1902

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1902
The "Gauss" trapped in the ice on March 29, 1902, this photo taken from a balloon is one of the first aerial photographs in the Antarctic
The trapped for 14 months in the ice Gauss Expedition
discovered in Antarctica , the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land .
Mont Pelé
When the Mont Pelé erupted
in Martinique
,
the capital Saint-Pierre was destroyed .
Andrew Carnegie
With a donation of Andrew Carnegie is Carnegie Institution for Science established.
1902 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1350/51 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1894/95 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Baha'i calendar 58/59 (turn of the year 20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1307/08 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2445/46 (southern Buddhism); 2444/45 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Water Tiger壬寅 ( since February 8th , before that Metal Ox 辛丑)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1264/65 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4235/36 (2-3 October)
Iranian calendar 1280/81 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1319/20 (April 9/10)
Japanese calendar Meiji 35 ( 明治 35 年 );
Kōki 2562
Jewish calendar 5662/63 (October 1-2)
Coptic calendar 1618/19 (10/11 September)
Malayalam calendar 1077/78
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1317/18 (March 1st)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2212/13 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2213/14 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2444/45 (April 1)
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1958/59 (turn of the year April)

Events

Politics and world events

The German Imperium

  • January 29th : The social democratic daily Vorwärts publishes a secret paper of the Imperial Navy in which the then Vice-Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz lists detailed armaments plans for expanding the fleet. The publication turns into a scandal, as even the government-loyal center organs feel betrayed by Tirpitz.
  • February 1 : The contract between the Reich Postal Administration and the Kingdom of Württemberg on the use of uniform postage stamps comes into force.
  • February 7th : Tirpitz confirms the authenticity of the published secret paper, but does not see any catchy statements in it, since he had already spoken openly about these plans as early as 1900 .
  • June 5 : The Prussian House of Representatives resolves to increase the so-called Poland Fund by 150 million marks to a total of 350 million marks. The House of Representatives also authorizes the government to buy real estate from Polish owners for 100 million marks. The Poland Fund contains the financial means to implement the Settlement Act of 1886, which regulates the residency of German farmers in the eastern provinces.
  • June 19 : Change of throne in Saxony . On Albert , his brother follows Georg .
  • June 28 : The Triple Alliance treaty of 1882 between the German Empire , Austria-Hungary and Italy is extended for the third time.
  • November 1 : France and Italy sign a secret society treaty which de facto repeals the Triple Alliance treaty, which was only extended on June 28, 1902.
  • December 5 : The German Reich and the Holy See agree on the establishment of a Catholic theological faculty at the University of Strasbourg .
  • December 13th : The Reichstag member Otto Antrick gives the longest speech in a German parliament to date, lasting 8 hours. He is delaying the vote on the amendment of a customs tariff law.
  • December 14th : The German Reichstag passes the compromise version of a new customs tariff law. Discussions about the law lasted over a year.
  • December 31 : The Polish Miners' Union (ZZP) is formed to represent the interests of over 300,000 Polish miners in the Ruhr area. The Polish Miners 'Union will become the third largest miners' association in the German Reich after the Free and Christian Unions.

Other events in Europe

China after the Boxer Rebellion

America and the Caribbean

Africa

A sergeant and three soldiers of the KAR (1902)
  • January 1 : The infantry regiment King's African Rifles is formed in British East Africa from the already existing regiments of Central African Rifles , Uganda Rifles and East Africa Rifles .
  • May 31 : The Boer War in South Africa ends with the Vereeniging Peace Treaty .
  • November 1 : Italy and France agree in a secret treaty on the delimitation of their spheres of interest in North Africa (Libya, Tunisia).
  • December 10 : In Egypt, a dam 300 km long, 2 km wide and 5.3 billion cubic meters of water is inaugurated 6 km south of Aswan. The power plant connected to it supplies 10 billion kWh of electricity annually.

Australia

Other international events

economy

Labor dispute

  • January 26th : The Italian Catholic Trade Union Confederation is founded in Milan .
  • February 5 : The strikes by French miners who demanded an eight-hour working day lead to a working time regulation of 9 hours per working day. Since the trade unions are not satisfied with this result, the labor disputes resume after a break of several weeks.
  • February 16 : The general strike for Catalonia is called in Barcelona , in which more than 100,000 workers take part. In Saragossa , a state of war is declared after bloody clashes with the military.
  • March 22nd : In Batumi, a protest demonstration by striking workers is bloodily suppressed by military and police units. 15 workers are killed, 54 injured and around 500 arrested.
  • March 23 : Child labor is banned in Italy. The age limit for boys is now 12 years, for girls the age limit has been set at 15 years.
  • May 12 : The anthracite strike begins in the USA; it ended after several months through the mediation of President Theodore Roosevelt on October 23.

Champagne war

Prince Heinrich of Prussia and Theodore Roosevelt during the christening of the yacht on Shooters Island

Patents and copyright

traffic

Oberbaum Bridge
Kundala Valley Railway

Business start-ups

  • August Thyssen and Hugo Stinnes acquire the majority in RWE through a consortium led by them with the participation of Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank and Disconto-Gesellschaft .
  • Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. (known as 3M ) founded in St. Paul, Minnesota

science and technology

Antarctic exploration

Natural sciences

Teaching and Research

Technical developments

Baker torpedo
The dam during completion

Others

Culture

Movie

The trip to the moon

Visual arts

photography
painting
Gustav Klimt : Buchenhain , 1902, oil on canvas
Max Liebermann : Parrot Man in the Amsterdam Zoo , 1902, oil on canvas

Music and theater

Spoken theater
Musical theater
Instrumental music

literature

Sidney Paget's April illustration from Strand Magazine
Theodor Herzl: Old new territory

society

  • Foundation of the youth organization 4-H

religion

Disasters

Berlin under water
Mont Pelé on May 26, 1902, 18 days after the great eruption (Photo by Angelo Heilprin )
  • May 8 : A volcanic eruption of Mont Pelé on the Antilles island of Martinique kills around 30,000.
  • July 21 : The pleasure steamer Primus sinks after a collision with the tug Hansa on the Lower Elbe near Hamburg. 101 of 206 passengers are killed.
  • October 24 : Quetzaltenango , the second largest city in Guatemala , is largely destroyed by an eruption of the Santa María volcano , a catastrophe from which it never fully recovers despite being rebuilt.
  • December 16 : Around 4,500 people are killed in a 6.4 magnitude earthquake in Turkestan .

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment

Crater Lake National Park

Sports

Collapsed West Grandstand in Ibrox Park

For entries of athletics world records, see under the respective discipline under athletics

Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
(1853–1928)
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands "As recognition of the extraordinary merit that they have earned through their investigations into the influence of magnetism on the radiation phenomena" (splitting of spectral lines in the magnetic field, Zeeman effect ) Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Pieter Zeeman
(1865-1943)
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands Pieter Zeeman
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Emil Fischer
(1852-1919)
German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire "In recognition of the extraordinary merit he has earned through his synthetic work in the field of sugar and purine groups " Emil Fischer
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Ronald Ross
(1857-1932)
United Kingdom 1801United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom (born in Almora , India ) "For his work on malaria , through which he demonstrated how the disease gets into the organism and thus laid the foundation for successful research into this disease and its treatment methods" Ronald Ross
Nobel Prize in literature Theodor Mommsen
(1817–1903)
German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire (born in Garding , Duchy of Schleswig , Denmark ) DenmarkDenmark  "The currently greatest living master of historical representation, with special consideration of his monumental work 'Roman History'" Theodor Mommsen
Nobel Peace Prize Élie Ducommun
(1833–1906)
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland Head of the Bernese " International Permanent Peace Office " of the " Interparliamentary Union for International Arbitration ". Élie Ducommun
Charles Albert Gobat
(1843-1914)
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland Head of the Central Office of the “ Inter-Parliamentary Union for International Arbitration ”. Albert Gobat

Born

January

Georgi Maximilianowitsch Malenkow
Alva Myrdal 1968

February

Charles Lindbergh, 1927
Walter H. Brattain

March

April

Jan Tschichold
Reinhard Gehlen

May

June

Siegfried Balke

July

Kurt Alder
Karl Popper, 1980

August

Paul Dirac
Norma Shearer

September

Mildred Harnacks

October

Leopold Figl
Pascual Jordan

November

Otto Bayer, 1952
Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald
Eugene Paul Wigner

December

Strom Thurmond

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

First quarter

Albert Bierstadt
Cecil Rhodes

Second quarter

Hans von Pechmann
Hubert Theophil Simar

Third quarter

August Klughardt
Rudolf Virchow
Emile Zola

Fourth Quarter

Friedrich Alfred Krupp

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1902  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Commons : 1902  - album containing pictures, videos and audio files