African National Congress

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African National Congress
Flag of the ANC
Cyril Ramaphosa (2015)
Party leader Cyril Ramaphosa
Secretary General Ace Magashule (suspended)
Deputy Chairman David Mabuza
founding January 8, 1912
Place of establishment Bloemfontein
Headquarters Luthuli House
54 Sauer Street
Alignment African nationalism
social democracy
Colours) black, green, yellow
National Assembly
National Council of Provinces
Provincial Legislature
Number of members 769,870 (as of 2015)
International connections Socialist International (full member)

The African National Congress ( ANC for short ), German  African National Congress , is a South African organization founded in 1912 . From 1960 to 1990 their activities in South Africa were legally classified as “unlawful” and therefore illegal, but the ANC, as the leading movement against apartheid from exile, had a great influence on events in South Africa. He has been in government since 1994. Its most famous politician was Nelson Mandela .


Founding and establishment as a protest movement

Founding phase

On January 8, 1912, two years after the establishment of the South African Union , the ANC was founded as the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) in Bloemfontein . Founding members included the lawyer Pixley ka Isaka Seme , clergymen John Langalibalele Dube and Walter Benson Rubusana, and the author Sol Plaatje . This group of the educated black middle class was strongly oriented towards the ideals of the British whites. She expected other blacks to orientate themselves on these values ​​(for example Christianity) and accordingly acted as a lobby group for a small black minority. A say for all blacks in South Africa was not one of the goals of the SANNC and later ANC in the first 40 years.

The reason for the establishment of the SANNC was the Natives Land Act (for example: "Native Land Act") of 1913, the draft of which was discussed shortly after the Union was founded. The right to vote in the four colonies was regulated differently before the Union was founded. While blacks had no right to vote in the two Boer republics of Orange Free State and Transvaal , in the British republics of the Cape Colony and theoretically also in Natal they had a census right tied to land ownership. The upcoming Natives Land Act now stipulated that blacks were only allowed to acquire land in specified areas (almost 7% of the area of ​​South Africa). This would also have jeopardized the “color-blind” Cape voting rights of “civilized” blacks, which required a writing test in addition to land ownership. In addition, with the establishment of the union, the blacks' hope that the Cape suffrage would be extended to the other provinces was clouded. Instead, the electoral rights of the individual provinces remained and the consistently Boer-dominated governments made no effort to grant the black population equal civil rights. The reactions of the SANNC were adapted to the usual forms of action in the British Empire . SANNC sent notes of protest, letters of complaint and delegations. In 1919 a delegation even traveled to Great Britain and the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 ; she was not heard there because Prime Minister Jan Christiaan Smuts knew how to prevent this. Most of the SANNC and ANC protests remained unsuccessful and peaceful.

The 1920s and 1930s

In May 1923 or 1925, the SANNC was renamed the African National Congress . In the 1920s, the ANC was increasingly overtaken by action-ready left groups such as the Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU, "Industry and Trade Union ") as a black protest group, as they understood it in contrast to the elitist and cautious ANC, the masses and also to mobilize the rural population. With the election of Josiah Tshangana Gumede as ANC President in 1927, there was a shift to the left in the ANC, but this now split the ANC into a left wing that worked with the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) and wanted to transform the ANC into a mass movement , and a conservative wing that prevailed in 1930 with the election of Pixley ka Isaka Semes as ANC president. But this meant the ANC's persistence in insignificance during the 1930s.

During the Great Depression , the United National Party General James Barry Hertzog Munnick and the South African Party Smuts' under Hertzog's leadership in 1934 for the United Party . Hertzog was able to curtail further rights of blacks with a two-thirds majority in both chambers. In 1936, black voting rights were also abolished in the Cape Province . To compensate for this, the blacks of all provinces were given the right to vote for the Natives' Representative Council (for example: "Native Council of Representatives"), but this had a purely advisory function and was therefore ineffective. Against this, protests now formed under the leadership of Davidson Don Tengo Jabavu in the All African Convention (AAC), which overtook the ANC as a political protest group from 1935, but at the same time many ANC members took over leadership positions in the AAC.

In 1936, James Arthur Calata became the new Secretary General of the ANC. He toured various local chapters of the ANC in South Africa at his own expense and found that there was an interest in reviving the ANC. So the decision was made to celebrate the silver jubilee in 1937. Nevertheless, the ANC remained a fringe organization until the late 1930s.

Development since 1940

This only changed with the election of Alfred Bitini Xumas as ANC President in 1940. He introduced better communication structures between the local branches of the ANC and the central top, and abolished the two-chamber system of the ANC, in which the so-called House of Lords had previously included important chiefs and the delegates had sat in the House of Commons, introduced mandatory membership fees to improve the ANC's financially difficult position, and created a committee that lived within 50 miles of the ANC President so that the ANC top would be weekly, not just could meet at the annual meetings. The most important innovation, however, was the introduction of the ANC Youth League in 1944, from which people like Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela emerged . The innovations did not immediately lead to the desired effects, but the new structures could be taken up later. The Africans' Claims in South Africa of 1943 were formulated under Xuma's leadership and took up aspects of the Atlantic Charter . In them the ANC called for the abolition of all discriminatory laws against blacks for the first time. From this point on, every black member could become a member of the ANC, whereas previously this was only possible for educated blacks. Although Xuma tried to reach the black majority in this way, it was above all the black elite that felt addressed.

The ANC only became a mass organization with the Defiance Campaign, organized from 1952 to 1953, against the discriminatory laws of the apartheid regime. This was supported by the members of the Youth League, which advocated much more radical forms of protest than the petitions and delegations that had been common up until then. Only now did more solid partnerships emerge with representatives of colored (such as the South African Colored People's Organization ) and Indian organizations (such as the South African Indian Congress ), probably also because these were more strongly suppressed by white legislation only in the apartheid state. In 1955, the ANC was involved in the adoption of the Freedom Charter , which was intended to achieve peaceful, equal coexistence between the various population groups. In 1956, numerous high-ranking ANC politicians and other anti-apartheid opponents who were involved in the signing of the Freedom Charter were arrested. The subsequent Treason Trial lasted until 1961 and ended with the acquittal of all 156 defendants. The ANC protested against the so-called passport laws , according to which blacks outside the homelands had to carry an identity document with them at all times in order to be able to identify themselves as registered workers at the assigned location , with demonstrations and by burning the controversial “passports”. The former ANC chairman Albert Luthuli in 1960 with the Nobel Peace Prize awarded, but several times by the apartheid government for the Suppression of Communism Act with the restrictions of the ban occupied.

Breakaway of the Pan Africanist Congress in 1959 and banishment in 1960

For some members the mostly peaceful actions of the ANC did not go far enough. In 1959 they founded another resistance organization, the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). In contrast to the ANC, the PAC rejected the open attitude towards all races. He positioned himself as an all-black organization and refused any cooperation with whites.

A demonstration organized by the PAC in Sharpeville Township ended in a police bloodbath, the Sharpeville Massacre . 69 Africans were killed. This event sparked national unrest, which the South African government fought hard. Around 20,000 demonstrators were arrested.

With retroactive effect to April 6, 1960, both the PAC and the ANC were granted permission on the basis of the Unlawful Organizations Act (Act No. 34/1960 ) by Proclamation 119 of the South African government, signed by then Governor General Charles Robberts Swart on April 8 declares illegal organizations and thus prevents any legal activity of these organizations.

Exile work and underground activities 1961–1990

Portrait of Nelson Mandela from the 1960s on a Soviet postage stamp from 1988, text for example: "South Africa's freedom fighter, Nelson Mandela"

The explosive situation in South Africa was the subject of a meeting of 30 heads of state from Africa at a summit conference in Addis Ababa in May 1963 . It was attended by numerous exiled political leaders from the ANC and PAC , including Oliver Tambo (ANC board member), Duma Nokwe, Joe G. Matthews, Robert Resha and Tennyson Makiwane. The conference agreed to set up the African Liberation Committee and to send some foreign ministers from the participating states to the United Nations to inform the UN Security Council about the South African situation. After the ban of the ANC, the establishment of political structures abroad and military training programs began under the leadership of Oliver Tambo. Active ANC members were advised by executives to leave South Africa in the interests of their own safety and to avoid possible arrest. Initially, two main agencies of the ANC were established, in London and Dar es Salaam . This was followed by the establishment of further representative offices subordinate to these two headquarters in Accra , Algiers , Cairo , Lusaka as well as in Cuba and other places.

The first military training was provided by the People's Republic of China . In 1962, the ANC ran a training camp in Morocco . Oliver Tambo set up the first training center in Dar es Salaam in 1964. In the same year the ANC set up an office in Lusaka, which was made possible by the independence of Zambia , and from 1965 the organization set up its headquarters in the Tanzanian city ​​of Morogoro , which served as a location for the entire leadership in 1966.

In 1961, during a conspiratorial meeting in Durban , leading members of the ANC, together with representatives of the SACP, decided to found the armed wing. Nelson Mandela headed this organization called Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation", MK), which had its first training camp in Kongwa in what was then Tanganyika . The ANC henceforth operated underground in the area of ​​South Africa. Umkhonto we Sizwe excelled in the following years through acts of sabotage against the infrastructure (e.g. power supply and telecommunications), military facilities and police stations. The training of its members in other African countries was mainly carried out by the Cuban and Soviet military. Selected commanders and functionaries received training in the Soviet Union . Political training in a military context was carried out by Cuba, Bulgaria , the GDR and the Soviet Union. The basis for this was the presence of SACP members in the organizational structures of the ANC and MK, through whose audible work the internal debate was shaped by a Marxist discourse. Without a doubt, the contacts, initially with the People's Republic of China, then in the 1960s with the Soviet Union and the GDR were in the hands of this group of people. During this period, both states were the primary suppliers of weapons and carriers of training capacities. The change from China to the Soviet sphere of influence came about as a result of the Sino-Soviet conflict. The common exile situation brought about significant bonding forces between the ANC and SACP, especially for the top management circles. However, Oliver Tambo declared to the SACP itself or to white South Africans to defend the independence of the ANC without denying the close cooperation with the SACP representatives.

From 1967 the ANC magazine "Sechaba" appeared. This was financed by the GDR and printed in the GDR until the fall of the Wall .

Leading ANC activists such as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Govan Mbeki were sentenced to life imprisonment in the so-called Rivonia Trial in 1964 . The court accused them above all of involvement in acts of sabotage. The senior ANC members were arrested on Robben Island prison island after the guilty verdict . Many other activists were arrested or had to relocate their activities abroad. The government tried to massively obstruct human rights campaigners and supporters of the ANC who work with civilian means by putting many of them under a ban. Banned people were not allowed to leave a precisely defined territory and were isolated socially and professionally in the process. Meetings of ANC members were to be stopped if the employees of the intelligence services, from 1972 the State Security Council , became aware of them. On the basis of the Parliamentary Internal Security Commission Act, the South African state tried to gain as complete control as possible over opposition activities in the country and neighboring states. The active leadership of the ANC under Oliver Tambo was now living in exile and had a main office in London, which since 1976 had been in the hands of Yusuf Dadoo with Aziz Pahad and Wally Serote .

Numerous ANC politicians were trained at the University College of Fort Hare . With the increase in state repression based on the Internal Security Act of 1976, the ANC created an educational institution in Tanzania that was outside the sphere of influence of the South African apartheid system. This Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College enabled an independent education for ANC members and other active persons as well as their children with the help of an international faculty. The college existed from 1978 to 1992.

With the uprising in Soweto in 1976 and the emergence of the Black Consciousness movement in the following year, the situation in South Africa worsened. The ANC worked underground and was responsible for numerous acts of violence, but also non-violent boycott and strike measures, so that a state of emergency was finally declared . The role of the extra-parliamentary opposition was taken over by the United Democratic Front (UDF), which was close to the ANC but saw itself more as an alliance of all South African opponents of apartheid.

After the end of apartheid

In the second half of the 1980s, secret talks took place between government and ANC representatives abroad, for example during the Dakar conference . Nelson Mandela was offered to leave prison if the ANC refrained from using violence. Mandela refused such a pardon without changing the system. The newly elected President Frederik Willem de Klerk continued to approach the ANC and had the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organizations lifted on February 2, 1990. Nine days later, Mandela was released unconditionally. The ANC leadership including Oliver Tambo returned from exile. From then on there were negotiations between the government, the ANC and other groups about an end to apartheid and the adoption of a new provisional constitution as part of the Convention for a Democratic South Africa . On April 10, 1993, the senior ANC official Chris Hani was killed by a plot of murder by right-wing white politicians. Despite great tension, Mandela managed to continue the negotiation process. De Klerk and Mandela were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for their role in the negotiation process. The first free elections in South Africa in 1994 were won by the ANC with around 63 percent of the vote. Nelson Mandela was then elected South Africa's first black president. After winning the elections, the military wing of the ANC was integrated into the newly established South African National Defense Force (SANDF) and the leadership of the new South African Ministry of Defense was transferred to two Umkhonto-we-Sizwe veterans: Joe Modise became the first black South African Defense Minister and Ronnie Kasrils his deputy. From then on, the ANC formed a “three-party alliance” (Tripartite Alliance) with the SACP and the Congress of South African Trade Unions .

Mandela held the presidency until 1999. The top candidate in the 1999 elections was his former deputy Thabo Mbeki . The ANC received 66 percent of the vote, which it even expanded to a two-thirds majority in the 2004 elections . However, Mbeki had to resign and was replaced by Kgalema Motlanthe .

In the course of 2008 criticism of the leadership of the ANC increased, so that the Congress of the People (COPE) split off. Corruption allegations and the circumstances of Mbeki's disempowerment were cited as reasons for the split. The former Defense Minister Mosiuoa Lekota took over the leadership of the COPE . It became the third strongest force in the 2009 general election , winning 30 seats. The ANC under the new top candidate Jacob Zuma won another election with almost 66 percent. A Zulu leads the ANC and the government after the ANC had been dominated by Xhosa for a long time . In 2011, the radical leader of the ANC Youth League , Julius Malema , was expelled from the party for five years; but he continued to lead the Youth League until 2012 and in 2013 founded the “protest movement” Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF). In the 2014 elections , the ANC retained its absolute majority with around 62 percent, but lost around four percentage points. The ANC was also able to defend its absolute majorities in the eight provinces governed by the ANC. In the state-wide local elections in 2016 , the ANC received 54.5 percent for the first time since 1994, less than 60 percent of the vote. At the party conference on December 18, 2017, Cyril Ramaphosa was elected as the new chairman in place of Zuma. He beat Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma with around 52% of the vote. In the elections in South Africa 2019 , ANC was able to maintain an absolute parliamentary majority with 57.5% of the votes despite further losses and again win an absolute majority in eight of the nine provincial assemblies . In the Western Cape Province he was again subject to the Democratic Alliance .

Today the ANC is a member of the Socialist International , the worldwide association of socialist and social democratic parties.

Processing of selected topics

During its period of exile in countries in southern and central Africa, but outside of South Africa, the ANC maintained several prison camps for people who had been found to be punishable by the internal security apparatus or as a security risk. In August 1991, Nelson Mandela announced that all inmates in these camps had been released. In November 1991 the International Society for Human Rights raised the question of possibly missing inmates and suspected 500 missing persons in this context. In the opinion of the organization, the ANC has tried to silence the critics, especially those with authentic knowledge of the formerly secret camps and their organizational structure, with fear tactics. The society based its criticism on eyewitnesses and written testimony.

Several camps have become known as internment locations for prisoners of the ANC:

  • in northern Angola , Camp Quadro (Morris Seabelo Rehabilitation Center) near Kibaxe , Camp Panga (also: Pango ) near Dande and the Viana Camp
  • in central Angola, Camp Calandula and Camp Malanje
  • in the border area between Angola and Zambia , Caripande Camp
  • in Tanzania , Mazimbu Camp , Dakawa Camp , both south of Morogoro , the Freedom College near Morogoro
  • in Zambia, the ANC house RC (former Revolutionary Command Council ) in Lusaka
  • in Uganda , Bukoloto Camp
  • in Mozambique , Camp Nampula

Amnesty International and several South African investigative commissions after 1994 investigated what was going on in and in connection with these camps.

organization structure

The ANC is headed by a President . There are also at the national level a deputy of the President, a Secretary General ( Secretary General ) and his deputy and a Treasurer General ( Treasurer ) and a National Chairman (national chairman). The most important body is the National Executive Committee (NEC for short), which consists of 99 people, more than half of whom must be women according to the statutes. Another body is the 31-person National Working Committee , which is supposed to implement the decisions of the NEC and which also consists of more than half of women. Nationwide sub-groupings are the ANC Youth League , the ANC Women's League , founded in 1948, and the ANC Veterans League. The party center is the Luthuli House in the Johannesburg district of Marshalltown. Party conferences are held as a National Conference .

There are associations in the nine South African provinces that are also headed by a chairperson . There are several regional associations in each of the provinces, which in turn are divided into branches .

Current leadership

The board is composed as follows:

president Cyril Ramaphosa
Deputy President David Mabuza
Secretary General Ace Magashule
Deputy Secretary General Jessie Duarte
Treasurer Paul Mashatile
National Chairman Gwede Mantashe

President and Chairperson of the ANC

The chairmen of the organization were and are:

Other well-known members of the ANC

ANC media

  • Abantu-Batho ( The People ). South African Native National Congress (SANNC) newspaper . It appeared in Johannesburg between January 1912 and July 1931 as a print medium associated with SANNC / ANC. The newspaper was known for vehemently defending the land rights of Africans shortly after it was founded. Texts have been published in English , isiXhosa and Sesotho . The rousing slogan Mayibuy 'i Afrika (German: “Let Africa return”) found widespread use through the paper . The founder of the paper was Pixley ka Isaka Seme .
  • Sechaba. Official organ of the African National Congress of South Africa . The magazine was published between 1967 and 1990, it was published in Lusaka , Dar es Salaam and other places by the ANC. ISSN  0037-0509
    An early editor-in-chief was Alfred Kgokong , other members of the editorial board: Joe Matthews and MP Naicker
  • Mayibuye, Bulletin of The ANC (South Africa) appeared between 1966 and 1998, the place of publication is indicated in bibliographical references Marshalltown (Johannesburg). ISSN  1021-853X and 1609-9303 online editions Mayibuye Example of a special issue from 1966 in DISA
  • Radio Freedom , former ANC radio program for various radio stations in Africa.


  • Members of the ANC, including Nelson Mandela, were classified by the US government as members of a terrorist organization until July 2008. The ANC itself was removed from the list of terrorist organizations in 1988.
  • In 2008 the National Executive Committee included seven convictions out of 80 members who had received their sentences after the end of apartheid; Investigations were underway against another seven members.
  • Since 1955 the title Isitwalandwe / Seaparankoe has been bestowed as the highest honor. A medal is the actual honor.


  • Sheridan Johns, R. Hunt Davis, Jr. R. Hunt Davis: Mandela, Tambo and the African National Congress. The Struggle against Apartheid 1948–1990. A Documentary Survey. Oxford University Press, New York 1991, ISBN 0-19-505784-8 .
  • Saul Dubow: The African National Congress. Sutton Publishers, Stroud 2000, ISBN 0-7509-2193-5 .
  • Susan Booysen: The African National Congress and the Regeneration of Power: People, Party, Policy. Wits University Press, Johannesburg 2011, ISBN 978-1-86814-542-3 .
  • Alex Boraine : What's Gone Wrong? South Africa on the Brink of Failed Statehood. NYU Press, New York 2014, ISBN 978-1-4798-5497-4 .
  • Stephen Ellis : External Mission: The ANC in Exile, 1960-1990. Paperback edition. C. Hurst & Co., London 2015, ISBN 978-1-84904-506-3 .
  • Ulrich van der Heyden : The Dakar process. The beginning of the end of apartheid in South Africa. Solivagus Praeteritum, Kiel 2018, ISBN 978-3-947064-01-4 .

Web links

Commons : African National Congress  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  2. ^ Members of the Socialist International at (English), accessed on April 26, 2018
  3. ANC website on the history of the ANC ( Memento from December 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
  4. Christoph Marx : South Africa. History and present. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-17-021146-9 , pp. 191ff.
  5. Christoph Marx: South Africa. History and present. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-17-021146-9 , p. 190
  6. Jörg Fisch: History of South Africa. 2nd Edition. dtv, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-423-04550-7 , p. 220
  7. Jörg Fisch: History of South Africa. 2nd Edition. dtv, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-423-04550-7 , p. 222
  8. Jörg Fisch: History of South Africa. 2nd Edition. dtv, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-423-04550-7 , p. 238
  9. Jörg Fisch: History of South Africa. 2nd Edition. dtv, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-423-04550-7 , p. 235
  10. ^ Peter Walshe: The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa. The African National Congress 1912-1952. University of California Press, London / Berkeley / Los Angeles 1970, ISBN 0-520-01810-9 , p. 61ff.
  11. Christoph Marx: South Africa. History and present. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-17-021146-9 , p. 193
  12. Sheridan Johns III: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 1: Protest and Hope 1882-1934. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1972, pp. 67f.
  13. Sheridan Johns III: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 1: Protest and Hope 1882-1934. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1972, p. 152
  14. Christoph Marx: South Africa. History and present. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-17-021146-9
  15. ^ Saul Dubow: The African National Congress. Sutton Publishing, Reading 2000, ISBN 1-86842-097-3 , p. 11
  16. ^ Helen Bradford: A taste of freedom. The ICU in rural South Africa 1924-1930. Yale University Press, New Haven / London 1987, ISBN 0-300-03873-9 , pp. 13ff
  17. Sheridan Johns III: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 1: Protest and Hope 1882-1934. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1972, pp. 153ff.
  18. Jörg Fisch: History of South Africa. 2nd Edition. dtv, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-423-04550-7 , pp. 268f.
  19. ^ Thomas Karis: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 2: Hope and Challenge 1935-1952. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1973, pp. 3f.
  20. ^ Thomas Karis: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 2: Hope and Challenge 1935-1952. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1973, pp. 6ff.
  21. ^ Thomas Karis: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 2: Hope and Challenge 1935-1952. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1973, pp. 81ff.
  22. ^ Thomas Karis: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 2: Hope and Challenge 1935-1952. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1973, pp. 84ff.
  23. ^ Thomas Karis: From Protest to Challenge. Volume 2: Hope and Challenge 1935-1952. Hoover Institution Publishing, Stanford 1973, pp. 98ff.
  24. ^ Saul Dubow: The African National Congress. Sutton Publishing, Reading 2000, ISBN 0-7509-2193-5 , pp. 34ff.
  25. ^ SAIRR : A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa . Johannesburg 1961, p. 72
  26. ^ Anthony S. Mathews: Law, order and liberty in South Africa. Juta, Cape Town 1971, p. 69.
  27. Timeline: ANC decade by decade 1800s-1990s . Entry: 1960 April 8 ( memento of September 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), on
  28. Muriel Horrell: action, reaction and counter-action . Johannesburg 1971, pp. 92-93.
  29. ^ Camps In Exile (ANC). at
  30. a b ANC structures and personnel, 1960–1994, on ( Memento from October 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
  31. Timeline 1944–2011 at , accessed on August 7, 2012 (English)
  32. Tsepe Motumi: Umkhonto we Sizwe - Structure, Training and Force Levels (1984 to 1994). In: African Defense Review, Issue No 18, 1994 ( Memento from September 27, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  33. Stephen Ellis : External Mission: The ANC in Exile 1960–1990 . Johannesburg, Cape Town, 2012, p. 61 ISBN 978-1-86842-530-3
  34. Sheridan Johns, R. Hunt Davis: Mandela, Tambo and the African National Congress: the struggle against apartheid, 1948–1990: a documentary survey . Oxford University Press , New York, Oxford 1991, p. 185. ISBN 0-19-570641-2
  35. Ilona Schleicher, Hans-Georg Schleicher: Committed to Africa: The GDR and Africa. Münster / Hamburg 1994, p. 129 ff.
  36. Ulrich van der Heyden: The Dakar process. The beginning of the end of apartheid in South Africa. Solivagus Praeteritum, Kiel 2018, ISBN 978-3-947064-01-4 , p. 93-99 .
  37. Thomas Knemeyer: ANC-Rebellen-split-die-ruling party . Welt Online Article November 2008
  38. Kill the peasants, kill the Boers. In: Der Tagesspiegel . November 10, 2011, accessed on January 6, 2012 (report on Julius Malema)
  39. 2016 election results (PDF; 170 kB), accessed on August 14, 2016
  40. Ra'essa Pather: Cyril Ramaphosa is the new president of the ANC. Mail & Guardian dated December 18, 2017, accessed December 18, 2017
  41. a b SAIRR : Race Relations Survey 1991/92 . Johannesburg 1992, p. 503. ISSN  0258-7246
  42. a b c ANC Questions. 1. Questions already given to ANC. Requests for classification of matters raised in the ANC submission at
  43. ^ Amnesty International: South Africa: Torture, ill-treatment and executions in African National Congress camps . online publication dated December 2, 1992. at
  44. Website of the ANC on the NWC ( Memento of November 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
  45. ^ ANC website on the structure of the party ( Memento from July 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  46. ^ African National Congress: Our New ANC Officials . at (English).
  47. The tasks of the National Chairperson consist primarily in the connection between the NEC and the National Conference , see National Chairperson ( Memento from September 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) on the ANC website , accessed on July 29, 2012 (English)
  48. ^ African National Congress: ANC Presidents . at (English).
  49. AJ Friedgut: The Non-European Press . In: Ellen Hellmann, Leah Abrahams (Ed.): Handbook on Race Relations in South Africa . Cape Town, London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1949, p. 491
  50. Thapelo Mokoatsi: Daniel Simon Letanka . The Journalist, online April 7, 2015, at (English)
  51. ^ South African History Online : Pixley ka Isaka Seme . on (English)
  52. aluka: Directory of numerous editions with cover pictures on
  53. Sechaba, September 1968. Example of an edition. on ( Memento from December 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.8 MB)
  54. kvk: Proof of the secured publication period.
  55. Online editions. ( Memento of April 26, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) on (English)
  56. Mayibuye, Bulletin of The ANC (South Africa) special edition of November 15, 1966. on ( Memento of September 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (English) Commemorative publication for imprisoned, banned and otherwise repressive treated anti-apartheid activists
  57. Article in Der Standard of July 2, 2008
  58. ^ Adriaan Basson: List of NEC members with criminal records or corruption scandals . Mail and Guardian Online article January 2008