Georges Méliès


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Georges Méliès (ca.1890)

Georges Méliès [ melˈjɛs ] (born December 8, 1861 in Paris , † January 21, 1938 ibid) was a French illusionist , theater owner, film pioneer and film director . Méliès is one of the pioneers of film history and is considered the inventor of the "narrative film" and the stop-motion - film technology .

Life

Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès - third son of the wealthy shoe manufacturer Jean-Louis-Stanislas Méliès and his wife Johannah Catherine Schuering - started school at the Lycée du Prince Impérial at the age of seven. During the Franco-Prussian War, he retrained at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in 1870 , where he obtained his Baccalauréat in 1880 . His artistic talent was already evident at this time. From November 1881 to November 1882, Méliès did military service. He then hoped to be allowed to attend the École des Beaux-Arts , but his father forbade him. To prepare for work in his father's factory and to improve his English, his parents sent him to London for a year in 1884, where he worked for a business friend of his father's. As his language skills were not yet sufficient to understand performances in spoken theater, he regularly attended the magical performances in the Egyptian Hall by John Nevil Maskelyne and Méliès developed a passion for the art of magic .

After returning to Paris in 1885, Méliès joined his father's company as a machine overseer. He developed technical skills, which he refined in addition to his work in replicating some of the automatons of the magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin . Méliès also began practicing magic tricks at this time and made her first appearances at the Musée Grévin and the Galerie Vivienne. In 1885, Georges Méliès and Eugénie Genin († 1913) married. His father retired from work in the manufactory in 1888. Méliès now sold part of the possible inheritance to the two older brothers. From the proceeds he bought the Théâtre Robert-Houdin .

Business at the theater was difficult, especially at the beginning: Méliès made no profit until 1898. The program consisted of magic shows, short holidays , pantomimes and a demonstration of some automatons that Méliès had purchased together with the theater. Well-known magicians of the time also appeared in the performances, including Buatier de Kolta , the dwarf La Fée Mab, Duppery and Legris. The permanent ensemble also included Jeanne d'Alcy , who later played in many of Méliès' films and whom he married in second marriage.

The Lumière brothers had rented a studio above the theater. On December 28, 1895, Méliès saw one of the first demonstrations of the cinematograph . The Lumière brothers refused to sell the device to Méliès on the grounds that the economic success of this invention was unclear and that their own exploitation should continue as long as the public was interested. Méliès then traveled to England, where he bought a projector from Robert William Paul , some Edison films and unexposed negatives . On April 4, 1896, Méliès reopened his Théâtre Robert-Houdin as a cinema. He soon bought another projector and converted Paul's into a camera. Together with business partners Lucien Reulos and Lucien Korsten, Méliès patented a Méliès Reulos Kinétograph in September 1896.

In the summer of 1896, Méliès made his first film entitled Une partie de cartes , which was very similar to a Lumières film of the same name. He then first filmed short recordings of everyday scenes, but soon added staged scenes, the so-called scènes composées , to his repertoire . He not only showed his films in the Théâtre Robert-Houdin , but also sold them to fairground artists who showed them along with other attractions.

Méliès set up France's first film studio in 1896 - one of the first in the world alongside Edison's Black Maria - on his family's property in Montreuil, near Paris. The studio opened in early 1897. From now on, almost all of his films were made here. The studio resembled the Théâtre Robert-Houdin in its dimensions, and like its stage, his was equipped with trap doors and other mechanisms to create stage illusions. The walls and the roof were made of glass like a photo studio to ensure adequate lighting of the stage. Movable blinds made it possible to influence the incidence of light. In 1905 Méliès expanded the film studio.

Grave of Georges Méliès in the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris

In 1897 Méliès founded the Star Film production company , with which he made over 500 films by 1913. At the beginning he was economically relatively successful with them, but soon he was threatened by the competition and black copiers . In order to better distribute its films in America and protect its rights, Star Film opened an office in New York in 1903 , which was headed by Méliès' brother Gaston Méliès . In France he grew up a strong competitor, especially with the production company Pathé . When their distribution system prevailed in 1909, in which the films were no longer sold but rented out, Méliès' expensively produced films were no longer economically up to the cheap, fast, industrially produced films. From 1911 he was only able to produce his own films on behalf of Pathé, and in 1913 his film production came to a standstill.

During the First World War Méliès appeared as a variety artist ; however, he lost all of his fortune. In his second marriage, Georges Méliès married Jeanne d'Alcy (Fanny Manieux alias Charlotte Faës) in 1925 . With his wife he ran a toy shop in the Montparnasse metro station until 1932 . As a filmmaker he was forgotten at that time until 1929 some of his works appeared and film journalists reported about him again. From 1932 other filmmakers made it possible for him and his wife to stay in a retirement home in Orly . His grave is in the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris .

In 1947, the newly founded French film critics association Association Française de la Critique de Cinéma (AFCC) named its annual award for the best French cinema production after Méliès.

plant

Doll "Géant des Neiges" from À la conquête du pôle (1912)

The work of Georges Méliès is characterized by great diversity, imagination and technical skill. Of the large number of his films that he made between 1896 and 1913, around 200 have survived. The films come from different genres . His most famous film is probably Le Voyage dans la Lune (The Journey to the Moon) , with which he created the first science fiction film in 1902 based on the novel by Jules Verne . In addition to these féeries , there were also short documentaries similar to those of the Lumière brothers, re- enacted events from contemporary history and short cartoons.

Méliès is usually credited with inventing the stopping trick . The fact that he discovered this while filming during a recording on the Place de l'Opera and his camera faltered must probably be regarded as a legend. With the help of the stop trick, he made many films that are reminiscent of magic tricks like those shown in the Théâtre Robert-Houdin . In addition to this, he also used other cinematic tricks such as double exposures and model shots .

So-called topical films , in which he recreated events in contemporary history, play an important role in his work . Among other things, he filmed a twelve-part series about the Dreyfus Affair ( L'Affaire Dreyfus , 1899) and staged the coronation of Edward VII in 1902 before it even took place.

Because Méliès had massive financial problems and could not find funding for his film projects, he had to sell 1200 films as raw material to the shoe industry after 1923 following the bankruptcy.

position

It is difficult to determine the film-historical position of Méliès 'works: Classically, the film history of Méliès' staged pieces differs from the documentary works of Lumières and sees this as the most important contrast in early film. However, this distinction is no longer so sharply drawn today, as Méliès also mainly filmed documentary at the beginning and the Lumière brothers also staged short scenes. Another distinction is often made between the primitive early films, such as those by Méliès, and the later elaborate cinema based on DW Griffith . Méliès' films are examples of a primitive cinema that was not yet familiar with cinematic language with cuts and various recording sizes. This distinction, too, has often been rejected in the last few years and instead demanded not to examine early cinema in terms of the later narrative ( narrative ), but rather to regard it as a cinema of attractions that followed its own aesthetic rules.

reception

In the novel The Discovery of Hugo Cabret (2007) Brian Selznick describes the rediscovery of Georges Méliès' films by the protagonist Hugo Cabret. Martin Scorsese filmed the novel under the title Hugo Cabret in 2011 , with Georges Méliès being portrayed by Ben Kingsley .

Some excerpts from the films Le voyage dans la lune , Le voyage à travers l'impossible and L'éclipse du soleil en pleine lune are included in the music video for Heaven for Everyone by Queen from 1995. The video by The Smashing Pumpkins for their title Tonight, Tonight (1995) was designed in the style of these Méliès films.

Awards

Films (selection)

  • 1896: Une partie de cartes (Catalog No. 1)
  • 1896: Défense d'afficher (catalog no.15 )
  • 1896: Une nuit terrible (Catalog No. 26)
  • 1896: Barque sortant du port de Trouville (Catalog No. 31)
  • 1896: Escamotage d'une dame chez Robert-Houdin (Catalog No. 70)
  • 1896: Le manoir du diable (catalog no. 78–80)
  • 1896: Le cauchemar (catalog no.82)
  • 1897: L'hallucination de l'alchimiste (Catalog No. 95)
  • 1897: Le château hanté (catalog no.96)
  • 1897: Sur les toits (Catalog No. 100)
  • 1897: Bombardement d'une maison (Catalog No. 105)
  • 1897: La prize de Tournavos (Catalog No. 106)
  • 1897: Combat naval en Grèce (Catalog No. 110)
  • 1897: Entre Calais et Douvres (Catalog No. 112)
  • 1897: L'auberge ensorcelée (catalog no. 122–123)
  • 1897: Après le bal (catalog no.128)
  • 1898: Les rayons Röntgen (Catalog No. 142)
  • 1898: Visite sous-marine du "Maine" (catalog no. 147)
  • 1898: Panorama pris d'un train en marche (Catalog No. 151)
  • 1898: Le magicien (Catalog No. 153)
  • 1898: Illusions fantasmagoriques (Catalog No. 155)
  • 1898: Guerre de Cuba et l'explosion du Maine à La Havane
  • 1898: Guillaume Tell et le clown (Catalog No. 159)
  • 1898: La lune à un mètre (catalog no. 160–162)
  • 1898: Un homme de têtes (Catalog No. 167)
  • 1898: La tentation de Saint Antoine (catalog no.169)
  • 1899: Cléopâtre (catalog nos. 175–176)
  • 1899: L'illusionniste fin de siècle (Catalog No. 183)
  • 1899: Le diable au couvent (catalog no. 185–187)
  • 1899: La danse du feu (catalog no.188)
  • 1899: Le portrait mystérieux (catalog no.196)
  • 1899: L'affaire Dreyfus (Catalog No. 206–217)
  • 1899: Cendrillon (Catalog No. 219–224)
  • 1899: Le chevalier mystère (catalog no. 226–227)
  • 1900: Tom Whiskey ou l'illusionniste toqué (Catalog No. 234)
  • 1900: La vengeance du gâte-sauce (Catalog No. 243)
  • 1900: Les infortunes d'un explorateur ou les momies récalcitrantes (catalog no.244)
  • 1900: L'homme orchester (catalog no. 262–263)
  • 1900: Jeanne d'Arc (Catalog No. 264–275)
  • 1900: Le rêve du radjah ou la forêt enchantée (catalog no. 281–282)
  • 1900: Le sorcier, le prince et le bon genie (Catalog No. 285–286)
  • 1900: Le livre magique (catalog no. 289–291)
  • 1900: Spiritisme abracadabrant (Catalog No. 293)
  • 1900: L'illusionniste double et la tête vivante (Catalog No. 294)
  • 1900: Rêve de Noël (Catalog No. 298–305)
  • 1900: Nouvelles luttes extravagantes (Catalog No. 309–310)
  • 1900: Le repas fantastique (Catalog No. 311)
  • 1900: Le déshabillage impossible (catalog no. 312–313)
  • 1900: Le tonneau des Danaïdes (catalog no.314)
  • 1900: Le savant et le chimpanzé (Catalog No. 317)
  • 1900: Le réveil d'un monsieur pressé (catalog no.322)
  • 1901: La maison tranquille (catalog no. 325–326)
  • 1901: La chrysalide et le papillon (Catalog No. 332–333)
  • 1901: Dislocation mystérieuse (catalog no. 335–336)
  • 1901: L'antre de esprits (Catalog No. 345–347)
  • 1901: Chez la sorcière (catalog no. 350–351)
  • 1901: Excelsior! (Catalog No. 357–358)
  • 1901: L'omnibus des toqués ou blancs et noirs (Catalog No. 359)
  • 1901: Barbe-bleue (catalog no. 361–370)
  • 1901: Le chapeau à surprise (catalog no. 371–372)
  • 1901: L'homme à la tête en caoutchouc (catalog no. 382–383)
  • 1901: Le diable géant ou le miracle de la madone (catalog no. 384–385)
  • 1901: Nain et géant (catalog no.386)
  • 1902: Douche du colonel (Catalog No. 391)
  • 1902: L'œuf du sorcier (Catalog No. 392–393)
  • 1902: La danseuse microscopique (catalog no. 394–396)
  • 1902: Éruption volcanique à la Martinique (catalog no.397)
  • 1902: The Journey to the Moon (Le voyage dans la lune) (Catalog No. 399–411)
  • 1902: La clownesse fantôme (catalog no.412)
  • 1902: The Coronation of Edward VII
  • 1902: Les trésors de Satan (Catalog No. 413-414)
  • 1902: L'homme-mouche (catalog no. 415-416)
  • 1902: L'équilibre impossible (Catalog No. 419)
  • 1902: Le voyage de Gulliver à Lilliput et chez les géants (catalog no. 426–429)
  • 1902: Les aventures de Robinson Crusoé (catalog no. 430–443)
  • 1903: La guirlande merveilleuse (catalog no. 445–448)
  • 1903: Un malheur n'arrive jamais seul (catalog no. 451–452)
  • 1903: Le cake-walk infernal (catalog no. 453–457)
  • 1903: La boîte à malice (catalog no. 458–459)
  • 1903: Le puits fantastique (catalog no. 462–464)
  • 1903: L'auberge du bon repos (catalog no. 465–469)
  • 1903: La statue animée (catalog no. 470–471)
  • 1903: La flamme merveilleuse (catalog no.472)
  • 1903: Le sorcier (Catalog No. 473-475)
  • 1903: L'oracle de Delphes (catalog number 476)
  • 1903: Le portrait spirite (Catalog No. 477–478)
  • 1903: Le mélomane (catalog no. 479-480)
  • 1903: Le monstre (catalog no. 481–482)
  • 1903: Le royaume des fées (catalog no. 483–498)
  • 1903: Le chaudron infernal (catalog no. 499–500)
  • 1903: Le revenant (Catalog No. 501–502)
  • 1903: Le tonnerre de Jupiter (Catalog No. 503–505)
  • 1903: Le parapluie fantastique (catalog no. 506–507)
  • 1903: Tom Tight et Dum Dum (Catalog No. 508–509)
  • 1903: Bob Kick, l'enfant terrible (catalog no. 510-511)
  • 1903: Illusions funambulesques (catalog no. 512-513)
  • 1903: L'enchanteur Alcofribas (catalog no. 514-516)
  • 1903: Jack et Jim (Catalog No. 517-519)
  • 1903: La lanterne magique (catalog no. 520-524)
  • 1903: Le rêve du maître de ballet (catalog no. 525-526)
  • 1903: Faust aux enfers (Catalog No. 527-533)
  • 1904: Le bourreau turc (catalog no. 534-535)
  • 1904: Au clair de la lune ou Pierrot malheureux (catalog no. 538-539)
  • 1904: Un prêté pour un rendu (catalog no. 540–541)
  • 1904: Un peu de feu svp (catalog no.545)
  • 1904: Le coffre enchanté (catalog no. 547-549)
  • 1904: Les apparitions fugitives (catalog no. 550–551)
  • 1904: Le roi du maquillage (catalog no. 552–553)
  • 1904: Le rêve de l'horloger (Catalog No. 554–555)
  • 1904: Les transmutations imperceptibles (catalog numbers 556-557)
  • 1904: Un miracle sous l'Inquisition (Catalog No. 558–559)
  • 1904: Damnation du docteur Faust (catalog no. 562-574)
  • 1904: Le thaumaturge chinois (catalog no. 578-580)
  • 1904: Le merveilleux éventail vivant (catalog no. 581–584)
  • 1904: Sorcellerie culinaire (Catalog No. 585-588)
  • 1904: La planche du diable (catalog no. 589-590)
  • 1904: La sirène (catalog no. 593-595)
  • 1904: Le voyage à travers l'impossible (catalog no. 641–659)
  • 1904: Le juif errant (catalog no. 662–664)
  • 1904: La cascade de feu (catalog no. 665–667)
  • 1904: Détresse et charité (catalog no. 669–677)
  • 1905: Les cartes vivantes (catalog no. 678–679)
  • 1905: Le diable noir (catalog no. 683–685)
  • 1905: Le phénix ou le coffret de cristal (catalog no. 686–689)
  • 1905: Le menuet lilliputien (catalog no. 690–692)
  • 1905: Le baquet de Mesmer (catalog no. 693–695)
  • 1905: Le palais des mille et une nuits (Catalog No. 705–726)
  • 1905: Le compositeur toqué (catalog no. 727–731)
  • 1905: La chaise à porteurs enchantée (catalog no. 738–739)
  • 1905: Le raid Paris-Monte-Carlo en deux heures (catalog no. 740–749)
  • 1905: L'île de Calypso (Catalog No. 750–752)
  • 1905: Un feu d'artifice improvisé (catalog no. 753–755)
  • 1905: La légende de Rip van Winckle (catalog no. 756–775)
  • 1906: Le tripot clandestine (catalog no. 784–785)
  • 1906: Le dirigeable fantastique ou le cauchemar d'un inventeur (catalog no. 786–788)
  • 1906: Une chute de cinq étages (Catalog No. 789–790)
  • 1906: Jack le ramoneur (catalog no. 791–806)
  • 1906: Le maestro Thu-Wed-Sol-Thu (catalog no. 807-809)
  • 1906: La cardeuse de matelas (catalog no. 818–820)
  • 1906: Les affiches en goguette (catalog no. 821–823)
  • 1906: Les incendiaires (catalog no. 824-837)
  • 1906: L'anarchie chez Guignol (Catalog No. 837–839)
  • 1906: L'hôtel des voyageurs de commerce ou les suites d'une bonne cuite (catalog no. 843–845)
  • 1906: Les bulles de savon vivantes (catalog no. 846–848)
  • 1906: Les quatre cents farces du diable (catalog no. 849–870)
  • 1906: L'alchimiste Parafaragaramus ou la cornue infernale (catalog no. 874–876)
  • 1906: La fée Carabosse ou le poignard fatal (Catalog No. 877–887)
  • 1906: Robert Macaire et Bertrand, les rois des cambrioleurs (catalog no. 888–905)
  • 1907: La douche d'eau bouillante (Catalog No. 909–911)
  • 1907: Deux cents milles sous les mers ou le cauchemar du pêcheur (catalog no. 912–924)
  • 1907: Les fromages automobiles (catalog no. 925–928)
  • 1907: Le mariage de Victoire (catalog no. 929-935)
  • 1907: Le tunnel sous la Manche ou le cauchemar franco-anglaise (catalog no. 936–950)
  • 1907: L'éclipse du soleil en pleine lune (catalog no. 961–968)
  • 1907: Pauvre John ou les aventures d'un buveur de whiskey (Catalog No. 1000–1004)
  • 1907: La colle universelle (catalog no. 1005–1009)
  • 1907: Satan en prison (Catalog No. 1010-1013)
  • 1907: Ali Barbouyou et Ali Bouf à l'huile (catalog no. 1014-1017)
  • 1908: Le tambourin fantastique (catalog no. 1030-1034)
  • 1908: La cuisine de l'ogre (Catalog No. 1035-1039)
  • 1908: François 1er et Triboulet (Catalog No. 1040-1043)
  • 1908: Il ya un dieu pour les ivrognes (catalog no. 1044-1049)
  • 1908: Les torches humaines (catalog no. 1066-1068)
  • 1908: Le génie du feu (catalog no. 1069-1072)
  • 1908: Why That Actor Was Late (Catalog No. 1073-1080)
  • 1908: Le rêve d'un fumeur d'opium (catalog no. 1081–1085)
  • 1908: La photographie électrique à distance (catalog no. 1091-1095)
  • 1908: La prophétesse de Thèbes (catalog no. 1096–1101)
  • 1908: Salon de coiffure (catalog no. 1102–1103)
  • 1908: Le nouveau seigneur du village (catalog no. 1132–1145)
  • 1908: L'avare (Catalog No. 1146–1158)
  • 1908: Le conseil du pipelet ou un tour à la foire (Catalog No. 1159–1165)
  • 1908: Lully ou le violon brisé (catalog no. 1176–1185)
  • 1908: Les patineurs (catalog no. 1227–1232)
  • 1908: Amour et mélasse (Catalog No. 1246–1249)
  • 1908: Les mésaventures d'un photographe (catalog no. 1250–1252)
  • 1908: Le fakir de Singapour (catalog no. 1253–1257)
  • 1908: A Tricky Painter's Fate (Catalog No. 1266-1268)
  • 1908: French Interpreter Policeman (Catalog No. 1288-1293)
  • 1908: Anaïc ou le balafré (catalog no. 1301–1309)
  • 1908: Pour l'étoile SVP (catalog no. 1310-1313)
  • 1908: Conte de la grand-mère et rêve de l'enfant (Catalog No. 1314–1325)
  • 1908: Hallucinations pharmaceutiques ou le truc du potard (catalog no. 1416–1428)
  • 1908: La bonne bergère et la mauvaise princesse (catalog no. 1429–1441)
  • 1909: Hydrothérapie fantastique (Catalog No. 1476–1485)
  • 1909: Le locataire diabolique (Catalog No. 1495–1501)
  • 1909: Les illusions fantaisistes (catalog no. 1508–1512)
  • 1909: Papillon fantastique (Catalog No. 1530–1533)
  • 1911: Les hallucinations de baron du Münchausen (catalog no. 1536–1547)
  • 1911: Le vitrail diabolique (catalog no. 1548–1556)
  • 1912: The discovery of the North Pole ( À la conquête du pôle )
  • 1912: Cendrillon ou la pantoufle merveilleuse
  • 1912: Le chevalier des neiges
  • 1913: Le voyage de la famille Bourrichon

Documentaries and film adaptations

See also

literature

  • Author collective: Georges Méliès. Magician of film art (= KINtop. Vol. 2). Stroemfeld u. a., Basel u. a. 1993, ISBN 3-87877-782-5 .
  • Maurice Bessy, Lo Duca: Georges Méliès, mage. Pauvert, Paris 1961.
  • Jacques Deslandes: Le Boulevard du Cinéma à l'Époque de Georges Méliès (= 7e art. Vol. 36, ISSN  0768-1496 ). Les Éditions des Cerf, Paris 1963.
  • Elisabeth Ezra: Georges Méliès. The Birth of the Auteur . Manchester University Press, Manchester u. a. 2000, ISBN 0-7190-5396-X .
  • John Frazer: Artificially Arranged Scenes. The Films of Georges Méliès. GK Hall, Boston MA 1979, ISBN 0-8161-8368-6 .
  • Michaela Fries: Bon Voyage, Monsieur Méliès! The interrelationship of the arts in the Belle Époque, examined on the basis of the furnishings by Georges Méliès “Le voyage dans la lune”. Diploma thesis at the Philological and Cultural Studies Faculty of the University of Vienna, 2008 ( online version ).
  • Paul Hammond: Marvelous Méliès. Gordon Fraser Gallery, London a. a. 1973, ISBN 0-900406-38-0 .
  • Jörg Hartman: The first spaceship wreck in film history: G. Méliès films viewed metaphorologically. In: Lars Schmeink, Hans-Harald Müller (Hrsg.): Fremde Welten. Paths and spaces of fantasy in the 21st century. De Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-027673-2 , pp. 223-236.
  • Pierre Jenn: Georges Méliès, cinéaste. Le montage cinématographique chez Georges Méliès. Editions Albatros, Paris 1984.
  • Jacques Malthête, Laurent Mannoni (eds.): Méliès. Magic et cinéma. Paris musées, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-87900-598-1 (catalog of the exhibition of the same name, April 26 to September 1, 2002).
  • Laurent Mannoni, Jacques Malthête: L'œuvre de Georges Méliès. Éditions de la Martinière, Paris 2008, ISBN 978-2-7324-3732-3 .
  • Georges Sadoul : Georges Méliès. Presentation et bio-filmography. Choix de Textes, Correspondance et Propos de Méliès, Scénarios, Impressions et Témoignages, Bibliography, Documents Iconographiques. Éditions Seghers, Paris 1961.
  • Hanns Zischler : The openwork canvas. Georges Méliès' “Autoportrait de l'Artiste”. In: Sigrid Weigel , Tine Kutschbach (Ed.): Faces. Cultural-historical scenes from the work on the portrait of man (= trajectories ). Fink, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-7705-5344-0 , pp. 33-36.

Web links

Commons : Georges Méliès  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Elisabeth Ezra: Georges Méliès. The Birth of the Auteur . 2000, p. 6-23 .
  2. a b c Méliès. In: Liz-Anne Bawden, Wolfram Tichy (Ed.): Rororo-Filmlexikon. Volume 5: People H - Q. Directors, actors, cinematographers, producers, authors (= Rororo. Pocket books 6232). Rowohlt-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1978, ISBN 3-499-16232-6 .
  3. Laurent Mannoni: 1896, Les premières appareils cinématopgraphiques de Georges Méliès. In: Jacques Malthête, Laurent Mannoni (eds.): Méliès. Magic et cinéma. 2002, pp. 118-133.
  4. See Tom Gunning: The Cinema of Attraction: Early Films, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde . In: Wide Angle . tape 8 , no. 3/4 , 1986, ISSN  0160-6840 , p. 63-70 .
  5. Georges Melies. In: science fiction awards database. Retrieved November 24, 2017 .