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Portrait President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson wins the United States presidential election .
Sun Yat-sen, ca. 1912
Sun Yat-sen proclaims the Republic of China and establishes the Kuomintang .
Sinking of the Titanic
The RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic .
1912 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1360/61 (July turn of the year)
Ethiopian calendar 1904/05 (10/11 September)
Baha'i calendar 68/69 (20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1317/18 (beginning of the year April 14 or 15)
Buddhist calendar 2455/56 (Southern Buddhism); 2454/55 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Water Rat壬子 ( since February 18 , before that Metal Pig辛亥)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuche 1
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1274/75 (April turn of the year)
Dangun era (Korea) 4245/46 (October 2nd/3rd)
Iranian calendar 1290/91 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1330/31 (December 10/11)
Japanese calendar Meiji 45 ( 明治45年, until July 30)/ Taishō 1 (大正元年, from July 30);
Koki 2572
Jewish calendar 5672/73 (September 11/12)
Coptic calendar 1628/29 (September 10/11)
Malayalam calendar 1087/88
Minguo Calendar (China) Year 1 of the Republic
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1327/28 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2222/23 (April turn of the year)

Syria: 2223/24 (October turn of the year)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2454/55 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1658
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar) 1968/69 (April)

The year 1912 is marked above all by the growing conflict situation in Europe, which will lead to the First World War two years later .

Talks between British War Secretary Richard Burdon Haldane and German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg in February about an agreement to limit naval armaments came to nothing. On the contrary, in May the German Reichstag decided to further expand the fleet. In the Balkans , several states still under Ottoman suzerainty found the Balkan League and, encouraged by Italy's successes in the Italo-Turkish War , began the First Balkan War in October against the Ottoman Empire , which was collapsing after the fall of the Young Turks .

After the six-year-old Chinese Emperor Puyi abdicated the throne, the Republic of China was proclaimed, ending the Chinese Empire . This sparks a power struggle for leadership.

Before the presidential election in the United States , the Progressive Party split from the Republican Party under former President Theodore Roosevelt . With candidates from these two parties stealing each other's votes, Democrat Woodrow Wilson emerges victorious.

Other events include the tragic end of the British Terra Nova expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott to the South Pole , the sinking of the British luxury liner RMS Titanic in the North Atlantic and the hosting of the V Summer Olympics in Stockholm.


politics and world affairs

Europe and Mediterranean

Italy/Ottoman Empire
The Italo-Turkish War in the Mediterranean 1911–1912
The border conditions in the Balkans before the outbreak of the Balkan Wars
Ottoman troops retreating at Lüleburgaz
Territories conquered by the Balkan League in the First Balkan War
  • October 29: During the First Balkan War , the Battle of Lüleburgaz begins, lasting until November 2, ending in a victory for the Bulgarian army under Ivan Fitschev , who fail to pursue the Ottoman troops, who then retreat to Çatalca outside Constantinople can dig in. The battle is the largest battle in Europe since the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71.
  • October 31: The Greek army achieves another victory at Giannitsa .
  • 3rd/4th November: Serbia defeats the Ottoman Empire at Kumanovo .
  • November 7: The Greek army enters Thessaloniki . There are first clashes with the Bulgarian units, who arrive a few hours later.
  • 17th/18th November: Bulgaria tries in vain to take Constantinople .
  • November 25 Ioannina surrounded by Greek forces.
Albania's declaration of independence in Vlora
Flag of the Provisional Government of Albania
Deutsches Reich
The results of the Reichstag election by constituency
  • January 12: In the Reichstag elections for the 13th German Reichstag , the Social Democrats double their seats and become the strongest faction despite the distortion caused by the majority voting system. Anti-Semitic circles then coined the combat term “Jewish election”. The fragmented bourgeois camp moves together and is able to form the government again under Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg .
  • February 8: In Berlin, the British Secretary of War Richard Burdon Haldane begins talks with Chancellor Hollweg to defuse the naval rivalry, which remain fruitless because Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz demands a British guarantee of neutrality and thus the de facto dissolution of the Triple Entente with France and Russia.
  • March 11: Miners' strike in the Ruhr area : the military is deployed so that the strike has to end on March 19.
  • May 14: The German Reichstag approves a new naval bill, which i.a. plans to build 41 battleships and battlecruisers.
The demonstration car ride, in the picture Anita Augspurg on the left (marked with an x)
  • January 14: Raymond Poincaré becomes French Prime Minister and Foreign Minister for the first time.
French Morocco and the Spanish sphere of influence
Great Britain and Ireland
Portugal and its colonies
Victims of the Lena massacre
  • 14 May: Change of throne in Denmark . Christian X succeeds the deceased Frederick VIII.
  • 20 October to 11 November: Norway general election 1912
  • December 23: An agreement is signed by Sweden, Denmark and Norway in Stockholm, in which these countries commit themselves to neutrality in military conflicts.
  • February 25: Due to a change in the succession to the throne, the eldest daughter of William IV of Luxembourg, Maria-Adelheid , becomes the first woman to become the reigning Duchess of Luxembourg . Until she comes of age on June 15, her mother Maria Anna will take over the regency.

Republic of China

Flag of the Republic of China from 1912–1928
Yuan Shikai after being appointed President


The Taishō Emperor at his coronation


Griffin's plan for Canberra
  • 23 May: Walter Burley Griffin 's design is awarded the contract to build the future Australian capital of Canberra . In contrast to his competitors, the architect tried as far as possible to adapt the construction of the planned capital to the topographical conditions, and numerous artistic watercolors by his wife Marion Mahony Griffin were included, which are intended to illustrate Canberra's future appearance.


United States after incorporating New Mexico and Arizona and creating the Alaska Territory
Election result map


  • 8 January: In South Africa, the South African Native National Congress , the forerunner of the ANC ( African National Congress ), is formed to represent the interests of the Bantus .

Other international events



Hamburg is the third German city after Berlin and Schöneberg to have an underground railway .


Bank merger announcement

science and technology

Antarctic research

Scott's Terra Nova Expedition
Scott's team at the South Pole, left to right: (standing) Wilson, Scott, Oates; (seated) Bowers, Edgar Evans
  • January 17: Scott reaches the South Pole with his crew . But the Norwegian Roald Amundsen was there a month earlier with his dog sled. The march back to the base camp ends fatally for the expedition.
  • February 17: Edgar Evans becomes the first member of the Terra Nova Expedition to die.
  • March 4 Apsley Cherry-Garrard restocks One-Ton Depot and waits until March 10 for the South Group before turning back as instructed. This is about 120 km away from him at this point in time.
  • March 7: Roald Amundsen announces the discovery of the South Pole on December 14 of the previous year.
  • March 16: With his health deteriorating rapidly, Terra Nova Expedition member Lawrence Oates exits the tent , stating "it might take a little longer". He's not coming back.
  • March 26: A first search party is sent out for Scott and his colleagues, but returns without a result.
Scott's last entry in his expedition diary
  • March 29: Robert F. Scott makes his last diary entry.
  • November 12: A search party dispatched October 29, led by Edward Atkinson , finds the frozen bodies of Robert Falcon Scott , Edward Adrian Wilson , and Henry Robertson Bowers 11 miles (18 km) south of One Ton Depot , almost to the top of their tent covered by blowing snow. A burial mound is raised over the corpses and expedition member Tryggve Gran 's skis are turned into a cross. Gran instead makes the journey home on Scott's skis. On November 15, Lawrence Oates' sleeping bag and presumed place of death is also found. Here, too, a mark is placed and a cross erected. On November 25, the group returns to the expedition's base camp at Cape Evans .
More Expeditions
Mawson Huts
Mertz photographed his colleague Ninnes while exploring in December 1912
  • After discovering George V Land and Queen Mary Coast , the Australasian Antarctic Expedition led by Douglas Mawson reaches Cape Denison in Commonwealth Bay on 12 January . The men establish their main base at Mawson's Huts , where eighteen men spend the winter of 1912. They are also building quarters on Macquarie Island and a western base on the Shackleton Ice Shelf . The teams of all three bases carry out routine scientific and meteorological observations, which are recorded in detail in the extensive reports, which are only published between 1922 and 1942. They also set up Antarctica's first wireless radio link, which connects to Hobart . In the second half of 1912, five major sleigh rides are undertaken from the main base and two from the west base to explore hitherto unknown territory. On one such sleigh ride, Belgrade Ninnis falls into a crevasse with six dogs and the sled carrying most of the food and dies. Survivors Mawson and Xavier Mertz begin a brutal journey home 500 kilometers to base camp, where they feed on the remaining dogs.
The Japanese expedition at its southernmost point on the Yamato snowfield

arctic research


Harriet Quimby in her Bleriot monoplane


List of asteroids discovered in 1912
No. and name diameter
date of discovery explorer
(727) Nipponia 32.2 February 11th Adam Massinger
(728) Leonisis ? February 16 John Palisa
(729) Watsonia 49.2 February 9th Joel Hastings Metcalf
(730) Athanasia ? 10th of April John Palisa
(731) Sorga 41.8 April 15th Adam Massinger
(732) Tjilaki 37.6 April 15th Adam Massinger
(733) Mocia 88.7 16th September Gustave Witt
(734) Benda 70.8 October 11th John Palisa
(735) Marghanna 74.3 9th of December Heinrich Vogt
(736) Harvard 16.7 November 16th Joel Hastings Metcalf
(737) Arequipa 44.1 December 7th Joel Hastings Metcalf

chemistry and physics

Inauguration of the first KWG institutes by Kaiser Wilhelm

geology and paleontology

Expedition member Alfred Wegener in Greenland in the winter of 1912/13

Teaching and Research

Technical developments



View of the Nurulla Bei Palace

Commissioned by Said Muhammad Rahim II , Khan of Khiva Khanate , Nurulla Bei Palace is completed two years after his death and used as a residence by his son Esfendijar . The entire palace complex covers an area of ​​198 by 143 meters and includes a small park and several buildings. The complex is enclosed by a brick wall topped by small towers, also made of brick. Overall, the architecture of the building is characterized by a style mix of traditional oriental architecture and European style elements.

Visual arts

Gustav Klimt : Adele Bloch-Bauer II
Berlin 1912, depicted in the painting Spittelmarkt by Paul Hoeniger
Juan Gris: Homage to Picasso



music and theatre

Poster for Roma by Georges-Antoine Rochegrosse
The German Opera House in 1912


The group of
figures with lions designed by Philipp Kittler




Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .

nature and environment

Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes


Olympic games

  • May 5th: The V Summer Olympic Games are opened in Stockholm. However, most of the sporting events only take place between June 29th and July 27th.
  • November 10: The German Sports Badge is created by the General Assembly of the German Reich Committee for Olympic Games under the name award for diverse achievements in the field of physical exercise .

foundations of associations


Entries of world records in athletics see under the respective discipline in the lists for men's records up to 1970 and women's records up to 1970 . However, the first official world record list was not published until 1914.

Nobel prizes

price person country Justification for the award image
Nobel Price for physics Gustaf Dalen
Sweden Sweden "for his invention of self-acting regulators used in combination with gas accumulators to illuminate lighthouses and light -buoys " Gustaf Dalen
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Victor Grignard
France France "for the so-called Grignard reagent he discovered , which has greatly promoted the progress of organic chemistry in recent years" Victor Grignard
Paul Sabatier
France France "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely divided metals , by which the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly promoted in recent years" Paul Sabatier
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Alexis Carrell
France France "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and on vascular and organ transplantation " Alexis Carrell
Nobel Prize in literature Gerhard Hauptmann
Deutsches Reich German Empire (born in Ober Salzbrunn , Kingdom of Prussia , German Confederation )
Prussia Kingdom
"principally for its rich, varied, outstanding activity in the field of dramatic poetry" Gerhart Hauptman
Nobel Peace Prize (awarded 1913) Elihu Root
United States 48 United States Author of various arbitration agreements Elihu Root



André Ameller (1980)


Albin Kitzinger (right)


Klaus Gysi, 1946
  • 0March 1 – Walter Davis , American blues musician (d. 1963)
  • 0March 1: Mario Genta , Italian footballer (died 1993)
Teto Ahrenberg
Wernher von Braun, 1964
James Callaghan


Glenn T Seaborg


Otto Kretschmer (1940)


Wilhelm daughter (1932)
Alan Turing
Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker; Recording 1993



Fritz Hellwig, 1953
Gene Kelly circa 1944 as a US Navy lieutenant
Erich Honecker, 1976


  • 0September 1 Charles Owen , American percussionist and music educator (d. 1985)
  • 0September 5: John Cage , American composer (d. 1992)
Kristina Soederbaum, 1937
Herbert F. Matare, 1950



Alfredo DeAngelis (1968)
Tuffy Leemans
Otto von Habsburg, 2004


Thorbjorn Egner, around 1960

Exact date of birth unknown


January February

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister

March April

Vilém Mrštík (1897)
Karl May
  • March 30: Karl May , German writer (b. 1842)
  • March 30: Emilio Teza , Italian Romance scholar, Indo-European scholar, Orientalist, philologist, linguist, literary scholar and translator (b. 1831)
  • March 31: Robert Love Taylor , American politician (born 1850)
Bram Stoker

May June

Wilbur Wright, 1905
  • May 30: Wilbur Wright , American aviator and aircraft builder (b. 1867)

July August

Benno King (1911)
Henri Poincare
Paul Wallot

September October

November December

Anton von Perfall (1902)
Otto Schoetensack, 1882

Exact date of death unknown

web links

Commons : 1912  - Collection of images, videos and audio files