1912

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1912
Portrait of President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson wins the presidential election in the United States .
Sun Yat-sen, ca.1912
Sun Yat-sen proclaims the Republic of China and establishes the Kuomintang .
Sinking of the Titanic
The passenger ship RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic .
1912 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1360/61 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1904/05 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 68/69 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1317/18 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2455/56 (southern Buddhism); 2454/55 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Water Rat壬子 ( since February 18 , before that Metal Pig辛亥)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 1
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1274/75 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4245/46 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1290/91 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1330/31 (December 10-11)
Japanese calendar Meiji 45 ( 明治 45 年 , until July 30th) / Taishō 1 (大 正 元年 , from July 30th);
Kōki 2572
Jewish calendar 5672/73 (September 11-12)
Coptic calendar 1628/29 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1087/88
Minguo calendar (China) Year 1 of the Republic
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1327/28 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2222/23 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2223/24 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2454/55 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1658
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1968/69 (April)

The year 1912 was shaped primarily by the growing conflict situation in Europe, which two years later would lead to the First World War .

Talks between the British War Minister Richard Burdon Haldane and the German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg in February about an agreement to restrict armaments in the navy remained inconclusive. On the contrary, in May the German Reichstag decided to further expand the fleet. In the Balkans , several states still under Ottoman sovereignty founded the Balkan Federation and, encouraged by Italy's successes in the Italo-Turkish War , began the First Balkan War in October against the Ottoman Empire, which fell apart after the fall of the Young Turks .

After the six-year-old Chinese Emperor Puyi surrendered to the throne, the Republic of China was proclaimed, ending the Chinese Empire . This sparks a power struggle for governance.

Before the presidential election in the United States , the Progressive Party split off from the Republican Party under former President Theodore Roosevelt . As the candidates from these two parties take away each other's votes, the Democrat Woodrow Wilson emerges as the winner of the election.

Other events include the tragic end of the British Terra Nova expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott to the South Pole , the sinking of the British luxury liner RMS Titanic in the North Atlantic and the 5th Summer Olympics in Stockholm.

Events

Politics and world events

Europe and the Mediterranean

Italy / Ottoman Empire
The Italo-Turkish War in the Mediterranean 1911–1912
Balkans
The border conditions in the Balkans before the outbreak of the Balkan wars
Ottoman troops in retreat near Lüleburgaz
Territories conquered by the Balkan Federation in the First Balkan War
Declaration of independence of Albania in Vlora
Flag of the Provisional Government of Albania
German Empire
The results of the Reichstag election by constituency
The demonstration car ride, Anita Augspurg on the left (marked with x)
France / Morocco
French Morocco and the Spanish sphere of influence
Great Britain and Ireland
Portugal and its colonies
Spain
Russia
Victims of the Lena massacre
Scandinavia
Switzerland
Luxembourg
  • February 25th : Due to a change in the regulation of the succession to the throne, the eldest daughter of Wilhelm IV of Luxembourg, Maria-Adelheid , becomes the first woman to be the ruling Duchess of Luxembourg . Her mother Maria Anna takes over the reign until she comes of age on June 15th .

Republic of China

Flag of the Republic of China from 1912–1928
Yuan Shikai after being appointed president

Japan

The Taishō Emperor at his coronation

Australia

Griffin's plan for Canberra
  • May 23 : The design by Walter Burley Griffin is awarded the contract for the construction of the future Australian capital Canberra . In contrast to his competitors, the architect tried as far as possible to adapt the construction of the planned capital to the topographical conditions, and numerous artistic watercolors by his wife Marion Mahony Griffin were added to illustrate Canberra's future appearance.

America

United States after the incorporation of New Mexico and Arizona and the establishment of the Alaska Territory
Election result card

Africa

Other international events

economy

traffic

Hamburg will be the third German city to have an underground railway after Berlin and Schöneberg .

Others

Announcement of the bank merger

science and technology

Antarctic exploration

Scott's Terra Nova Expedition
Scott's team at the South Pole, left to right: (standing) Wilson, Scott, Oates; (seated) Bowers, Edgar Evans
Scott's last entry in his expedition diary
  • March 29 : Robert F. Scott makes his last entry in his diary.
  • November 12 : A search party led by Edward Atkinson , dispatched on October 29, finds the frozen bodies of Robert Falcon Scott , Edward Adrian Wilson, and Henry Robertson Bowers , 11 miles south of One Ton Depot , near the top of their tent blown snow covered. A burial mound is poured over the corpses and the skis of the expedition member Tryggve Gran are converted into a cross. Instead, Gran starts the journey home on Scott's skis. On November 15, the sleeping bag and the presumed place of death of Lawrence Oates are also found. Here, too, a mark is made and a cross is erected. On November 25th , the group will return to the expedition base camp at Cape Evans .
More expeditions
Mawson Huts
Mertz photographed his colleague Ninnes on an exploration in December 1912
  • After discovering George V Land and Queen Mary Coast , the Australasian Antarctic Expedition , led by Douglas Mawson , reached Cape Denison in Commonwealth Bay on January 12th . The men set up their main base, Mawson's Huts , where eighteen men spend the winter of 1912. They are also building quarters on Macquarie Island and a west base on the Shackleton Ice Shelf . The teams from all three bases carry out routine scientific and meteorological observations, which are recorded in detail in the extensive reports, but which are only published between 1922 and 1942. They are also setting up Antarctica's first wireless radio link, which is linked to Hobart . In the second half of 1912, five large sleigh rides will be made from the main base and two from the west base, exploring previously unknown territory. On such a sleigh ride, Belgrade Ninnis falls with six dogs and the sledge with most of the food into a crevasse and is killed in the process. The survivors Mawson and Xavier Mertz begin a brutal journey home to the base camp 500 kilometers away, where they feed on the other dogs.
The Japanese expedition at its southernmost point on the Yamato snowfield

Arctic exploration

aviation

Harriet Quimby in her Bleriot monoplane

astronomy

List of asteroids discovered in 1912
No. and name Diameter
(km)
Date of discovery Explorer
(727) Nipponia 32.2 February 11th Adam Massinger
(728) Leonisis ? February 16 Johann Palisa
(729) Watsonia 49.2 February 9 Joel Hastings Metcalf
(730) Athanasia ? 10th of April Johann Palisa
(731) Sorga 41.8 April 15th Adam Massinger
(732) Tjilaki 37.6 April 15th Adam Massinger
(733) Mocia 88.7 16th September Gustav Witt
(734) Benda 70.8 October 11th Johann Palisa
(735) Marghanna 74.3 9th of December Heinrich Vogt
(736) Harvard 16.7 November 16 Joel Hastings Metcalf
(737) Arequipa 44.1 December 7th Joel Hastings Metcalf

Chemistry and physics

Inauguration of the first KWG institutes by Kaiser Wilhelm

Geology and paleontology

Expedition member Alfred Wegener in Greenland in the winter of 1912/13

Teaching and Research

Technical developments

Culture

Visual arts

Gustav Klimt : Adele Bloch-Bauer II
Berlin 1912, depicted in the painting Spittelmarkt by Paul Hoeniger
Juan Gris: Homage to Picasso

Movie

literature

Music and theater

Poster on Roma by Georges-Antoine Rochegrosse
The German Opera House 1912

Others

The
group of figures with lions designed by Philipp Kittler

society

religion

Disasters

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment

Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes

Sports

Olympic games

Founding of clubs

Others

For entries of athletics world records, see the respective discipline in the lists for men's records up to 1970 and women's records up to 1970 . The first official world record list was not published until 1914.

Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Gustaf Dalén
(1869–1937)
SwedenSweden Sweden "For his invention of self-acting regulators that are used in combination with gas accumulators to illuminate lighthouses and light barrels " Gustaf Dalén
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Victor Grignard
(1871-1935)
FranceFrance France "For the so-called Grignard's reagent that he discovered , which has greatly promoted the progress of organic chemistry in recent years" Victor Grignard
Paul Sabatier
(1854–1941)
FranceFrance France "For his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely divided metals , whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been promoted to a large extent in recent years" Paul Sabatier
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Alexis Carrel
(1873-1944)
FranceFrance France "In recognition of his work on vascular sutures and on vascular and organ transplants " Alexis Carrel
Nobel Prize in literature Gerhart Hauptmann
(1862–1946)
German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire (born in Ober Salzbrunn , Kingdom of Prussia , German Confederation )
Prussia KingdomKingdom of Prussia
"Primarily for its rich, versatile, outstanding effectiveness in the field of dramatic poetry" Gerhart Hauptmann
Nobel Peace Prize (awarded in 1913) Elihu Root
(1845-1937)
United States 48United States United States Author of various arbitration agreements Elihu Root

Born

January

André Amellér (1980)

February

Albin Kitzinger (right)

March

Klaus Gysi, 1946
Teto Ahrenberg
Wernher von Braun, 1964
James Callaghan

April

Glenn T. Seaborg

May

Otto Kretschmer (1940)

June

Wilhelm Daughtermann (1932)
Alan Turing
Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker; Recorded in 1993

July

August

Fritz Hellwig, 1953
Gene Kelly as a US Navy lieutenant around 1944
Erich Honecker, 1976

September

Kristina Söderbaum, 1937
Herbert F. Mataré, 1950

October

November

Alfredo De Angelis (1968)
Tuffy Leemans
Otto von Habsburg, 2004

December

Thorbjørn Egner, around 1960

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

January

February

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister

March

Vilém Mrštík (1897)
Karl May

April

Bram Stoker

May

Wilbur Wright, 1905

June

July

Benno König (1911)
Henri Poincaré

August

Paul Wallot

September

October

November

Anton von Perfall (1902)

December

Otto Schoetensack, 1882

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1912  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files