Logo of the IPU
|English name||Inter-Parliamentary Union|
|French name||Union interparlementaire|
|Organization type||international association of parliaments|
|status||Observer status at the UN General Assembly|
|Seat of the organs||Geneva , Switzerland|
|Member States||167 (2016)|
|Official and working languages|
The Interparliamentary Union ( IPU , founded as "Interparliamentary Union for International Arbitration", French : Union interparlementaire , UIP for short ) is an international association of parliaments founded in 1889 with the aim of securing peace and promoting the understanding of democracy in all parts of the world World and respect for human rights. It was started by William Randal Cremer from Great Britain and Frédéric Passy from France. In 2016 the IPU had 167 member states and 10 associate members. The seat of the secretariat is in Geneva . The union is financed exclusively through the contributions of the member parliaments.
The Frenchman Frédéric Passy had the first idea of founding a peace organization of parliamentarians in the 1870s and 1880s. He was a committed pacifist all his life and since 1881 a member of the French parliament . Passy developed the idea of preventing wars and conflicts through international, state arbitration . Instead of using armed force, nations should submit to a neutral authority. In 1888, Passy and the British trade unionist William Randal Cremer met in Paris, who wanted to establish a peacekeeping British-American coalition including France. After the US Senate approved this treaty in June , Passy and Cremer made contact with various European parliaments.
A year later, on their initiative, the "Interparliamentary Union for International Arbitration" was founded in Paris as an assembly of members of the parliaments of initially European countries. Another member of the founding conference on June 29 and 30, 1889 was the Swiss lawyer Élie Ducommun .
The second conference took place in London in 1890 . At this, the Union was given a representative character for the first time: 111 MPs represented 11 European states, over 1,000 other MPs had written declarations of consent.
At the 3rd conference on November 13, 1891 in Rome , the " International Permanent Peace Office " (French: Bureau International Permanent de la Paix ) was set up with its seat in Bern , Ducommun was its first chairman until his death in 1906. The main task of the office was to coordinate the various actions of national, sometimes rival peace organizations. Ducommun was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1902 for this voluntary work as "Managing Director of Peace".
In 1892, at the follow-up conference in Bern - organized by Charles Gobat - the Union's central office was brought into being, headed by Charles Gobat.
The Union was able to achieve its first success with its substantial contribution to the convening of the First Hague Peace Conference in 1899. In the period that followed, many international arbitration agreements were concluded upon suggestion and mediation.
In 1905 the name was shortened to "Interparliamentary Union".
From 1920 the Union Secretariat has its permanent seat in Geneva. Before that, the seat moved from Bern (1892–1911) to Brussels (1911–1914) and Oslo (1914–1920).
Since 1947 the IPU had consultative status (Category I) with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC). Since November 2002 the IPU has observer status at the General Assembly of the United Nations . In New York the IPU has a permanent liaison office at the UN.
In 2016 the IPU had 167 member states and 10 associate members. Associate members include:
- Arab Parliament
- European Parliament (EP)
- Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE)
- Inter-Parliamentary Committee of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
- Parliament of the West African Economic Community (ECOWAS)
- Parliament of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC)
- Parliamentary Assembly of the East African Community (EALA)
- Andean Parliament
- Central American Parliament (PARLACEN)
- Latin American Parliament (PARLATINO)
The Interparliamentary Union usually meets twice a year (Interparliamentary Conference, Assembly of the Interparliamentary Union), at which the delegations of the parliaments exchange ideas. First and foremost, political, economic and social issues of international interest are discussed in this plenary session of parliamentarians and, if necessary, relevant resolutions are drawn up. However, these resolutions have no direct impact or obligations on national parliaments.
The total number of delegates varies. A maximum of eight representatives from countries with fewer than 100 million inhabitants and a maximum of ten from countries with more than 100 million inhabitants can be appointed by the parliaments.
In addition, special conferences are held that primarily concern issues relating to disarmament and nature and the environment.
The Interparliamentary Council, which consists of two parliamentarians from each member state, is entrusted with the planning and implementation of the conferences. A president with a term of three years is elected from among its number. The current president is Abdelwahad Radi, the former President of the House of Representatives of Morocco.
The Executive Committee plays a key role in preparing the agenda and in setting up new committees. In addition to the President of the Interparliamentary Council, it has twelve other members. Its job is to support the council.
The content-related work is taken over by the standing committees, which meet at least twice a year. There are currently four standing committees:
- Committee on Democracy and Human Rights
- Committee on Sustainable Development, Finance and Trade
- Committee on Peace and International Security
- United Nations Affairs Committee
Council and other bodies
In addition to the Governing Council, there are, among others, the following bodies:
- Meeting of the parliamentarians
- Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians
- Committee to Promote Respect for International Humanitarian Law.
There is also the Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments (ASGP) as an advisory body.
Previous and planned conferences (Inter-Parliamentary Conferences)
|1.||Paris||France||29./30. 6. 1889|
|12.||Saint Louis||United States||1904|
|-||Ottawa||Canada||planned in 1915|
|23.||Washington and Ottawa||USA and Canada||1925|
|47.||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||1958|
|65.||Bonn||Federal Republic of Germany||1978|
|67.||East Berlin||German Democratic Republic||1980|
|84.||Punta del Este||Uruguay||1990|
|86.||Santiago de Chile||Chile||October 7-12, 1991|
|87.||Yaoundé||Cameroon||April 6-11, 1992|
|88||Stockholm||Sweden||September 7-12, 1992|
|89.||New Delhi||India||April 12-17, 1993|
|90.||Canberra||Australia||September 13-18, 1993|
|91.||Paris||France||March 21-26, 1994|
|92.||Copenhagen||Denmark||September 12-17, 1994|
|93.||Madrid||Spain||March 27 - April 1, 1995|
|94.||Bucharest||Romania||October 9-14, 1995|
|95.||Istanbul||Turkey||April 5-19, 1996|
|96.||Beijing||China||September 16-20, 1996|
|97.||Seoul||South Korea||April 10-14, 1997|
|98||Cairo||Egypt||September 11-15, 1997|
|99||Windhoek||Namibia||April 6-10, 1998|
|100.||Moscow||Russia||September 7-11, 1998|
|101.||Brussels||Belgium||April 11-15, 1999|
|102.||Berlin||Germany||October 10-15, 1999|
|103.||Amman||Jordan||April 30 - May 5, 2000|
|104.||Jakarta||Indonesia||October 15-21, 2000|
|105.||Havana||Cuba||April 1 - 6, 2001|
|106.||Ouagadougou||Burkina Faso||9-14 September 2001|
|107.||Marrakech||Morocco||March 17-22, 2002|
|108.||Santiago de Chile||Chile||April 6-11, 2003|
|109.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 1 - 3, 2003|
|110.||Mexico city||Mexico||April 18-23, 2004|
|111.||Geneva||Switzerland||September 28 - October 1, 2004|
|112.||Manila||Philippines||April 3 - 8, 2005|
|113.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 17-19, 2005|
|114.||Nairobi||Kenya||May 7-12, 2006|
|115.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 16-18, 2006|
|116.||Nusa Dua||Indonesia||April 29 - May 4, 2007|
|117.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 8-10, 2007|
|118.||Cape Town||South Africa||April 13-18, 2008|
|119.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 13-15, 2008|
|120.||Addis Ababa||Ethiopia||April 5 - 10, 2009|
|121.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 18-21, 2009|
|122.||Bangkok||Thailand||27.3. - April 1, 2010|
|123.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 4-6, 2010|
|124.||Panama City||Panama||April 15-24, 2011|
|125.||Bern||Switzerland||October 16-19, 2011|
|126.||Kampala||Uganda||March 31 - April 5, 2012|
|127.||Quebec||Canada||October 21-26, 2012|
|128.||Quito||Ecuador||March 22-27, 2013|
|129.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 7 - 9, 2013|
|130.||Geneva||Switzerland||March 16-20, 2014|
|131.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 12-16, 2014|
|132.||Hanoi||Vietnam||27. 3. - 1. 4. 2015|
|133.||Geneva||Switzerland||17th - 21st October 2015 (originally planned in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia)|
|134.||Lusaka||Zambia||March 19-23, 2016|
|135.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 23-27, 2016|
|136.||Dhaka||Bangladesh||1-5 April 2017|
|137.||St. Petersburg||Russia||October 14-18, 2017|
|138.||Geneva||Switzerland||24-28 March 2018|
|139.||Geneva||Switzerland||October 14-18, 2018|
|140||Doha||Qatar||April 6-10, 2019|
|141.||Belgrade||Serbia||October 13-17, 2019|
In the course of the discussion about reforming the United Nations , it was suggested that the Interparliamentary Union be integrated into the United Nations as a “parliamentary arm” . In the long term, it should then develop into a Parliamentary Assembly at the United Nations .
- Beat Habegger: Parliamentarism in International Politics. Council of Europe, OSCE and Interparliamentary Union, Nomos-Verlag, Baden-Baden 2005 (Nomos Universitätsschriften, Politik, Volume 132), ISBN 3-8329-1657-1 .
- Ralph Uhlig: The Interparliamentary Union 1889-1914. Peacekeeping Efforts in the Age of Imperialism, Steiner, Stuttgart 1988 (Studies on Modern History, Volume 39), ISBN 3-515-05095-7 .
- Literature by and about the Interparliamentary Union in the catalog of the German National Library
- official website of the IPU (English and French)
- German delegation in the IPU
- Swiss delegation in the IPU
- United Nations Official Document A-RES-57-32 Resolution . In: UN General Assembly session 57 . November 19, 2002. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- IPU members . Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
- SUMMARY RECORD: MEETING OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT attending the 57th session of the UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (New York, November 19, 2002) (NY / XXII / 2002 / SR February 28, 2003) . Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Permanent Observers at the United Nations . Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Kurier: Presidents of parliament from all over the world are coming to Vienna in 2020 . Article dated April 18, 2019, accessed April 18, 2019.
- INFO-BRIEF Topic: The idea of a parliamentarization of the United Nations as a contribution to the debate on “Global Governance” and democracy , Scientific Services of the German Bundestag , page 23 3.4 The change of the IPU to the parliamentary arm of the UN, by Prof. Dr. Thomas v. Winter, July 4, 2005, accessed August 7, 2017