|Woodrow Wilson wins the United States presidential election .||Sun Yat-sen proclaims the Republic of China and establishes the Kuomintang .|
|The RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic .|
|1912 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1360/61 (July turn of the year)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1904/05 (10/11 September)|
|Baha'i calendar||68/69 (20/21 March)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1317/18 (beginning of the year April 14 or 15)|
|Buddhist calendar||2455/56 (Southern Buddhism); 2454/55 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chuch'e ideology (North Korea)||Chuche 1|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1274/75 (April turn of the year)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4245/46 (October 2nd/3rd)|
|Iranian calendar||1290/91 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1330/31 (December 10/11)|
Meiji 45 (
明治45年, until July 30)/ Taishō 1 (大正元年, from July 30);
|Jewish calendar||5672/73 (September 11/12)|
|Coptic calendar||1628/29 (September 10/11)|
|Minguo Calendar (China)||Year 1 of the Republic|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1327/28 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2222/23 (April turn of the year)
Syria: 2223/24 (October turn of the year)
|Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar)||2454/55 (April 1)|
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar)||1968/69 (April)|
The year 1912 is marked above all by the growing conflict situation in Europe, which will lead to the First World War two years later .
Talks between British War Secretary Richard Burdon Haldane and German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg in February about an agreement to limit naval armaments came to nothing. On the contrary, in May the German Reichstag decided to further expand the fleet. In the Balkans , several states still under Ottoman suzerainty found the Balkan League and, encouraged by Italy's successes in the Italo-Turkish War , began the First Balkan War in October against the Ottoman Empire , which was collapsing after the fall of the Young Turks .
Before the presidential election in the United States , the Progressive Party split from the Republican Party under former President Theodore Roosevelt . With candidates from these two parties stealing each other's votes, Democrat Woodrow Wilson emerges victorious.
Other events include the tragic end of the British Terra Nova expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott to the South Pole , the sinking of the British luxury liner RMS Titanic in the North Atlantic and the hosting of the V Summer Olympics in Stockholm.
politics and world affairs
Europe and Mediterranean
- January 7: During the Italo-Turkish War , the Italian fleet bombards the port city of Hodeida on the Red Sea and sinks several Ottoman gunboats.
- February 24: The Italian fleet shells the Turkish fortress of Beirut .
- March: Italian pilot Carlo Piazza returns from a reconnaissance flight with photographs for the first time.
- March 14: At a mass in the Pantheon in Rome, anarchist Antonio D'Alba repeatedly fired on King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. The king escapes the assassination unharmed.
- April 18: After the bombardment of the Dardanelles by Italian warships, Turkey closes the sea connection between the Black and Mediterranean Seas for shipping traffic.
- May 4: The Italians stuck in North Africa try to take the war to other regions and conquer the Mediterranean island of Rhodes and other islands in the Dodecanese .
- May 25: In the Kingdom of Italy , “ universal suffrage ” ( suffragio universale ) is introduced by law. For the elections held in the autumn of 1913, all male citizens over the age of 21, provided they can read and write, are entitled to vote, as are illiterate males, provided they are over 30 years of age. Overall, around 27% of the Italian population are entitled to vote .
- October 18: The Italo-Turkish War ends after peace negotiations in Ouchy near Lausanne. In the Peace of Ouchy , the Ottoman Empire relinquished its North African possessions of Tripolitania , Cyrenaica and Fezzan (in present-day Libya) and the Dodecanese in favor of the Kingdom of Italy .
- March 13: The Kingdom of Serbia and the Tsardom of Bulgaria conclude a secret defensive alliance, from which the Balkan League , directed against the Ottoman Empire , emerges . On May 12, the defensive alliance is expanded to a military alliance .
- May 12: The Kingdom of Greece ( Megali Idea ) and Bulgaria conclude an anti-Ottoman alliance in Sofia. A similar agreement between Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Montenegro later follows .
- October 8: After the Ottoman Empire rejected the ultimate demand for autonomy for Albania and Old Serbia from the Balkan League , which now consists of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece, the First Balkan War begins with Montenegro's declaration of war .
- October 16: The Ottoman Empire declares war on Bulgaria.
- October 17: Serbia , Bulgaria and Greece declare war on the Ottoman Empire .
- October 21 Greece defeats Ottoman forces at the Sarantaporos River.
- October 24 Greeks invade Kozani . The Bulgarians capture Kirk Kilisse .
- October 26: The Greeks invade Thessaloniki .
- October 29: During the First Balkan War , the Battle of Lüleburgaz begins, lasting until November 2, ending in a victory for the Bulgarian army under Ivan Fitschev , who fail to pursue the Ottoman troops, who then retreat to Çatalca outside Constantinople can dig in. The battle is the largest battle in Europe since the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71.
- October 31: The Greek army achieves another victory at Giannitsa .
- 3rd/4th November: Serbia defeats the Ottoman Empire at Kumanovo .
- November 7: The Greek army enters Thessaloniki . There are first clashes with the Bulgarian units, who arrive a few hours later.
- 17th/18th November: Bulgaria tries in vain to take Constantinople .
- November 25 Ioannina surrounded by Greek forces.
- November 28: Ismail Qemali , together with Isa Boletini and Luigj Gurakuqi , proclaims the independence of Albania in Vlora and hoists the flag with Skanderbeg 's double-headed eagle on the balcony .
- November 29 Serbian forces enter Monastir .
- December 3: A temporary armistice in the First Balkan War is signed by Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro in the Turkish city of Çatalca .
- 16 December: At the London Ambassadors ' Conference, Albania 's detachment from the Ottoman Empire is recognized by Europe's major powers Russia , Austria-Hungary , Italy , Germany and Great Britain .
- January 12: In the Reichstag elections for the 13th German Reichstag , the Social Democrats double their seats and become the strongest faction despite the distortion caused by the majority voting system. Anti-Semitic circles then coined the combat term “Jewish election”. The fragmented bourgeois camp moves together and is able to form the government again under Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg .
- February 8: In Berlin, the British Secretary of War Richard Burdon Haldane begins talks with Chancellor Hollweg to defuse the naval rivalry, which remain fruitless because Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz demands a British guarantee of neutrality and thus the de facto dissolution of the Triple Entente with France and Russia.
- March 11: Miners' strike in the Ruhr area : the military is deployed so that the strike has to end on March 19.
- May 14: The German Reichstag approves a new naval bill, which i.a. plans to build 41 battleships and battlecruisers.
- September 24: A demonstration drive for women's suffrage takes place in Munich.
- October 13: The Domowina is founded in Hoyerswerda as the umbrella organization of the Lusatian Sorbs .
- 8 December: At the war council of 8 December 1912, Kaiser Wilhelm II and the military leadership discussed a future war against Russia , France and Great Britain .
- December 8: The Triple Alliance between the German Empire , Austria-Hungary and the Kingdom of Italy is extended by six years.
- December 12: After the death of Luitpold of Bavaria , his son Ludwig III. new prince regent in Bavaria . He rules for his insane and incompetent cousin Otto . The Council of Ministers discusses a royal proclamation for Ludwig, but this is postponed until next year.
- January 14: Raymond Poincaré becomes French Prime Minister and Foreign Minister for the first time.
- March 30: Following the settlement of the Second Morocco Crisis with the German Empire by the Morocco-Congo Treaty of November 4, 1911, France establishes a protectorate over Morocco with the Treaty of Fès with Sultan Mulai Abd al-Hafiz . Rabat becomes the new capital of French Morocco .
- November 27: After signing a treaty with France, Spain receives an area of influence in northern Morocco. An international demilitarized area is established around Tangier .
Great Britain and Ireland
- January 1 Telephony in Britain is nationalised.
- 13 April: The Royal Flying Corps , the forerunner of the Royal Air Force , is formed in the United Kingdom .
- May 13 The Royal Engineers balloon unit is attached to the Royal Flying Corps .
- 28 September: Scores of Irish Unionists sign the Belfast Covenant in Belfast in protest at the UK Government 's Home Rule policy . The first signer is Edward Carson .
Portugal and its colonies
- January 30: A general strike begins in Portugal after a military operation against striking farm workers . Street battles break out in Lisbon .
- February 24: António José de Almeida resigns from the traditional republican party Partido Republicano Português (PRP) and founds the liberal Partido Republicano Evolucionista (PRE).
- February 26: Brito Camacho founds the conservative Partido Unionista , another split from the Partido Republicano . The remaining left-liberal wing of the PRP, led by Afonso Augusto da Costa , calls itself the Partido Democrático from this point on .
- June 16: In Portugal , the government of Augusto de Vasconcelos , which has only been in office since November 13 of the previous year, resigns , the previous finance minister Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva becomes the new head of government.
- July 8: A monarchist attack on the city of Chaves , led by Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro . The uprising against the only two-year - old First Portuguese Republic is crushed, and the leaders are sentenced to several years in prison.
- Manufahi rebellion in Portuguese Timor , led by Chief Boaventura , is crushed.
- November 12: Spanish Prime Minister José Canalejas Méndez is assassinated in Madrid 's Puerta del Sol by anarchist Manuel Pardiñas Serrano . Manuel García Prieto will assume the duties of prime minister on an interim basis.
- November 14: Álvaro Figueroa Torres is conquered by King Alfonso XIII. appointed Prime Minister.
- April 17: A Tsarist regiment carries out the Lena Massacre of striking workers at the Lena Goldfields Ltd. mining company in Bodaibo . At least 150 dead and 100 wounded remain.
- May 18: The daily newspaper Pravda , which was founded and suggested by the Marxist Lenin , appears for the first time in Saint Petersburg .
- 14 May: Change of throne in Denmark . Christian X succeeds the deceased Frederick VIII.
- 20 October to 11 November: Norway general election 1912
- December 23: An agreement is signed by Sweden, Denmark and Norway in Stockholm, in which these countries commit themselves to neutrality in military conflicts.
- January 1: Ludwig Forrer becomes President of Switzerland for the second time .
- January 1: The Civil Code developed by Eugen Huber and unanimously approved by the Federal Council on December 10, 1907 comes into force.
- November 24: In anticipation of the coming world war, an extraordinarily called International Peace Congress of the Socialists begins in Basel .
- February 25: Due to a change in the succession to the throne, the eldest daughter of William IV of Luxembourg, Maria-Adelheid , becomes the first woman to become the reigning Duchess of Luxembourg . Until she comes of age on June 15, her mother Maria Anna will take over the regency.
Republic of China
- January 1: Sun Yat-sen proclaims the Republic of China, which will exist until Mao Zedong's victory in 1949.
- February 12: The last Chinese Emperor Puyi of the Qing Dynasty is forced to abdicate by Prime Minister Yuan Shikai as the culmination of the Xinhai Revolution . With the Benevolent Treaty , he continues to be assured of titles and honors in the Republic of China. Yuan Shikai succeeds Sun Yat-sen as President of the Republic.
- March 10: Yuan Shikai , elected by the National Assembly in Nanjing , takes office as head of the Beiyang government as President of the Republic of China.
- August 25: After the end of the Chinese Empire through the Xinhai Revolution , several political groups merged under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen to form the National People's Party , later called the Kuomintang .
- July 30: After the death of Emperor Mutsuhito , Yoshihito becomes the new Emperor of Japan . Thus, the Meiji period is replaced by the Taishō period . The new emperor is physically and mentally handicapped due to meningitis as a child.
- December 21: Saionji Kimmochi resigns as Prime Minister of Japan and at the same time resigns as President of the liberal ruling Rikken Seiyūkai party . The conservative Katsura Tarō will succeed him as prime minister .
- 23 May: Walter Burley Griffin 's design is awarded the contract to build the future Australian capital of Canberra . In contrast to his competitors, the architect tried as far as possible to adapt the construction of the planned capital to the topographical conditions, and numerous artistic watercolors by his wife Marion Mahony Griffin were included, which are intended to illustrate Canberra's future appearance.
- January 6: New Mexico , formerly New Mexico Territory , is admitted to the United States as the 47th state .
- February 14: Arizona , formerly the Arizona Territory , is admitted to the United States as the 48th state. The upgrade is largely due to the Arizona Rangers , who have managed to curb lawlessness in the territory in recent years.
- April 9: The United States Children's Bureau is formed, the world's first national government agency dedicated solely to the welfare of children and their mothers.
- August 14: US military intervention in Nicaragua 1909–1925 : US Marines disembark in Nicaragua to protect the US-friendly government of Adolfo Díaz from insurgents and keep it in power.
- August 24: The Second Organic Act transforms what was previously the District of Alaska into the Alaska Territory , a non-state area directly under the government of the US federal government.
- November 5: In the 1912 United States presidential election , Democrat Woodrow Wilson is elected 28th President of the United States of America . He defeated former Progressive President Theodore Roosevelt and Republican nominee William Howard Taft .
- 8 January: In South Africa, the South African Native National Congress , the forerunner of the ANC ( African National Congress ), is formed to represent the interests of the Bantus .
Other international events
- January 12: The first International Opium Conference takes place in The Hague at the initiative of the United States , which agrees on strict state control of drug trafficking .
- February 7: The Usambara Railway in German East Africa is officially inaugurated. It connects Tanga on the Indian Ocean with Moshi on Kilimanjaro .
- February 15: In Hamburg, the first subway route in Hamburg and the third subway operation in Germany is opened with the first section of the Ringbahn . Scheduled operations between Rathausmarkt and Barmbek will begin on March 1st. The second section of the line will go into operation on May 10th.
- March 6: The rail link between Arica in Chile and La Paz in Bolivia opens.
- May 29: The first leg of the New York, Westchester and Boston Railway begins service.
- June 11: During the construction of the Lauschenstein Tunnel on the Coburg–Ernstthal railway line on the Rennsteig in the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen , the breakthrough takes place after tunneling on both sides .
- June 28: After the opening of the third section between Millerntor and Rathausplatz , the ring of the Hamburg subway is closed and runs every 5 minutes.
- 1 August: The Jungfraubahn station Jungfraujoch goes into operation.
- October 27: The first section of the cable car to the Sugar Loaf , built by Julius Pohlig based on an idea by Augusto Ferreira Ramos , is opened. It leads from Rio de Janeiro to the Morro da Urca .
- October 28: The Mittenwaldbahn , built by the engineers and contractors Josef Riehl and Wilhelm Carl von Doderer , is opened on the Austrian side as an electric local railway. On the Bavarian side, it has been in operation since July 1st, but steam locomotives are still used. The train connects Innsbruck via Seefeld and Mittenwald with Garmisch and Partenkirchen.
- 27 November: The Forchbahn begins operating between Zurich and Esslingen. The meter- gauge narrow- gauge railway replaces a bus line that has existed since 1905.
- 1 February: The Principality of Liechtenstein 's first postage stamps go on sale.
- March 12: President Adolfo Díaz introduces the Córdoba Oro as the new currency in Nicaragua in place of the previously valid peso . Initially, one Córdoba equals one US dollar .
- August 29: In Eindhoven , the expanding company Philips & Co. is transferred to the incorporated public limited company N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken .
- October 7: The first trades are executed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange .
- October 21: Carl Brandt founds the Märkische Zwieback- und Biscuit Factory C. & F. Brandt GmbH in Hagen .
- November 4: Geologists Johnston and Mac Vey of Belgium 's Forminière company discover "the seven famous diamonds in the rough of Musalala". This is the start of diamond mining in Angola .
- The Reclam publishing house sets up book vending machines for the sale of books in Erfurt for the first time .
science and technology
Scott's Terra Nova Expedition
- January 4: Robert Falcon Scott makes final decision on composition of Terra Nova Expedition pole team . Five people instead of four as previously planned are to conquer the South Pole.
- January 17: Scott reaches the South Pole with his crew . But the Norwegian Roald Amundsen was there a month earlier with his dog sled. The march back to the base camp ends fatally for the expedition.
- February 17: Edgar Evans becomes the first member of the Terra Nova Expedition to die.
- March 4 Apsley Cherry-Garrard restocks One-Ton Depot and waits until March 10 for the South Group before turning back as instructed. This is about 120 km away from him at this point in time.
- March 7: Roald Amundsen announces the discovery of the South Pole on December 14 of the previous year.
- March 16: With his health deteriorating rapidly, Terra Nova Expedition member Lawrence Oates exits the tent , stating "it might take a little longer". He's not coming back.
- March 26: A first search party is sent out for Scott and his colleagues, but returns without a result.
- March 29: Robert F. Scott makes his last diary entry.
- November 12: A search party dispatched October 29, led by Edward Atkinson , finds the frozen bodies of Robert Falcon Scott , Edward Adrian Wilson , and Henry Robertson Bowers 11 miles (18 km) south of One Ton Depot , almost to the top of their tent covered by blowing snow. A burial mound is raised over the corpses and expedition member Tryggve Gran 's skis are turned into a cross. Gran instead makes the journey home on Scott's skis. On November 15, Lawrence Oates' sleeping bag and presumed place of death is also found. Here, too, a mark is placed and a cross erected. On November 25, the group returns to the expedition's base camp at Cape Evans .
- After discovering George V Land and Queen Mary Coast , the Australasian Antarctic Expedition led by Douglas Mawson reaches Cape Denison in Commonwealth Bay on 12 January . The men establish their main base at Mawson's Huts , where eighteen men spend the winter of 1912. They are also building quarters on Macquarie Island and a western base on the Shackleton Ice Shelf . The teams of all three bases carry out routine scientific and meteorological observations, which are recorded in detail in the extensive reports, which are only published between 1922 and 1942. They also set up Antarctica's first wireless radio link, which connects to Hobart . In the second half of 1912, five major sleigh rides are undertaken from the main base and two from the west base to explore hitherto unknown territory. On one such sleigh ride, Belgrade Ninnis falls into a crevasse with six dogs and the sled carrying most of the food and dies. Survivors Mawson and Xavier Mertz begin a brutal journey home 500 kilometers to base camp, where they feed on the remaining dogs.
- January 16: The Japanese Antarctic Expedition led by Shirase Nobu succeeds in landing on the Antarctic continent , where the Japanese encounter Roald Amundsen 's ship Fram . They advance about 160 miles south of their ship landing site to the Yamato snowfield , where adverse weather conditions and dwindling forces force them to turn back on January 29. On June 20th the expedition returns to Yokohama.
- January 30: The Second German Antarctic Expedition on the Deutschland under Wilhelm Filchner discovers Prinzregent-Luitpold-Land in the Kaiser Wilhelm Ice Shelf . However, the construction of a station house, which began on February 9th, fails on February 17th and on March 6th the expedition is trapped in pack ice until November 26th. It does not reach South Georgia again until December 19, when Filchner declares the expedition over. This dissolution of the expedition in Grytviken takes place "under mutiny-like side effects".
- April 6: Greenlandic-Danish polar explorer Knud Rasmussen embarks on his First Thule Expedition , subsequently crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet twice .
- July 19: Danish polar explorers Ejnar Mikkelsen and Iver Iversen are rescued by Norwegian sealer Sjöblomsten after spending two involuntary winters in northeast Greenland .
- March 1: American Albert Berry becomes the first person to parachute out of an airplane. His subsequent comment is: "Never again!" The parachute was developed by Thomas Wesley Benoist and pilot Tony Jannus .
- April 16: First woman crosses the English Channel in a Blériot monoplane . The American Harriet Quimby takes a 59-minute flight from Dover to a beach in France, 40 km from Calais .
- June: The parachute backpack developed by Gleb Yevgenyevich Kotelnikov is successfully tested several times by a test jumper. The first attempt from an airplane takes place on October 9th.
- The German aviation pioneers Henrich Focke , Georg Wulf and Hans Kolthoff jointly construct the A 4 motorized aircraft .
- April 17: An annular solar eclipse covers Germany in the midday hours from the Lower Rhine to the island of Rügen. In the Ruhr area it is almost total with a sun coverage of 99.9%. The clear weather provided ideal observation conditions.
- August 7: Victor Franz Hess discovers cosmic radiation with the help of balloon rides in the earth's atmosphere . He publishes the discovery in the Physikalische Zeitung 13 (1912), 1084.
List of asteroids discovered in 1912
|No. and name||
|date of discovery||explorer|
|(727) Nipponia||32.2||February 11th||Adam Massinger|
|(728) Leonisis||?||February 16||John Palisa|
|(729) Watsonia||49.2||February 9th||Joel Hastings Metcalf|
|(730) Athanasia||?||10th of April||John Palisa|
|(731) Sorga||41.8||April 15th||Adam Massinger|
|(732) Tjilaki||37.6||April 15th||Adam Massinger|
|(733) Mocia||88.7||16th September||Gustave Witt|
|(734) Benda||70.8||October 11th||John Palisa|
|(735) Marghanna||74.3||9th of December||Heinrich Vogt|
|(736) Harvard||16.7||November 16th||Joel Hastings Metcalf|
|(737) Arequipa||44.1||December 7th||Joel Hastings Metcalf|
chemistry and physics
- October: The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry established by the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry are opened.
- Together with Walter Friedrich and Paul Knipping , Max von Laue discovered the diffraction of X-rays on crystals (published in: Munich Reports 1912, 303 ). This proves both the wave character of the X-rays and the lattice structure of the crystals.
- The German chemist Anton Köllisch synthesizes the ecstasy drug MDMA for the chemical company Merck for the first time .
geology and paleontology
- January 6: During a meeting of the Geological Association in Frankfurt 's Senckenberg Museum , Alfred Wegener presents his thoughts on continental drift to the public for the first time.
- July 7: A Danish expedition led by Johan Peter Koch sets out from Iceland for the 1913 Greenland crossing . The port of Danmarkshavn is chosen as the starting point for the expedition. On October 12, a winter hut will be built on Storstrømmen glacier , where the expedition members will spend most of the winter.
- December 18: Charles Dawson and Arthur Smith Woodward present bones they found of Piltdown Man to the Geological Society of London , believing them to be the remains of a previously unknown form of human ancestry. The sensation turns out to be a scientific falsification in 1953.
Teaching and Research
- September 10: The University of Memphis emerges as the West Tennessee State Normal School .
- December 19: The Universidade Federal do Paraná arises in Curitiba , in the Brazilian state of Paraná .
- September 11: The diesel-Sulzer-Klose thermal locomotive for the Prussian State Railways , the world's first diesel locomotive , is completed in Berlin .
- The International Fire Extinguisher Society presents the first "Quick Dry Fire Extinguisher " in Berlin. The patented extinguishing process revolutionizes firefighting and can be seen as the forerunner of all modern mobile fire extinguishers.
Commissioned by Said Muhammad Rahim II , Khan of Khiva Khanate , Nurulla Bei Palace is completed two years after his death and used as a residence by his son Esfendijar . The entire palace complex covers an area of 198 by 143 meters and includes a small park and several buildings. The complex is enclosed by a brick wall topped by small towers, also made of brick. Overall, the architecture of the building is characterized by a style mix of traditional oriental architecture and European style elements.
- January: Marcel Duchamp paints Nu descendant un escalier no. 2 , a key work of classical modernism , which he submits to the Paris Salon des Indépendants for an exhibition running from March 20 to May 16.
- May 25th to September 30th: An exhibition of the Sonderbund takes place in Cologne.
- Marianne von Werefkin , a member of the expressionist artist group Neue Künstlervereinigung Munich , paints the socially critical painting Fabrikstadt in tempera on cardboard .
- The term Orphism for Robert Delaunay 's pictures was coined by the writer Guillaume Apollinaire , who gave an introduction to the Delaunay exhibition in the gallery The Tempest by Herwarth Walden in the same year . He sees in it the overcoming of cubism .
- Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso developed the papier collé technique, an early form of collage .
- Juan Gris paints a tribute to Pablo Picasso .
- Art exhibition hall at the Marientor in Nuremberg is built.
- February 12: The shooting of the silent film Der Totentanz begins in the Babelsberg film studio and is completed within a few days. The world premiere will take place on September 7th.
- June 8: Carl Laemmle founds with others the Universal Film Manufacturing Company , which becomes the film production company Universal Studios .
- Rainer Maria Rilke begins composing his Duino Elegies at Castle Duino near Trieste , the first of which he sends to his host Marie von Taxis on January 21.
- from October: Edgar Rice Burroughs ' novel Tarzan of the Apes appears in the October issue of All-Story Magazine for the first time .
- End of the year: Belief , an anthology with prose texts by Franz Kafka , is published by Rowohlt-Verlag . In the same year Kafka wrote the stories The Metamorphosis and The Judgment , the latter written on the night of September 22-23, without publishing them.
- Waldemar Bonsels publishes Maya the Bee and Her Adventures . The book will be translated into over 40 languages over the next few years and will make its author world famous.
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 's novel The Lost World is published.
- Jack London 's publications include the adventure novel Alaska Kid about the Klondike Gold Rush and the short story The Scarlet Plague .
music and theatre
- 31 January: Singer Jack Judge performs the song It's a Long Way to Tipperary , which he composed and made famous by British soldiers during the First World War , in Stalybridge for the first time .
- February 3: Leo Fall 's operetta Der Liebe Augustin , a revision of his failed 1905 opera Irrlicht , premieres at the Neues Theater am Zoo in Berlin . In this version, the piece with the libretto by Ernst Welisch and Rudolf Bernauer was finally successful.
- February 17: The world premiere of Jules Massenet's opera Roma takes place in Monte Carlo.
- March 14: The opera Mona is premiered.
- July 15: The composer Sergei Sergejewitsch Prokofiev presents his first piano concerto at the world premiere in Moscow as a pianist .
- 18 August: Franz Schreker celebrates his first success with the opera Der ferne Klang , which premieres in Frankfurt am Main .
- October 11: The operetta Der Zigeunerprimas by Emmerich Kálmán to a libretto by Fritz Grünbaum and Julius Wilhelm has its world premiere at the Johann Strauss Theater in Vienna.
- October 25: The first version of the opera Ariadne auf Naxos by Richard Strauss with the libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal is premiered in the Small House of the Hoftheater Stuttgart .
- November 7: The German Opera House in Charlottenburg , built by Heinrich Seeling , opens with a performance of Ludwig van Beethoven's opera Fidelio , conducted by Ignatz Waghalter .
- November 22: Det Norske Teatret is founded in Oslo, which mainly performs plays in Nynorsk and Norwegian dialects . The first leader is Hulda Garborg .
- November 28: The play Professor Bernhardi by Arthur Schnitzler is successfully premiered in Berlin.
- 7 December: Peterchens Mondfahrt , a fairy tale play in six scenes by Gerdt von Bassewitz , premieres at the Altes Theater in Leipzig .
- December 20: The world premiere of the operetta Rosenstock und Edelweiss by Franz Lehár to a libretto by Julius Bauer takes place in the Kabarett Hölle in the basement of the Theater an der Wien in Vienna.
- May 11: Nuremberg Zoo is opened on the site of the 1906 Bavarian State Exhibition at Luitpoldhain .
- May-July: Art competitions are also held at the Stockholm Olympics . In the Literature discipline , Pierre de Coubertin , using the pseudonym Georges Hohrod and Martin Eschbach , wins the gold medal for his Ode to Sport .
- 3 October: The German Booksellers Association , the City of Leipzig and the Kingdom of Saxony found the German Library .
- December 6: German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt discovers the 3,000-year-old bust of Nefertiti , wife of Akhenaten , at Tell El-Amarna .
- The German Hygiene Museum in Dresden is opened.
- June 7: In the encyclical Lacrimabili statu , Pope Pius X addresses the situation of the Indians in South America and calls on bishops and priests to stand protectively on the side of the oppressed.
- September 24: In the encyclical Singulari quadam , Pope Pius X , who was appealed to by the German bishops in the union dispute, pleads for tolerating the membership of Catholic workers in interdenominational unions.
- October 13: The Basilica of St. Anna in the Upper Bavarian pilgrimage town of Altötting is consecrated.
- October 29: Felix von Hartmann is elected Archbishop of Cologne .
- December 28: Founding of the Anthroposophical Society .
- December: The Prayer of St. Francis first appears in the French spiritual newspaper La Clochette .
- March 20: The passenger liner Koombana is sunk by a cyclone off the coast of the Australian state of Western Australia . All 138 people on board die
- April 14: At approximately 11:40 p.m., the luxury liner RMS Titanic rammed an iceberg in the North Atlantic . The White Star Line ship , under Captain Edward John Smith , is torn open on the starboard side.
- April 15: The Titanic sinks at 2:20 a.m. in the Atlantic. Between 1490 and 1517 people die. The RMS Carpathia , which arrives first at the scene of the accident, only finds lifeboats with about 700 survivors.
- July 28: Landing bridge in Binz on Rügen collapses, 17 dead including 2 children
- August 8: More than 110 miners die in Bochum at the Lothringen colliery due to a firestorm .
- August 9: An earthquake measuring 7.8 in the European part of the Ottoman Empire, whose epicenter is in the Sea of Marmara , kills around 3,000 people.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .
nature and environment
- June 6 to June 8: In Alaska , the Novarupta volcano causes the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Since the area is practically deserted, no one is harmed. The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes is formed .
- July 19: A falling meteorite weighing about 190 kilograms shattered into pieces over the city of Holbrook, Arizona .
- May 5th: The V Summer Olympic Games are opened in Stockholm. However, most of the sporting events only take place between June 29th and July 27th.
- November 10: The German Sports Badge is created by the General Assembly of the German Reich Committee for Olympic Games under the name award for diverse achievements in the field of physical exercise .
foundations of associations
- April 2nd: The merger of the Stuttgarter FV 93 , founded in 1893, with the football club Kronen-Club Cannstatt is formed in Stuttgart-Cannstatt , the association for movement games Stuttgart 1893 e. v . .
- May 5: The Austrian football club SV Ried is founded.
- July 17: The International Amateur Athletics Federation (today: World Athletics ) is founded in Stockholm as the umbrella organization for the national athletics federations.
- November 29: The football club Amisia Meppen is founded.
- December 22nd: The football club Calcio Lecco is founded in Lombardy .
- May 18: The American George Horine becomes the first person to cross the height of two meters in the high jump in Palo Alto .
- Holstein Kiel becomes German soccer champion.
Entries of world records in athletics see under the respective discipline in the lists for men's records up to 1970 and women's records up to 1970 . However, the first official world record list was not published until 1914.
|price||person||country||Justification for the award||image|
|Nobel Price for physics||
|Sweden||"for his invention of self-acting regulators used in combination with gas accumulators to illuminate lighthouses and light -buoys "|
|Nobel Prize in Chemistry||
|France||"for the so-called Grignard reagent he discovered , which has greatly promoted the progress of organic chemistry in recent years"|
|France||"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely divided metals , by which the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly promoted in recent years"|
|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine||
|France||"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and on vascular and organ transplantation "|
|Nobel Prize in literature||
German Empire (born in Ober Salzbrunn , Kingdom of Prussia , German Confederation )
||"principally for its rich, varied, outstanding activity in the field of dramatic poetry"|
|Nobel Peace Prize (awarded 1913)||
|United States||Author of various arbitration agreements|
- Chertek Amyrbitowna Anchimaa-Toka , Tuvan politician (died 2008) January 1
- Rafael Sánchez Cestero , Dominican singer (d. 1999) January 1:
- André Amellér , French composer and music teacher (d. 1990) January 2:
- Jaspar von Oertzen , German actor, director, author and politician († 2008) January 2:
- Barbara Pentland , Canadian composer († 2000) January 2:
- Wolf von Aichelburg , Romanian-German writer (died 1994) January 3:
- Federico Borrell García , Spanish soldier (died 1936) January 3:
- Marta Hoepffner , German photographer († 2000) January 4:
- Stephen McGill , Scottish Bishop (died 2005) January 4:
- Klaus Buhé , German engineer, jazz guitarist, banjo player, saxophonist, freelance composer and music teacher (died 1996) January 5:
- Doris Carter , Australian high jumper (d. 1999) January 5:
- Celso Emilio Ferreiro , Spanish-Galician writer and journalist (died 1979) January 6
- Pawoł Nowotny , Sorbian literary historian and folklorist († 2010) January 6:
- Hans Richter-Haaser , German pianist (died 1980) January 6:
- Charles Samuel Addams , American cartoonist (d. 1988) January 7:
- Günter Wand , German conductor († 2002) January 7:
- José Ferrer , Puerto Rican actor, director (d. 1992) January 8:
- Lawrence E. Walsh , American lawyer († 2014) January 8:
- Juliette Huot , Canadian actress († 2001) January 9:
- Ernst Kolb , Austrian politician and lawyer (died 1978) January 9:
- Elias Zoghbi , Egyptian Melkite Greek Catholic Archbishop of Baalbek (d. 2008) January 9
- January 10: Maria Mandl , Austrian guard at Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp (died 1948)
- January 12: Pipí Franco , Dominican singer and composer (died 1978)
- January 12 Dinmukhamed Kunaev , Soviet politician (died 1993)
- January 14: Rudolf Hagelstange , German writer (died 1984)
- January 14 Tillie Olsen , American writer († 2007)
- January 15: Michel Debré , French politician (died 1996)
- January 15: Horace Lindrum , Australian snooker and billiards player (d. 1974)
- January 16 Heinrich Drimmel , Austrian politician and lawyer (died 1991)
- January 16: Franz Tumler , Austrian writer (died 1998)
- January 16: Guo Jie , Chinese track and field athlete (died 2015)
- January 17: Bob Zurke , American jazz musician (pianist, composer) (d. 1944)
- January 18: René Gabriëls , Belgian carom world champion and billiard table manufacturer (d. 1982)
- January 18: Ivan A. Getting , American physicist (died 2003)
- January 18: Wilhelm Herz , German motorcycle racer, motorcycle world record holder (d. 1998)
- January 18: Daniel T. McCarty , American politician (d. 1953)
- January 18: Wendell H. Meade , American politician (died 1986)
- January 19: Leonid Vitalyevich Kantorovich , Nobel laureate in economics (died 1986)
- January 20: Egon Schein , German athlete and Olympian (d. 1977)
- January 21: Konrad Bloch , German biochemist and Nobel laureate († 2000)
- January 21: Petermax Müller , German automobile racing driver and dealer († 2002)
- January 22: Francisco Cabañas , Mexican boxer (d. 2002)
- January 23: Susan French , American actress († 2003)
- January 25: Lucho Bermúdez , Colombian composer (d. 1994)
- January 27: Marc Daniels , American film director, film producer and screenwriter (d. 1989)
- January 28: Ursula Herking , German actress (died 1974)
- January 28: Jackson Pollock , American painter (died 1956)
- January 30: Helmut Hugo Alfred Augustin , German pastor (died 1952)
- January 30 Barbara Tuchman , American reporter and author (d. 1989)
- Isser Harel , Israeli intelligence chief († 2003) January:
- Albin Kitzinger , German soccer player (died 1970) February 1 –
- Millvina Dean , Titanic sinking survivor (died 2009) February 2:
- Hans Leussink , German Federal Minister of Education and Science († 2008) February 2:
- Odysseas Angelis , Greek officer and politician (died 1987) February 3
- Dan Kazuo , Japanese writer (died 1976) February 3:
- Louis-Albert Cardinal Vachon , Archbishop of Quebec (d. 2006) February 4:
- Tex Atchison , American country musician (d. 1982) February 5:
- Eva Braun , partner and wife of Adolf Hitler († 1945) February 6:
- Helmut Angermeyer , German theologian (died 1992) February 7:
- Lev Aronson , German cellist, cello teacher and composer (died 1988) February 7 –
- Alfred Desenclos , French composer (died 1971) February 7:
- Franz Fuchs , Austrian politician and member of the Landtag (died 1968) February 7:
- Matthias Heidemann , German soccer player (died 1970) February 7 –
- Roy C. Sullivan , survivor of seven lightning strikes (d. 1983) February 7:
- Horst Ademeit , German military pilot (died 1944) February 8:
- Šimon Jurovský , Czech composer (d. 1963) February 8:
- Futabayama Sadaji , Japanese sumo wrestler and the 35th yokozuna (d. 1968) February 9:
- February 10: Herbert Baum , German-Jewish resistance fighter against National Socialism († 1942)
- February 11: Juan Carlos Aramburu , Archbishop of Tucumán and Buenos Aires (died 2004)
- February 11: Rudolf Firkušný , Czech pianist (died 1994)
- February 11: Rudolf Stahl , German field handball player (died 1984)
- February 12: Keith Bissell , Canadian composer, conductor and music educator (d. 1992)
- February 12: Takeda Taijun , Japanese writer (died 1976)
- February 13: Antonia Pozzi , Italian poet (died 1938)
- February 14: Josef Schwammberger , SS Oberscharführer († 2004)
- February 15 Pietro Ferraris , Italian footballer (died 1991)
- February 15 Karl Kreutzberg , German handball player (died 1977)
- February 16 – Isaac Nemiroff , American composer, music educator and scholar (d. 1977)
- February 16: Peggie Sampson , Canadian cellist, viol player and music teacher († 2004)
- February 17 Andre Norton , American writer (died 2005)
- February 18 – Heinz Kühn , German politician and Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia († 1992)
- February 19 Viktoras Ašmenskas , Lithuanian engineer, glider pilot, pilot and resistance fighter (died 2016)
- February 19 Thomas Mancuso , American physician († 2004)
- February 20: Pierre Boulle , French writer (died 1994)
- February 20 Muriel Humphrey , US Senator and politician's wife (1998)
- February 21 – Sally Kessler , German local politician and Holocaust survivor (died 1985)
- February 23 – Aenne Brauksiepe , German politician (died 1997)
- February 24: Ida Krehm , Canadian pianist, conductor and music teacher (d. 1998)
- February 24: Ulrich de Maizière , Inspector General of the German Armed Forces († 2006)
- February 25: Émile Allais , French alpine skier (died 2012)
- February 25: Eugen Kipp junior , German footballer
- February 26: Hans Sachs , German chief public prosecutor († 1993)
- February 26: István Vincze , Hungarian mathematician (died 1999)
- February 27: Lawrence Durrell , British novelist (died 1990)
- February 27: Eliška Kleinová , Czech piano teacher († 1999)
- February 28: Clara Petacci , friend of Benito Mussolini (died 1945)
- February 29 Gaetano Amata , Italian filmmaker
- Walter Davis , American blues musician (d. 1963) March 1 –
- Mario Genta , Italian footballer (died 1993) March 1:
- Teto Ahrenberg , Swedish entrepreneur and art collector (d. 1989) March 2
- Lauro Amadò , Swiss footballer (d. 1971) March 3:
- Klaus Gysi , German politician, Minister of Culture († 1999) March 3
- Afro Basaldella , Italian painter (died 1976) March 4:
- Willy Steuri , Swiss ski racer (died 1978) March 4:
- Francis David Langhorne Astor , British journalist and newspaper publisher (died 2001) March 5:
- Willy Schröder , German athlete and Olympic participant († 1990) March 7:
- Aloys Odenthal , resistance fighter during the Nazi era († 2003) March 8:
- Preston Smith , American politician (died 2003) March 8:
- Meldrim Thomson , American politician (died 2001) March 8:
- March 10: Paul Janes , German soccer player (died 1987)
- March 11: Karl Kleinjung , Stasi General († 2003)
- March 11 Hanns-Gero von Lindeiner , German forester, hunter, diplomat and politician (died 1984)
- March 11: Veva Tončić , Austrian visual artist († 1992)
- March 12 – Joel Mason , American football player, basketball coach (d. 1995)
- March 12: Bruno Uher , Austrian composer (died 1976)
- March 13: Olga Nikolayevna Anstej , Russian writer, poet and translator († 1985)
- March 13: Carl Raddatz , German film and theater actor (died 2004)
- March 14: John Amery , British Fascist (died 1945)
- March 14: Les Brown , American big band leader (d. 2001)
- March 14: Werner-Viktor Toeffling , painter and stage designer († 2001)
- March 14: W. Willard Wirtz , American politician (died 2010)
- March 15: Louis Paul Boon , Belgian writer (died 1979)
- March 15 Lightnin' Hopkins , American country blues guitarist (d. 1982)
- March 15: Leopold Schmidt , Austrian folklorist, cultural scientist and narrative researcher († 1981)
- March 16: Clyde Elmer Anderson , American politician (d. 1998)
- March 16: Josef Arents , German cyclist (died 1984)
- March 17: Benno Adolph , German physician (died 1967)
- March 17: W. Haydon Burns , American politician (died 1987)
- March 17 – Joe Stydahar , American football player and coach (d. 1977)
- March 17 Fidel Wagner , German cross-country skier and Nordic combined athlete (died 1945)
- March 19 Adolf Adam , German prelate, pastoral theologian and liturgical scholar (died 2005)
- March 19: Sophie Bothilde Jensen , German-Danish painter († 2007)
- March 19 Donald Johan Kuenen , Dutch biologist (d. 1995)
- March 19 Adolf Galland , German Luftwaffe officer and fighter pilot (died 1996)
- March 20 Harry F. Klinefelter , American endocrinologist (d. 1990)
- March 21 André Laurendeau , Canadian writer, essayist, journalist and politician (died 1968)
- March 22: Karl Malden , American actor (died 2009)
- March 22: Agnes Martin , American artist († 2004)
- March 23 Wernher von Braun , German-American rocket engineer, space pioneer (d. 1977)
- March 25: Melita Norwood , Soviet spy (died 2005)
- March 25: Lucien Pailler , French automobile racer
- March 25: Shimamura Toshimasa , Japanese writer (died 1981)
- March 27: James Callaghan , British Prime Minister († 2005)
- March 28 Léon-Gontran Damas , Guyanese writer (died 1978)
- March 28: Marina Mikhailovna Raskova , Soviet pilot (died 1943)
- March 29: Ernst von Delius , German racing driver (died 1937)
- March 29: Izydor Gąsienica-Łuszczek , Polish Nordic skier (died 1992)
- March 29: Hanna Reitsch , German aviation pioneer and aviator (died 1979)
- March 31: Hermann Höcherl , German politician (died 1989)
- Léon Dernier , Belgian racing driver (d. 1969) April 1:
- Yoshida Ken'ichi , Japanese writer (died 1977) April 1:
- Joseph Parecattil , Archbishop of Ernakulam and Cardinal (d. 1987) April 1:
- Edmund Sundhoff , German economist (died 1998) April 1:
- Rudolf Alexander Agricola , German sculptor (died 1990) April 3:
- Richard Alan John Asher , British physician (died 1969) April 3
- Wilfried de Beauclair , German engineer and computer scientist (died 2020) April 4
- Ricardo Manuel Arias Espinoza , 29th President of Panama (d. 1993) April 5:
- Carlos Guastavino , Argentine composer (died 2000) April 5:
- David Lloyd , Welsh singer (tenor) (d. 1969) April 6:
- Hans Sautter , German ophthalmologist (died 1984) April 6:
- Robert Schollemann , French racing driver (d. 2008) April 6:
- Endre Székely , Hungarian composer (died 1989) April 6:
- Oscar Thiffault , Canadian folk singer (d. 1998) April 6:
- Alois Brunner , SS organizer of the mass murder of the Jews in Vienna, Greece and France († unknown) April 8:
- Walentin Chorell , Finnish-Swedish writer and screenwriter (died 1983) April 8:
- Sonja Henie , Norwegian figure skater (d. 1969) April 8:
- Lev Zinovievich Kopelev , Russian writer (died 1997) April 9:
- Franz Seybold , German soccer player and soccer coach (d. 1978) April 9 –
- April 10: Walter Schönrock , German long-distance runner (died 1996)
- April 11: Gusti Wolf , Austrian chamber actress († 2007)
- April 11: Luise Schapp , German politician (CDU) († 2016)
- April 12: Fritz Arlt , German official (died 2004)
- April 13 Bernhard von Glisczynski , German architect (died 1992)
- April 14: Edward Astley , British nobleman (died 2007)
- April 14 Joie Chitwood , American racing driver (d. 1988)
- April 14: Robert Doisneau , French photographer (died 1994)
- April 14: Béla Király , Hungarian general and historian (died 2009)
- April 15: Kim Il-sung , communist ruler of North Korea (died 1994)
- April 17: Marta Eggerth , Hungarian operetta singer and film actress († 2013)
- April 18: Hermann Arnold , German medical officer (died 2005)
- April 18: Max Waldmeier , Swiss astronomer and solar researcher († 2000)
- April 19 Carl Heinz Löwen , German doctor (died 1997)
- April 19 Glenn T. Seaborg , American chemist and nuclear physicist (d. 1999)
- April 19: Gerhart Ziller , Minister for Mechanical Engineering and Minister for Heavy Machinery of the GDR († 1957)
- April 21 Eve Arnold , American photographer (died 2012)
- April 21: Feike Pieter Asma , Dutch organist, conductor and composer (died 1984)
- April 21: Marcel Camus , French director (d. 1982)
- April 21: Felipe Bojalil Gil , Mexican singer and composer (d. 1956)
- April 21: Hermann Withalm , Austrian politician (died 2003)
- April 22 Helmut Artzinger , German politician (died 1996)
- April 22 Kathleen Ferrier , English singer (d. 1953)
- April 22: Shindō Kaneto , Japanese film director and screenwriter († 2012)
- April 23 Bernard Brindel , American composer, music teacher and violinist (d. 1997)
- April 25: Peter Surava , Swiss journalist (died 1995)
- April 26: Alfred Elton van Vogt , Canadian science fiction writer (died 2000)
- April 27: Parashkev Khadzhiev , Bulgarian composer (died 1992)
- April 27: Zohra Segal , Indian dancer and actress († 2014)
- April 28: József Sir , Hungarian sprinter and Olympian (d. 1996)
- April 29 Margarete Arnhold , German educator and politician († 2003)
- April 29 Werner Hahlweg , German military historian and scientist (d. 1989)
- April 29: Moshe Landau , Israeli judge (died 2011)
- April 29 Karl Lottes , German motorcycle racer (died 1997)
- April 30: Rudolf Pörtner , German writer and historian († 2001)
- Eugene Kash , Canadian violinist, conductor and music educator (d. 2004) May 1:
- Otto Kretschmer , German submarine commander (d. 1998) May 1:
- Karl Adam , German rowing coach (died 1976) May 2:
- Axel Springer , founder and owner of Axel Springer-Verlag († 1985) May 2:
- Marten Toonder , Dutch comic artist (died 2005) May 2:
- Virgil Keel Fox , American organist (died 1980) May 3
- Ubaldo Monico , Swiss pedagogue and artist († 1983) May 3:
- Felix Slavik , Austrian mechanic and politician (died 1980) May 3:
- William Dale Archerd , American serial killer (d. 1977) May 5:
- Peter Jokostra , writer and literary critic († 2007) May 5:
- Ellen Müller-Prize , Austrian foil fencer († 2007) May 6:
- Herbert Agricola , German painter, graphic artist and poster artist (died 1998) May 7:
- Sitson Ma , Chinese violin virtuoso and composer (died 1987) May 7:
- Guillermo Abadía Morales , Colombian folklorist († 2010) May 8:
- Gertrud Fussenegger , Austrian writer († 2009) May 8:
- Pedro Gregorio Armendáriz Hastings , Mexican actor (d. 1963) May 9
- Lilly Kröhnert , German painter and sculptor (d. 1996) May 9:
- Frank Seiboth , German politician (died 1994) May 9:
- May 10: Adrian Aeschbacher , Swiss pianist († 2002)
- May 12 Archibald Cox , American lawyer, special counsel in the Watergate affair († 2004)
- May 13 Gil Evans , Canadian jazz musician (died 1988)
- May 13: Ernst Hess , Swiss conductor, composer and musicologist (died 1968)
- May 13: Hans-Werner von Massow , German correspondence chess official (died 1988)
- May 15 Arthur Victor Berger , American composer, music educator and critic († 2003)
- May 15: Max Kämpf , Swiss painter and draftsman (died 1982)
- May 16: Pyotr Andreyevich Abrassimov , Ambassador of the USSR in the GDR († 2009)
- May 16 Alfred Aston , French footballer (died 2003)
- May 16: Studs Terkel , American writer and radio host (died 2008)
- May 17: Friedrich Arnold (politician) , German politician (died 1969)
- May 17 – Ace Parker , American football player (died 2013)
- May 17: Sándor Végh , French conductor and violinist of Hungarian descent (died 1997)
- May 17: Percy Young , British music writer and composer (died 2004)
- May 18: Richard Brooks , American director (d. 1992)
- May 18: Perry Como , American singer († 2001)
- May 18: Hermann Langbein , Righteous Among the Nations (d. 1995)
- May 18 Georg von Opel , German automobile entrepreneur and sports official (died 1971)
- May 18 Walter Sisulu , South African politician and anti-apartheid campaigner (died 2003)
- May 19: Alice Franz , German actress and voice actress († 2011)
- May 19: Pietro Palazzini , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (died 2000)
- May 20 Nereo Rocco , Italian football player and coach (d. 1979)
- May 21: Pedro Ortiz Dávila , Puerto Rican singer (d. 1986)
- May 22: Herbert Charles Brown , US-British chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 2004)
- May 23: Harry Åhman , Swedish correspondence chess champion and chess organizer (d. 1992)
- May 23: Jean Françaix , French pianist and composer (died 1997)
- May 24 Alfred Andriola , American comic artist (d. 1983)
- May 24: Joseph Deuster , American actor, director and dancer (d. 1993)
- May 24: Nguyen Loc , founder of the Vietnamese martial art Vovinam Viêt Võ Dao († 1960)
- May 25: Stephen Ailes , American politician (died 2001)
- May 25: Marshall Wayne , American diver and Olympic gold medalist (d. 1999)
- May 26: János Kádár , Hungarian communist politician (died 1989)
- May 26: Paul J. Krebs , American politician (died 1996)
- May 27: John Cheever , American writer (died 1982)
- May 28: Jos Hanniken , Belgian composer and conductor (d. 1998)
- May 28: Patrick White , Australian Nobel Laureate in Literature (died 1990)
- May 30: Lydia Auster , Estonian composer († 1993)
- May 30: Julius Axelrod , American physician and neurochemist (d. 2004)
- May 30: Hugh Griffith , British actor (died 1980)
- May 31: Alfred Amstad , Swiss mountaineer (died 1973)
- May 31: Alfred Deller , English singer (died 1979)
- May 31 Dave O'Brien , American actor, screenwriter and director (d. 1969)
- May 31: Otto Kurth , German actor and director (d. 1996)
- May 31: Georgi Ivanovich Petrov , Russian engineer (died 1987)
- May 31 Martin Schwarzschild , American astrophysicist (d. 1997)
- May 31 Chien-Shiung Wu , Chinese-US-American physicist (d. 1997)
- Wolfgang Büttner , German actor (died 1990) June 1:
- Herbert Tichy , Austrian writer and mountaineer (died 1987) June 1
- Hermann Blazejezak , German athlete and Olympian († 2008) June 3 –
- Maria Andergast , Austrian actress (d. 1995) June 4:
- Robert Jacobsen , Danish artist (d. 1993) June 4:
- Morimoto Kaoru , Japanese playwright (died 1946) June 4:
- Dean Amadon , American ornithologist (died 2003) June 5
- Ruth Hausmeister , German actress († 2012) June 5:
- Josef Neckermann , German mail order clerk and dressage rider († 1992) June 5:
- Wilhelm daughter man , German doctor, psychoanalyst and poet (died 1974) June 5:
- Alexandru Todea , Romanian archbishop and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (died 2002) June 5:
- Joan Hartigan Bathurst , Australian tennis player (d. 2000) June 6:
- Jeane Flieser , German painter (died 2007) June 7:
- Henry Brandon , American actor (d. 1990) June 8:
- Walter Kennedy (d. 1977), American manager, second commissioner of the NBA June 8 –
- Yamashiro Tomoe , Japanese writer (died 2004) June 8:
- Ingolf Dahl , American composer and conductor (d. 1970) June 9:
- Kenneth L. Pike , American linguist and anthropologist (died 2000) June 9
- June 10: Jean Lesage , Canadian politician (died 1980)
- June 11: James Algar , American animator, screenwriter, film director and producer (d. 1998)
- June 11: Mukhtar Ashrafi , Uzbek Soviet composer (died 1975)
- June 11: Rashid bin Said Al Maktoum , Emir of Dubai (d. 1990)
- June 11 Emil Juracka , Austrian field handball player (died 1944)
- June 12: Willi Brundert , German resistance fighter and local politician (died 1970)
- June 13: Avelar Brandão Vilela , Brazilian archbishop and cardinal (died 1986)
- June 13 Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau , Canadian poet and essayist (died 1943)
- June 14 Annibale Bugnini , Italian Catholic cleric (died 1982)
- June 15: Friedrich Kaulbach , German philosopher (died 1992)
- June 15: Joseph J. Maraziti , American politician (d. 1991)
- June 15: John Nelson , British Major General (died 1993)
- June 16 Gordon M. Gollob , German fighter pilot and general of fighter pilots (died 1987)
- June 17 Myron Fohr , American racing driver (d. 1994)
- June 17: Donald Eugene Gillis , American composer, conductor and teacher (d. 1978)
- June 18 Friedrich Maurer , Austrian handball player (died 1958)
- June 19 Karl-Heinz Becker , German long-distance runner (died 2001)
- June 19: Alfred Jensch , chief designer at Carl Zeiss in Jena († 2001)
- June 21: Marga Spiegel , German Holocaust survivor (died 2014)
- June 23 – Alan Turing , British mathematician and cryptanalyst (died 1954)
- June 25 William T. Cahill , American politician (died 1996)
- June 25 Milton Shapp , American politician (died 1994)
- June 26: Edna Roxanne Atkins , Canadian hurdler († 2002)
- June 28: Eleazar de Carvalho , Brazilian composer and conductor (d. 1996)
- June 28 Stefan Dittrich , German politician (died 1988)
- June 28: Karl Seebach , German mathematician and didactician († 2007)
- June 28: Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker , German physicist and philosopher (died 2007)
- June 29: Lucie Aubrac , French resistance fighter (died 2007)
- June 30: Ludwig Bölkow , German engineer and entrepreneur († 2003)
- June 30 Avigdor Dagan , Czech poet, prose writer and publicist of Jewish descent (died 2006)
- July 1 Madeleine Stern , US antiquarian bookseller and author (died 2007)
- Inge von Wangenheim , German writer and actress (died 1993) July 1:
- Øystein Gaukstad , Norwegian musicologist and librarian (d. 1996) July 2:
- Edwin L. Mechem , American politician (died 2002) July 2:
- Bill Mitchell , American auto body designer (d. 1988) July 2 –
- Elizabeth Taylor , British novelist (died 1975) July 3
- Joe Bain , American economist (died 1991) July 4 –
- Gerhard Schaffran , Bishop of Dresden-Meissen (died 1996) July 4:
- – Fritz Schulz-Reichel , German composer and pianist (died 1990) July 4
- Helmut Emil Richard Arntz , German Indo-European scholar and runologist (died 2007) July 6:
- Gerhard Ebeling , Protestant theologian († 2001) July 6:
- Heinrich Harrer , Austrian author, explorer, mountaineer († 2006) July 6:
- Molly Yard , American women's rights activist (died 2005) July 6:
- July 10: Hans Meyers , German artist and author (died 2013)
- July 10: Piet Stalmeier , Dutch composer and conductor (d. 1990)
- July 11: Aino Taube , Swedish film and theater actress (d. 1990)
- July 11: Sergiu Celibidache , Romanian conductor (died 1996)
- July 11: Alois Lugger , Austrian politician (died 2005)
- July 12: Anna Maria Peduzzi , Italian racing driver (d. 1979)
- July 12 – Sid Robin , American lyricist and composer (d. 1985)
- July 12: Laurean Rugambwa , African Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (d. 1997)
- July 13: Paul Deitenbeck , German pastor and writer (died 2000)
- July 14 Woody Guthrie , American union activist and songwriter (died 1967)
- July 14 Willard Motley , American writer (died 1965)
- July 17: Fikret Arıcan , Turkish football player, coach and official (d. 1994)
- July 17: Erwin Bauer , German racing driver (d. 1958)
- July 17 Art Linkletter , American radio and television host (died 2010)
- July 18: Clemens Heselhaus , German scholar and literary scholar († 2000)
- July 18 Harry Levin , American literary scholar and critic († 1994)
- July 18: Lilly Stepanek , Austrian actress († 2004)
- July 19: Peter Leo Gerety , American Roman Catholic Archbishop (died 2016)
- July 19: Viktor Kühne , Swiss civil servant (died 2000)
- July 19: Cornelis Soeteman , Dutch Germanist (died 2005)
- July 20 – Heinz Kohlhaas , German boxer (died 1993)
- July 21 Karl W. Deutsch , political scientist (d. 1992)
- July 21 Jacques Poch , French entrepreneur and racing driver (died 2009)
- July 22 Luana Walters , American actress (died 1963)
- July 23 Rafael Artzy , Israeli mathematician (died 2006)
- July 23 Mozaffar Baqai , Iranian politician (died 1987)
- July 24: Kurt Hager , member of the Central Committee and Politburo of the Central Committee of the SED († 1998)
- July 27: Igor Markevitch , Russian composer and conductor (died 1983)
- July 28: Mário Américo , Brazilian massage therapist (d. 1990)
- July 28 Willy Bandholz , German field handball player (died 1999)
- July 31: Harry Ayres , New Zealand mountaineer (d. 1987)
- July 31: Milton Friedman , American economist, Nobel laureate (died 2006)
- Damien Parer , Australian cinematographer and photographer (died 1944) August 1
- Helmut Storch , German animal rights activist and stork keeper († 2005) August 1:
- Fritz Hellwig , German politician (died 2017) August 3:
- Otto Siffling , German soccer player (died 1939) August 3
- Daniel Aaron , American historian and Americanist (died 2016) August 4:
- David Raksin , American composer of film music († 2004) August 4:
- Raoul Wallenberg , Swedish diplomat (d. possibly 1947) August 4
- Fridolin Aichner , German-Moravian teacher and writer (died 1987) August 5:
- Abbé Pierre , French priest (real name Henri Antoine Grouès ); Founder of the Emmaus charity († 2007) August 5:
- Wiltraut Rupp-von Brünneck , German judge at the Federal Constitutional Court (died 1977) August 7:
- Daniel Mann , American director (d. 1991) August 8:
- Bojan Adamič , Slovenian composer and conductor (died 1995) August 9:
- Anne Brown , American soprano (died 2009) August 9:
- August 10: Jorge Amado , Brazilian author († 2001)
- August 10 Romain Maes , Belgian cyclist (d. 1983)
- August 10: Peter Nellen , German politician (died 1969)
- August 11: Eva Ahnert-Rohlfs , German astronomer (died 1954)
- August 12 Wilhelm Baumann , German field handball player (died 1990)
- August 12: Samuel Fuller , American director, screenwriter and actor (d. 1997)
- August 12: Feroze Gandhi , Indian politician and journalist (died 1960)
- August 12: Rex Griffin , American old-time and country musician (d. 1958)
- August 13: Ben Hogan , American golfer (d. 1997)
- August 13 Salvador Edward Luria , American microbiologist (d. 1991)
- August 14: Hilda Cameron , Canadian track and field athlete (d. 2001)
- August 14: Louis Joseph Moyse , French flautist and composer (died 2007)
- August 14: Erwin Strittmatter , German-Sorbian writer (died 1994)
- August 15 Julia Child , American chef (died 2004)
- August 15: Wendy Hiller , British actress (died 2003)
- August 15 Donald Lash , American middle and long-distance runner (d. 1994)
- August 15: Guido Morselli , Italian writer (died 1973)
- August 18: Volker Gwinner , German composer and organist († 2004)
- August 18 Otto Ernst Remer , German Wehrmacht officer (died 1997)
- August 19: Bolesław Lewandowski , Polish composer and conductor (died 1981)
- August 19: Constance Worth , Australian actress (d. 1963)
- August 20: Knyaz Hacıbəyov , Azerbaijani conductor († 1984)
- August 21: Robert Lips , Swiss comic artist (d. 1975)
- August 22: Simone Schaller , American track and field athlete († 2016)
- August 23: Gene Kelly , American actor and dancer (d. 1996)
- August 23: Miya Shūji , Japanese lyric poet (died 1986)
- August 23: Alexei Ivanovich Sudayev , Russian inventor (died 1946)
- August 24 Otto Šling , Czechoslovakian politician (died 1952)
- August 25 Erich Honecker , German politician (died 1994)
- August 25: Charles Lenz , Swiss customs officer (died 2008)
- August 25: Fukuda Tsuneari , Japanese playwright, translator and literary critic (died 1994)
- August 27: Ruth Cohn , founder of Theme-Centered Interaction († 2010)
- August 28: Gerhard Latzel , German problem composer (died 1980)
- August 28: Henning Strümpell , German general (died 2003)
- August 29: Son Kee-chung , first Korean Olympic Games medalist (d. 2002)
- August 29: Emil Schumacher , German painter (died 1999)
- August 30: Edward Mills Purcell , American physicist (d. 1997)
- August 30: Pierre Stasse , Belgian racing driver (d. 1971)
- August 31: Helmut Hamann , German athlete (died 1941)
- Charles Owen , American percussionist and music educator (d. 1985) September 1
- John Cage , American composer (d. 1992) September 5:
- Kristina Söderbaum , Swedish-German actress († 2001) September 5:
- Miguel Andreolo , Uruguayan-Italian soccer player (d. 1981) September 6:
- Hermann Junack , German forester (died 1992) September 6:
- Nicolas Schöffer , Hungarian-French sculptor (d. 1992) September 6:
- Miguelito Valdés , Cuban singer, bandleader and actor (d. 1978) September 6
- Alan Mills , Canadian singer, actor and author (d. 1977) September 7:
- David Packard , American entrepreneur (d. 1996) September 7:
- Jacques Péron , French racing driver (d. 1988) September 8:
- Marie-Dominique Philippe , French Dominican (died 2006) September 8:
- Jean-Louis Leuba , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university teacher († 2005) September 9:
- Heinrich Welker , German physicist (died 1981) September 9:
- September 10: BD Jatti , acting President of India († 2002)
- September 11: Gisèle van Waterschoot van der Gracht , Dutch painter († 2013)
- September 12: Jürgen Bennecke , German general (died 2002)
- September 13: Reta Shaw , American actress (d. 1982)
- September 15: Mario Camorani , Italian chess problem composer († 1996)
- September 15 Gisela Hernández Gonzalo , Cuban musicologist and composer (d. 1971)
- September 16 György Sárosi , Hungarian football player and coach (d. 1993)
- September 17 Hans Andreas , German physician (died 1982)
- September 17: Glen Stewart Morley , Canadian conductor, composer and cellist (d. 1996)
- September 18 Sarah Palfrey Cooke , American tennis player (d. 1996)
- September 18 Kurt Lotz , German business leader, CEO of Volkswagen AG (died 2005)
- September 19: Kurt Sanderling , German conductor (died 2011)
- September 20 Georg Umbenhauer , German cyclist (died 1970)
- September 21: Chuck Jones , American comic artist (d. 2002)
- September 22: Herbert François Mataré , German physicist (died 2011)
- September 24 Erland Herkenrath , Swiss handball player († 2003)
- September 24 Fritz Hinderer , German astronomer and astrophysicist (died 1991)
- September 27 Arturo Ardao , Uruguayan philosopher, historian of ideas and journalist (died 2003)
- September 27: Léon Gauthier , Old Catholic Bishop of Switzerland 1972 to 1986 († 2003)
- September 27: Maria Luise Thurmair , South Tyrolean author of poems and hymns († 2005)
- September 28 Raban Adelmann , German politician (died 1992)
- September 28: Ōhara Tomie , Japanese writer († 2000)
- September 29: Lukas Ammann , Swiss actor († 2017)
- September 29: Michelangelo Antonioni , Italian film director, author and painter († 2007)
- September 29: Paul Ogorzow , German serial killer (died 1941)
- Anders Ejnar Andersen , Danish farmer and politician (died 2006) October 1:
- Walter Becher , German politician (died 2005) October 1:
- Klaus Kahlenberg , spokesman for the last Wehrmacht report († 2006) October 1:
- Kathleen Ollerenshaw , British mathematician and politician (died 2014) October 1
- Anthony Rayappa Arulappa , Archbishop of Madras-Mylapore (died 1996) October 2:
- Fritz Tobias , German civil servant and author (died 2011) October 3:
- Karl Hass , German SS officer, convicted as a war criminal († 2004) October 5:
- Erwin Weiss , Austrian composer († 2004) October 6:
- Gordon Wilkins , British journalist and racing driver (died 2007) October 6
- Vilmos Tátrai , Hungarian violinist, conductor and music teacher (died 1999) October 7:
- Fernando Belaúnde Terry , Peruvian politician (died 2002) October 7:
- Peter Walker , British racing driver (d. 1984) October 7:
- Anton Benya , Austrian politician and electromechanic († 2001) October 8 –
- Ralph Kemplen , British film editor and director († 2004) October 8
- Friedrich Beermann , German politician (died 1975) October 9
- Konrad Siebach , German double bass player and double bass teacher (d. 1995) October 9:
- October 10: John Austrheim , Norwegian business executive and politician (died 1995)
- October 10: Johnny Rodríguez , Puerto Rican singer and composer (died 1997)
- October 11: Fedora Alemán , Venezuelan singer († 2018)
- October 11: Erich Arndt , German pastor (died 2012)
- October 12 – Edward Hidalgo , American lawyer and politician (died 1995)
- October 12: Toña la Negra , Mexican singer (d. 1982)
- October 13 Thomas Doe , American bobsledder (died 1969)
- October 13 – Hugo Weisgall , American composer and conductor (d. 1997)
- October 14: Walter Gotschke , German automobile illustrator (died 2000)
- October 14 Lev Gumilev , Russian historian and ethnologist (died 1992)
- October 14: Theodor Kitt , German bobsledder
- October 14: Albert Richter , German cyclist (died 1940)
- October 14 Helmut Schelsky , German sociologist (died 1984)
- October 15: Carl D. Perkins , American politician (died 1984)
- 15 October: Bruno Winzer , German officer
- October 16 – Vic Abens , Luxembourgish resistance fighter and politician (died 1993)
- October 16: Clifford P. Hansen , American politician (died 2009)
- October 16 Lotti Huber , Jewish German dancer, actress and best-selling author (d. 1998)
- October 16: Ludwig Schwarzer , Austrian painter (died 1989)
- October 17: John Paul I , Pope of Italy (died 1978)
- October 18: Aurelio Sabattani , Italian clergyman (died 2003)
- October 19 – Fritz Viktor Arens , German art historian and monument conservator († 1986)
- October 20 Almiro Bergamo , Italian rower (died 1994)
- October 20: Marcel Couraud , French conductor (died 1986)
- October 21: Don Byas , jazz tenor saxophone player (d. 1972)
- October 21: Walter Hamelehle , German motorcycle racer (died 1946)
- October 21: Alfredo Piàn , Argentine racing driver (d. 1990)
- October 21: Georg Solti , Hungarian conductor (died 1997)
- October 22: Lucien Gekiere , Belgian composer and conductor (died 1990)
- October 23: Helmut Beumann , German historian (died 1995)
- October 24: Hermann Graf , German fighter pilot (died 1988)
- October 24: Johannes Petzold , German church musician (died 1985)
- October 25 – Josef Angermann , Austrian typesetter and communist (died 1944)
- October 25: Abdelkader Ben Bouali , Algerian football matches (d. 1997)
- October 25: Jack Kent Cooke , Canadian entrepreneur (d. 1997)
- October 25: Alfred Klingler , German field handball player (†)
- October 25: Luigi Raimondi , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (d. 1975)
- October 26 – Hellmut Arnold , German geologist and paleontologist (died 1986)
- October 26: Don Siegel , American director (d. 1991)
- October 27: Conlon Nancarrow , Mexican composer (d. 1997)
- October 27 – Heinz Nickelsburg , German table tennis player (died 2001)
- October 28 Richard Doll , British cancer researcher (died 2005)
- October 28 Alfred Schmalzer , Austrian handball player (died 1944)
- October 28: Philibert Tsiranana , Madagascan President (died 1978)
- October 29: Jakob Scheuring , German athlete († 2001)
- October 29: Henryk Trzonek , Polish violist (died 1943)
- October 31: Heinz Adler , German politician (died 1990)
- October 31: Jean Améry , Austrian writer (died 1978)
- October 31 - Hermann "Hannes" Hansen , German field handball player († 1944)
- October 31: Ollie Johnston , American animator († 2008)
- Gunther Plaut , Canadian reform rabbi and author (died 2012) November 1:
- James Bickford , American bobsledder (d. 1989) November 2:
- Mieczysław Drobner , Polish composer, conductor, musicologist and educator (died 1986) November 3:
- Alfredo Stroessner , Paraguayan military and politician (died 2006) November 3
- Francisco Constanzo , Uruguayan boxer November 4
- Enrique González Mántici , Cuban conductor, violinist and composer (died 1974) November 4:
- Vadim Nikolayevich Salmanov , Russian composer (died 1978) November 4:
- Carl Baumann , German artist (died 1996) November 5:
- King Kolax , American jazz trumpeter (d. 1991) November 6:
- Leonardo Pedroza , Venezuelan musician and orchestra leader (d. 1976) November 6:
- Marcel Saucier , Canadian violinist, composer and music educator (d. 1997) November 6:
- Ernst Lehner , German soccer player (died 1986) November 7 –
- Trude Marlen , Austrian actress († 2005) November 7:
- Ernest Lenart , German actor (died 2005) November 8:
- Stylianos Pattakos , Greek military and politician (died 2016) November 8
- Berent Schwineköper , German archivist and historian (died 1993) November 8:
- November 10: Jean-Hilaire Aubame , Gabonese politician (died 1989)
- November 10: Hermann Zander , German rower (died 1973)
- November 11: Nina Andrycz , Polish actress and writer († 2014)
- November 12: Bernardino Echeverría Ruiz , Archbishop of Guayaquil and Cardinal (d. 2000)
- November 12 – Tuffy Leemans , American football player (d. 1979)
- November 13: Leopold Kretzenbacher , Austrian folklorist and cultural historian († 2007)
- November 14: Gerhard Heintze , German Lutheran theologian (died 2006)
- November 14: Barbara Hutton , granddaughter and heiress of Frank Winfield Woolworth (d. 1979)
- November 15: Erich Mirek , German actor (died 2004)
- November 16: Moma Marković , Yugoslav functionary (died 1992)
- November 17: Hans Geiger , German politician (died 1986)
- November 17: Erhart Krumpholz , German motorcycle racer (died 2008)
- November 18: Walter Schulz , German philosopher (died 2000)
- November 19 George Emil Palade , American physician and cell biologist (d. 2008)
- November 20: Otto von Habsburg , German-Austrian politician and author (died 2011)
- November 21 Pierre Grimal , French classical scholar (died 1996)
- November 21: Eleanor Powell , American dancer, singer and actress (d. 1982)
- November 22: Goede Gendrich , German forester and hunting writer († 2000)
- November 22: Rudolf Heydel , German racing driver (died 1936)
- November 23 Franz Amrehn , German politician (died 1981)
- November 23: Jean Hengen , Archbishop of Luxembourg († 2005)
- November 25 Günther Becker , German entomologist and wood researcher (died 1980)
- November 25 Francis Durbridge , English crime writer (died 1998)
- November 26: Lor Olsommer , Swiss artist († 1999)
- November 26: Gunnar Sønstevold , Norwegian composer (d. 1991)
- November 27: Samuel Mitja Rapoport , Austro-American-German biochemist (d. 2004)
- November 28: Heinz Galinski , President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany († 1992)
- November 28 Morris Louis , American painter (died 1962)
- November 29: Ai Xia , Chinese actress (died 1934)
- November 29: Günther Smend , German officer, resistance fighter (died 1944)
- November 29: John Marks Templeton , British fund manager, founder of Templeton Growth fund (d. 2008)
- November 30: Walter Jackson Ong , Canadian minister (died 2003)
- Hans Hauschulz , German politician of the SED († 1951) December 1:
- Minoru Yamasaki , American architect (d. 1986) December 1:
- Herbert Bramfeld , German modern pentathlete (d. 1984) December 2:
- Helmut Kindler , German publisher († 2008) December 3:
- Marcel Leineweber , Luxembourg artistic gymnast (d. 1969) December 7:
- John Howard , English major during World War II (d. 1999) December 8:
- Jura Soyfer , Austrian writer (died 1939) December 8:
- Will Walls , American football player and coach (d. 1993) December 8
- December 10: Philip Hart , American politician (died 1976)
- December 11: Carlo Ponti , Italian film producer († 2007)
- December 12: Heinz Auspurg , German graphic artist and town planner († 2001)
- December 12: Thorbjørn Egner , Norwegian children's book author (died 1990)
- December 12 – Henry Melody Jackson Jr. , American boxer (d. 1988)
- December 13: Dušan Antonijević , Yugoslav actor (d. 1986)
- December 13: Luiz Gonzaga , Brazilian singer, accordionist and composer († 1989)
- December 15 - Ray Eames , American designer and namesake of the "Eames Lounge Chair" († 1988)
- December 17 Hellmut Haase-Altendorf , German composer and pianist (died 1990)
- December 17: Mary Henderson , Canadian singer and music teacher († 2006)
- December 17 Edward Short, Baron Glenamara , British politician (died 2012)
- December 19 Rudolf Meimberg , German economist and university lecturer († 2011)
- December 20: Dorothy Brookshaw , Canadian track and field athlete (d. 1962)
- December 20: Walter Henn , German architect, civil engineer and university lecturer (died 2006)
- December 20: Avelino Muñoz , Panamanian pianist, organist, conductor, arranger and composer (died 1962)
- December 21: Walter Krause , German politician (died 2000)
- December 22 – Franz-Leo Andries , German composer, music producer and songwriter († 1979)
- December 22: Lady Bird Johnson , United States First Lady (died 2007)
- December 22: Oscar Moret , Swiss composer and professor († 2003)
- December 25 Thomas E. Fairchild , American lawyer and politician (died 2007)
- December 26: Luis Fontés , British racing driver and aviator (died 1940)
- December 26: Johnny Friedlaender , pioneer of modern color etching († 1992)
- December 26 Richard L. Neuberger , American politician (died 1960)
- December 27: Hermann Höhn , German Protestant pastor (died 1997)
- December 28 Teuvo Ensio Aura , Finnish politician (died 1999)
- December 28: Ewa Bonacka , Polish actress and director († 1992)
- December 28 Karl G. Grell , German zoologist (died 1994)
- December 28 Georg Klaus , German philosopher, chess player and chess official (died 1974)
- December 29: Peter Boschung , Swiss doctor, dialect writer and cultural politician († 1999)
- December 29 Eliza Branco , Brazilian women's and peace activist (died 2001)
- December 29: Peggy Glanville-Hicks , Australian composer (d. 1990)
- December 30: John D. Hoblitzell , American politician (died 1962)
- December 30: Arthur Sarnoff , American draftsman († 2000)
- December 31: Pierre Amandry , French classical archaeologist (died 2006)
- December 31: John Frost , British Major General and Air Force officer (d. 1993)
- December 31: Johana Harris , Canadian pianist, composer and music teacher (d. 1995)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Gholam Reza Azhari , Iranian general and prime minister (died 2001)
- Mehdi Barkeshli , Iranian musicologist and physicist (died 1988)
- Herbert Pepper , French ethnomusicologist and composer († 2001)
- Juan R. Posadas , Argentine Trotskyist ideologue and ufologist (died 1981)
- Juan Bruno Tarraza , Cuban pianist and composer († 2001)
- Jakob Amsler-Laffon , Swiss mathematician, physicist, engineer and manufacturer (b. 1823) January 3:
- Felix Dahn , German professor of law, writer, historian (born 1834) January 3:
- Francis T. Nicholls , American politician (b. 1834) January 4:
- January 14: Leonid Alexandrovich Arbuzov , Russian historian (b. 1848)
- January 14: Josue Jean Philippe Valeton the Younger , Dutch theologian and orientalist (b. 1848)
- January 14: Otto Liebmann , German philosopher (b. 1840)
- January 15: Henry du Pré Labouchère , British politician (b. 1831)
- January 16: Georg Heym , German writer, exponent of early Expressionism (b. 1887)
- January 18: Hermann Winkelmann , German opera singer (b. 1847)
- January 20: Auguste Chantre , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university teacher (b. 1836)
- January 22: Lucien Rérolle , world carom champion, lawyer and author (b. 1863)
- January 25: Karl Junker , German painter, sculptor and architect (b. 1850)
- January 26: Cesare Pollini , Italian pianist, composer, conductor, music educator and concert promoter (b. 1858)
- January 28: Eloy Alfaro , Ecuadorian military and politician (b. 1842)
- January 29: Herman Bang , Danish writer (b. 1857)
- January 30: Luis Cordero Crespo , President of Ecuador (b. 1833)
- Hugo Bußmeyer , German composer (b. 1842) February 1:
- Josef Ettlinger , German journalist and literary historian (b. 1869) February 2:
- Edward Wilmot Blyden , Liberian statesman and Pan-Africanist (b. 1832) February 7:
- Marius Nygaard , Norwegian philologist (b. 1838) February 7:
- February 10: Joseph Lister , British physician (b. 1827)
- February 13: Alphonse Schmitt , Alsatian organist and composer (born 1875)
- February 14: Sigismund Rahmer , German physician, writer and editor (b. 1863)
- February 16: William M. Lanning , American politician (b. 1849)
- February 16: Nikolai of Japan , Russian monk and Orthodox Archbishop of Tokyo and Japan (b. 1836)
- February 17: Johann Jakob Abegg , Swiss politician and entrepreneur (b. 1834)
- February 17: Alois Lexa Freiherr von Aehrenthal , Austro-Hungarian politician (b. 1854)
- February 17: Edgar Evans , Welsh polar explorer (b. 1876)
- February 21: Émile Lemoine , French mathematician and engineer (born 1840)
- February 21: Osborne Reynolds , British physicist (b. 1842)
- February 29: Heinrich Nissen , German ancient historian (b. 1839)
- Vilém Mrštík , Czech writer, playwright, translator and literary critic (b. 1863) March 2:
- Rochus von Liliencron , Germanist and music historian (b. 1820) March 5:
- Heinrich Kämpchen , German writer (b. 1847) March 6:
- Philipp Jacob Auer , German politician (b. 1831) March 7:
- Eugène Dandiran , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university teacher (b. 1825) March 7
- March 15: Cesare Arzelà , Italian mathematician (b. 1847)
- March 16: Elizabeth Adela Forbes , Canadian late Impressionist painter (b. 1859)
- March 17: Lawrence Oates , British polar explorer (b. 1880)
- March 18: August Thon , German legal scholar (b. 1839)
- March 20 Ernst von Heynitz (Johanniter) , German officer, farmer and landowner (born 1840)
- March 22: John Willock Noble , American jurist and politician (b. 1831)
- March 29: Henry Robertson Bowers , British polar explorer (b. 1883)
- March 29: Edward Adrian Wilson , English polar explorer, physician and ornithologist (b. 1872)
- March 29: Robert Falcon Scott , British naval officer and southern polar explorer (b. 1868)
- March 30: Karl May , German writer (b. 1842)
- March 30: Emilio Teza , Italian Romance scholar, Indo-European scholar, Orientalist, philologist, linguist, literary scholar and translator (b. 1831)
- March 31: Robert Love Taylor , American politician (born 1850)
- Franz Rezek , Austrian military bandmaster and composer (b. 1847) April 1:
- Josef Aichbichler , Bavarian politician (b. 1845) April 6:
- Giovanni Pascoli , Italian poet (b. 1855) April 6:
- Gottfried Strasser , pastor and poet (b. 1854) April 9:
- April 10: Ernst Christian Achelis , Protestant theologian (b. 1838)
- April 10: Alfred Eckbrecht von Dürckheim-Montmartin , German officer (b. 1850)
- April 12: Clara Barton , American philanthropist (b. 1821)
- 15 April: Thomas Andrews , naval architect of Irish descent (b. 1873)
- April 15 Joseph Dawson , crew member of Titanic (b. 1888)
- April 15: John Jacob Astor IV , American businessman, inventor and writer (b. 1864)
- April 15: Carl Funke , German entrepreneur (b. 1855)
- April 15: Jacques Futrelle , American writer (b. 1875)
- April 15: Benjamin Guggenheim , American businessman (b. 1865)
- 15 April: William M. Murdoch , 1st Officer Titanic (b. 1873)
- April 15: Edward John Smith , captain of Titanic (b. 1850)
- April 15 Isidor Straus , American businessman and politician (b. 1845)
- April 19: Hugo Sholto Oskar Georg von Douglas , German writer, businessman and politician (b. 1837)
- April 20: Pedro Lira , Chilean painter (b. 1845)
- April 20: Marian Sarah Ogilvie Farquharson , British author, botanist, microscopist and suffragette (b. 1846)
- April 20: Bram Stoker , Irish writer (b. 1847)
- April 23: Friedrich Philipp von Abert , German Archbishop (b. 1852)
- April 25: Wacław Rolicz Songs , Polish lyric poet (b. 1866)
- April 28: Johann Rudolf Rahn , Swiss monument conservator and art researcher (b. 1841)
- April 29: Subh-i-Azal , leader of the Bábists (b. 1831)
- April 30: Cäcilie von Brockdorff , German painter and editor (b. 1837)
- Rudolf von Benningsen , German colonial official and governor of German New Guinea (b. 1859) May 3:
- May 14: August Strindberg , Swedish novelist and playwright (b. 1849)
- 14 May: Frederick VIII , Danish king from 1906 to 1912 (b. 1843)
- May 18: Ferdinand von Herff , German-American physician and surgeon (b. 1820)
- May 18: Eduard Strasburger , German-Polish botanist and professor (b. 1844)
- May 18: James D. Porter junior , American politician (b. 1827)
- May 25: Austin Lane Crothers , American politician (b. 1860)
- 26 May: Amalie Maria , Countess of Württemberg (b. 1865)
- May 26: Jan Blockx , Belgian composer (b. 1851)
- May 28: Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran , French chemist (born 1838)
- May 30: Wilbur Wright , American aviator and aircraft builder (b. 1867)
- Daniel Hudson Burnham , American urban planner and architect (b. 1846) June 1:
- Royal C. Taft , American politician (b. 1823) June 4:
- Francis James Gillen , Australian anthropologist and ethnologist (b. 1855) June 5:
- George S. Nixon , American politician (b. 1860) June 5:
- Quintin Steinbart , Headmaster (b. 1841) June 5:
- Giulio Ricordi , Italian music publisher and composer (b. 1840) June 6:
- June 10: Anton Aškerc , Slovenian poet and priest (b. 1856)
- June 12: Frédéric Passy , French Nobel Peace Prize laureate and politician (b. 1822)
- June 16: José Arechavaleta y Balpardo , Spanish botanist (b. 1838)
- June 22: Richard Andree , German geographer and ethnographer (b. 1835)
- June 22: Ion Luca Caragiale , Romanian writer (b. 1852)
- June 25: Lawrence Alma-Tadema , Dutch painter and draftsman (b. 1836)
- June 26: Anthony C. Higgins , American politician (b. 1840)
- Benno König , German aviation pioneer (b. 1885) July 1:
- Harriet Quimby , American aviation pioneer (b. 1875) July 1:
- Hinrich Wrage , German landscape painter and printmaker (b. 1843) July 4
- July 10: Adolf Deucher , Swiss politician (b. 1831)
- July 13: Ernst Goll , Austrian poet (b. 1887)
- July 13: Marc-Emile Ruchet , Swiss politician (b. 1853)
- 13 July: Robert Stock , telecommunications pioneer (b. 1858)
- July 17: Henri Poincaré , French mathematician and theoretical physicist (b. 1854)
- July 21: Anton Paul Heilmann , Austrian painter and illustrator (b. 1850)
- July 23: Alphonse Lavallée-Smith , Canadian composer, organist and music educator (b. 1873)
- 28 July: Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1833)
- July 29: William D. Washburn , American politician (b. 1831)
- 30 July: Anton Fischer , Archbishop of Cologne, cardinal (b. 1840)
- July 30: Mutsuhito , 122nd Emperor of Japan (b. 1852)
- François-Alphonse Forel , Swiss physician and naturalist (b. 1841) August 7:
- August 10: Paul Wallot , German architect (b. 1841)
- August 12: Michele Saladino , Italian composer and music teacher (b. 1835)
- August 13: Jules Massenet , French opera composer (b. 1842)
- August 16: Carl Prüssing , German chemist (b. 1859)
- August 16: Johann Martin Schleyer , Catholic priest, poet and philanthropist (b. 1831)
- 20 August: Jozef Samaša , Archbishop of Eger and Cardinal (b. 1828)
- August 20: William Booth , founder and first general of the Salvation Army (b. 1829)
- August 23: Carl Abegg-Arter , Swiss raw silk merchant and banker (b. 1836)
- August 24: Moïse Saucier , Canadian pianist, organist and music teacher (born 1840)
- August 24: Alexei Suvorin , Russian publisher and publicist (b. 1834)
- William Patrick Auld , Australian winemaker, wine merchant and explorer (b. 1840) September 2:
- Nikolaus Müller , German classical scholar, historian and Protestant theologian (b. 1857) 3 September:
- Martin Kähler , German Protestant theologian (b. 1835) September 7:
- Taoka Reiun , Japanese cultural and literary critic (b. 1879) September 7:
- Bertha Behrens , German writer (b. 1848) September 9:
- September 13: Joseph Furphy , Australian writer (b. 1843)
- September 13: Nogi Maresuke , general in the Imperial Army of Japan (b. 1849)
- September 18: Hernando Money , American politician (b. 1839)
- September 24: Adolf Marschall von Bieberstein , German politician (b. 1842)
- September 28: John J. Patterson , American politician (b. 1830)
- September 29: Franz Skutsch , German classics scholar (b. 1865)
- September 30: Thornton Chase , American author (b. 1847)
- Carl Carey Anderson , American politician (b. 1877) October 1:
- Louis Döllstädt , Weimar merchant and chairman of the municipal council (b. 1843) October 1:
- Auguste Beernaert , Belgian politician and head of government (b. 1829) October 6:
- William A. Peffer , American politician (b. 1831) October 6:
- Wilhelm Manchot , German architect (b. 1844) October 7:
- Jakob Minor , Austrian literary historian (b. 1855) October 7:
- October 12: Karoline von Arnim , German writer (born 1851)
- October 17: Weldon B. Heyburn , American politician (b. 1852)
- October 19: Marcell Driver , German jurist and politician (b. 1852)
- October 26: Christian Horne , Norwegian farmer and teacher (b. 1838)
- October 28: Werner von Bolton , inventor of metallic filaments (b. 1868)
- October 30: Jan Gall , Polish composer, choirmaster and music teacher (b. 1856)
- October 31: Amos Clark , American politician (b. 1828)
- John Emms , British painter (b. 1843) November 1:
- Karl Rudolf Karrasz , Romanian-German composer, pianist and music teacher (b. 1846) November 2:
- Anton von Perfall , German hunting and homeland writer (b. 1853) November 3:
- George H. Utter , American politician (b. 1854) November 3:
- Johan Cesar Godeffroy , German merchant and Hanseatic (b. 1838) November 6:
- November 10: Ramón Corral , Mexican politician, Vice President (b. 1854)
- November 11: Józef Wieniawski , Polish pianist and composer (born 1837)
- November 12: John P. Jones , American politician (b. 1829)
- November 13: Teréza Nováková , Czech writer, exponent of realism and village prose (b. 1853)
- November 16: William Larrabee , American politician (b. 1832)
- November 17: Richard Norman Shaw , British architect (b. 1831)
- November 17: Joseph M. Terrell , American politician (b. 1861)
- November 20: Friedrich Seifriz , Austrian landowner and politician (b. 1849)
- November 23: Edward Arber , English scholar and author (b. 1856)
- November 24: Henriette Auegg , Austrian writer, educator and nurse (b. 1841)
- November 26: Theodor Bumiller , German explorer (b. 1864)
- November 28: Otto Brahm , German critic, theater manager and director (b. 1856)
- November 28: James Gordon , American politician (b. 1833)
- November 30: George Armitstead , Russian engineer, entrepreneur and the fourth mayor of Riga (b. 1847)
- Otis Bardwell Boise , American composer (b. 1844) December 2:
- Albert Keith Smiley , American Quaker, educator and philanthropist (b. 1828) December 2:
- Henry Browne Hagreen , British painter (b. c. 1831) December 6:
- Louis de Gramont , French journalist, playwright and librettist (b. 1854) December 9:
- Carl Justi , German philosopher and art historian (b. 1832) December 9:
- 12 December: Luitpold of Bavaria , Prince Regent of Bavaria (b. 1821)
- December 13: Jules-François-Armand Dartois de Bournonville , French writer (b. 1845)
- December 13: Franz Simandl , double bass player and music teacher (b. 1840)
- December 15: Whitelaw Reid , American politician and diplomat (b. 1837)
- December 16: George Rignold , Australian actor (b. 1839)
- December 23 Otto Schoetensack , German anthropologist and prehistorian (b. 1850)
- December 27: Alvah A. Clark , American politician (b. 1840)
- December 28: Ahmed Midhat Efendi , Ottoman journalist, author, translator and publisher (b. 1844)
Exact date of death unknown
- http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/1912/ (living virtual museum online)