , Austrian politician († 1943 )
- September 6 : Marie-Georges Picquart , French officer, minister of war and involved in the Dreyfus affair († 1914 )
- September 8 : Josef Callenberg , German builder († 1960 )
- September 10 : John LM Irby , American politician († 1900 )
- September 10th : Josua Zweifel , Swiss merchant and discoverer of the Niger springs († 1895 )
- September 11 : Albert Andreae de Neufville , German banker († 1940 )
- September 11 : Peter Hille , German writer († 1904 )
- September 18 : Florentino Ameghino , Argentine naturalist and anthropologist († 1911 )
- September 22nd : Henny Koch , German writer and translator († 1925 )
- September 23 : Cornelis Lely , Dutch hydraulic engineer and governor († 1929 )
- September 24th : Philipp Paulitschke , Austrian geographer and Africa explorer († 1899 )
- September 25 : Roberto Hazon , Italian conductor and music teacher († 1920 )
- 27 September : Alois Lexa Freiherr von Aehrenthal , Austro-Hungarian politician († 1912 )
- September 27 : Josef Frenken , German lawyer and politician († 1943 )
- September 28 : Heinrich Kreutz , German astronomer († 1907 )
- October 1 : Richard Böhm , German zoologist and explorer († 1884 )
- October 1 : August Leue , German architect, officer and colonial official († 1922 )
- October 3 : Hermann von Struve , German astronomer († 1920 )
- October 7 : Christiaan De Wet , South African politician and general of the Boers († 1922 )
- October 7 : Georg Frentzen , German architect and university lecturer († 1923 )
- October 9 : Mihajlo Pupin , Serbian physicist († 1935 )
- October 9 : Myron T. Herrick , American politician († 1929 )
- October 10 : Otto Arendt , German publicist and politician († 1936 )
- October 16 : Karl Kautsky , German theoretician of social democracy († 1938 )
- October 16 : Hermann Vogel , German illustrator († 1921 )
- October 16 : Oscar Wilde , Irish writer († 1900 )
- October 17 : Luis Amigó , Spanish Capuchin, bishop and founder of the order († 1934 )
- October 18 : Salomon August Andrée , Swedish engineer and polar explorer († 1897 )
- October 20 : Alphonse Allais , French writer and humorist († 1905 )
- October 20 : Arthur Rimbaud , French poet († 1891 )
- October 24 : Miksa Déri , Hungarian electrical engineer († 1938 )
- October 27 : Leopold Friedrich Anton Ambronn , German astronomer († 1930 )
- October 29 : Heinrich Mayr , German forest scientist and botanist († 1911 )
- October 30 : Thomas Henry Carter , American politician († 1911 )
- October 30 : Franz Rohr von Denta , Austrian kuk field marshal († 1927 )
- October 31 : Claude Augé , French publisher, Romanist and lexicographer († 1924 )
- October 31 : Adolf Erman , German Egyptologist († 1937 )
- October 31 : Hermann Hendrich , German painter († 1931 )
- October 31 : Geraldine Moodie , Canadian photographer († 1945 )
- October 31 : Otto Sverdrup , Norwegian navigator and polar explorer († 1930 )
- November 2 : Isidor Gunsberg , Hungarian chess player († 1930 )
- November 4 : Simon Angerpointner , German politician († 1930 )
- November 5 : Paul Sabatier , French chemist († 1941 )
- November 6 : John Philip Sousa , American band leader and composer († 1932 )
- November 7th : Alexander Wassiljewitsch Adrianow , Russian scholar († 1920 )
- November 8 : Johannes Rydberg , Swedish physicist († 1919 )
- November 11 : William Yates Atkinson , American politician († 1899 )
- November 13 : George Chadwick , American composer († 1931 )
- November 16 : Eduard Beyer , German lawyer and politician († 1926 )
- November 17 : Hubert Lyautey , French Marshal († 1934 )
- November 18 : Fountain L. Thompson , American politician († 1942 )
- November 19 : Beda Adlhoch , German monk († 1910 )
- November 21 : Benedict XV. (Giacomo della Chiesa), Italian clergyman, Pope from 1914 to 1922 († 1922 )
- November 22nd : Frank Matcham , British theater architect († 1920 )
- November 23 : Heinrich Braun , German social democratic politician and publicist († 1927 )
- November 26 : Émile Wambach , Belgian composer and music teacher († 1924 )
- November 28 : Gottlieb Haberlandt , Austrian botanist. Co-discoverer of plant hormones († 1945 )
- December 2 : Paul Reichard , German African explorer († 1938 )
- December 4 : Waso Abashidze , Georgian actor († 1926 )
- December 9 : Pekka Juhani Hannikainen , Finnish composer († 1924 )
- December 10 : Ernst Henrici , German high school teacher, writer and politician († 1915 )
- December 17 : William Ezekiel Andrews , American politician († 1942 )
- December 17 : Philipp Wolfrum , German composer and musician († 1919 )
- December 19 : Marcel Brillouin , French physicist († 1948 )
- December 20 : Hermann Lenhartz , German medic († 1910 )
- December 23 : Friedrich Adolf Borsdorf , German horn player († 1923 )
- December 24th : Julius Elster , German teacher and physicist († 1920 )
- December 25 : Stephen R. Fitzgarrald , American politician († 1926 )
- December 26 : Kurt Wahle , German officer († 1928 )
- December 29 : Solon Irving Bailey , American astronomer († 1931 )
- December 29 : Robert Burns Smith , American politician († 1908 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Charlotte Andrews Stephens , American educator, first African-American teacher in the Little Rock school district († 1951 )
January to April
- January 2 : Gustav Adolf Harald Stenzel , German historical researcher (* 1792 )
- January 2 : Herman Johan Royaards , Dutch Reformed theologian and church historian (* 1794 )
- January 5 : Gottschalk Eduard Guhrauer , German literary historian (* 1809 )
- January 6 : Christoph Wilhelm Mitscherlich , German classical philologist (* 1760 )
- January 8 : William Carr Beresford , British general and Portuguese marshal (* 1768 )
- January 13 : Avraam Ivanovich Melnikow , Russian architect (* 1784 )
- January 18 : Robert M. Charlton , American politician (* 1807 )
- January 22nd : Christian von Appel , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal (* 1785 )
- February 10 : José Joaquín de Herrera , Mexican military and three-time President of Mexico (* 1792 )
- February 11 : Anton zu Stolberg-Wernigerode , Prussian Minister of State (* 1785 )
- February 18 : Thomas Eastoe Abbott , English poet (* 1786 )
- February 19 : Robert Strange , American politician (* 1796 )
- February 22nd : Johann Gottlieb Kreyssig , German educator and philologist (* 1779 )
- February 23 : Wilhelm Pape , German classical philologist and lexicographer (* 1807 )
- February 24th : Hermann Josef Neefe , German painter (* 1790 )
- March 6 : Kaspar Georg Karl Reinwardt , German naturalist and botanist in the Netherlands (* 1773 )
- March 19 : William Pope Duval , American politician (* 1784 )
- April 1 : Peter Motzfeldt , Norwegian State Councilor and politician (* 1777 )
- April 6 : William Strickland , American architect (* 1788 )
- April 9 : Antoine Jay , French lawyer and writer (* 1770 )
- April 11th : Carl von Basedow , German doctor (* 1799 )
- April 15 : Arthur Aikin , English chemist, mineralogist and author (* 1773 )
- April 18 : Nehemiah R. Knight , American politician (* 1780 )
- April 27 : Hermann Abeken , German author and politician (* 1820 )
May to August
- May 1st : Jean Coralli , French dancer and choreographer (* 1779 )
- May 2 : Sulpiz Boisserée , German architect (* 1783 )
- May 12 : Melchior Berri , Swiss architect (* 1801 )
- May 18 : Henry Lemoine , French music publisher and music teacher (* 1786 )
- May 20 : Karl Ludwig von Haller , Swiss constitutional lawyer (* 1768 )
- May 21 : Bernhard von Lindenau , Saxon astronomer, minister and art collector (* 1779 )
- May 31 : Vatroslav Lisinski , Croatian composer (* 1819 )
- June 7th : Charles Baudin , French admiral (* 1784 )
- June 12 : Auguste , Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (* 1793 )
- June 12 : Alexander Hangerli , Prince of Moldova
- June 13 : Rosina Regina Ahles , German actress (* 1799 )
- June 15 : Friedrich Lindemann , German educator and philologist (* 1792 )
- June 15 : Georges Bousquet , French composer, conductor and music critic (* 1818 )
- June 17th : Henriette Sontag , German opera singer (* 1806 )
- July 4th : Karl Friedrich Eichhorn , German lawyer and professor of law (* 1781 )
- July 5 : Ludwig Snell , Swiss politician, constitutional lawyer, publicist and educator (* 1785 )
- July 5 : Émile Souvestre , French novelist and stage poet (* 1806 )
- July 6th : August Borsig , German entrepreneur and founder of the Borsig-Werke (* 1804 )
- July 6 : Georg Simon Ohm , German physicist (* 1789 )
- July 13 : Abbas I , Egyptian Khedive (viceroy) (* 1813 )
- July 14th : David Spleiss , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1786 )
- July 15 : George W. Towns , American politician (* 1801 )
- July 20 : Friedrich Heinrich Aschoff , Prussian Lieutenant General (* 1789 )
- July 24 : Jonathan Roberts , American politician (* 1771 )
- August 2 : Heinrich Clauren , German writer (* 1771 )
- August 6 : Alexis de Garaudé , French composer (* 1821 )
- August 9 : Friedrich August II. , King of Saxony (* 1797 )
- August 12 : Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon , French adventurer (* 1817 )
- August 14 : Carl Carl , Austrian actor and theater director (* 1787 )
- August 14 : Solomon W. Downs , American politician (* 1801 )
- August 16 : Moissei Iwanowitsch Karpenko , Russian lieutenant general (* 1775 )
- August 20 : Karl Ludwig Drobisch , German composer (* 1803 )
- August 20 : Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling , German philosopher (* 1775 )
- August 21 : August Ferdinand Anacker , German composer (* 1790 )
- August 21 : Daniel Elliott Huger , American politician (* 1779 )
- August 29 : John Black , American politician
September to December
- September 3 : Christoph von Schmid , German poet and author of books for young people (* 1768 )
- September 6 : Ephraim Hubbard Foster , American politician (* 1794 )
- September 7th : Jacques-Arsène-Polycarpe-François Ancelot , French playwright and librarian (* 1794 )
- September 8th : Elijah Williams , English chess master (* 1809 )
- September 18 : John W. Taylor , American politician (* 1784 )
- September 19 : George Arthur , Governor of Bombay, British Honduras, Van Diemens Land and Upper Canada (* 1784 )
- September 25 : John Adams , American lawyer and politician (* 1778 )
- September 25 : Hugh A. Haralson , American politician (* 1805 )
- September 29 : Joseph Webber Jackson , American politician (* 1796 )
- September 29th : Armand-Jacques-Achille Leroy de Saint-Arnaud , Marshal of France (* 1796 )
- October 4 : András Bartay , Hungarian composer (* 1799 )
- October 8 : Gideon Tomlinson , American politician (* 1780 )
- October 10 : Sir Gordon Drummond , British general and colonial administrator (* 1772 )
- October 18 : Francis Burt , American politician (* 1807 )
- October 22 : Jeremias Gotthelf , Swiss writer and pastor (* 1797 )
- October 26th : Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen , Queen of Bavaria (* 1792 )
- October 28 : Heinrich Friedrich Otto Abel , German historian (* 1824 )
- October 29 : Paul Wilhelm Eduard Sprenger , Austrian architect (* 1798 )
- October 30 : Georg Ludwig Dörell , German mountain master and inventor of the art of driving (* 1793 )
- October 30 : Ferdinand Sauter , Austrian poet (* 1804 )
- November 2 : Anton Pann , Romanian-speaking poet, composer and musicologist (* between 1794 and 1798)
- November 5 : George Cathcart , British general (* 1794 )
- November 7th : Peter von Nobile , Austrian architect (* 1774 )
- November 24th : Friedrich Arnold , German architect and construction clerk (* 1786 )
- December 3 : Johann Peter Eckermann , German poet (* 1792 )
- December 4 : José Joaquín Guarín , Colombian composer (* 1825 )
- December 13 : Andreas Buchner , German historian and theologian (* 1776 )
- December 15 : Kamehameha III. , King of Hawaii (from 1825 to 1854) (* 1813 )
- December 28 : James Turner Morehead , American politician (* 1797 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Edouard Boilly , French composer (* 1799 )
- Giacomo Monzino , Italian guitarist and composer (* 1772 )
- Francesco Maria Travella , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and writer (* 1802 )