The history of film traces the development of film , which is an art form in its own right alongside music , literature and the visual arts . The history of film stretches from the earliest technical achievements through constant stylistic development to the current state of film. The attempt is made to resolve the complicated connections between economy , politics and aesthetics .
From still to moving image
The history of moving image media with image sequences that create the illusion of movement began with film technology , i. H. with the juxtaposition of photographic images. The first demonstrations of the magic lantern were in the 18th century. This device could project a series of pictures painted on a glass plate onto the wall, similar to a slide projector. The photography was developed in the first half of the 19th century . The sensitivity of silver salts to light was discovered as early as 1717, but it was not until 1826 that Joseph Nicéphore Nièpce succeeded in capturing an image on a tin plate, which involved an exposure time of eight hours. After the death of Nièpce, the development of Louis Daguerre was carried on and led to the so-called daguerreotypes , unique items that could not yet be reproduced. A daguerreotype is a reversed photo positive on metal.
In 1832, the German-Austrian Simon Stampfer and the Belgian Joseph Plateau developed the wheel of life independently of one another , which gave the viewer the impression of moving images. It makes use of stroboscopic movement : an illusion of movement arises in the viewer as soon as individual images follow one another with interruption and at sufficient speed.
The artillery engineer Franz von Uchatius finally invented a combination of both devices in 1845, the so-called “fog imaging device”, which, however, could not be used to project longer sequences.
Around 1838 the Englishman William Talbot experimented with paper as a carrier material, which he made photosensitive with chlorine silver. The wet paper had to be exposed for more than two hours before the outlines of the image appeared as negative; This means that bright areas in the object were reproduced darkly and vice versa. The negative paper could then be made transparent with wax, so that the positive appeared after a second chlorine-silver paper had been screened and blackened. The invention was called Photo Drawing or Photo Graphics, from which the name photography originated. At this point in time, two essential components of modern photography had already been developed, namely the negative-positive process and the use of light-sensitive chemical layers based on silver.
The breakthrough in the direction of film came in 1872 with the photographer Eadweard Muybridge , who took serial photographs of a galloping horse for the first time. Later he also invented a demonstration device for his photographs, the zoopraxiscope . From 1890, Ernst Kohlrausch photographed gymnastics exercises in rows with a self-made chronophotograph . Further inventions inspired by Muybridge are the electric rapid seer (tachyscope) by the German inventor Ottomar Anschütz (1886/87) and the chronophotographic shotgun by the Frenchman Étienne-Jules Marey . Marey's research assistant, Georges Emile Joseph Démény , registered a patent for his photochronograph in 1893 , one of the more practical inventions in the field.
The Frenchman Louis Le Prince was the first to develop a single lens film camera in Leeds , England. In 1888 he shot the first moving pictures with it, which from today's perspective can be described as film ( Roundhay Garden Scene , Traffic Crossing Leeds Bridge ) .
The exposure time could be reduced to 30 seconds due to the use of bright lenses and improvements in the bright layers. Another revolution came in 1888 when nitrocellulose was made available for flexible substrates. This made photography suitable for the masses and George Eastman began selling his Kodak box. You could play 15 frames per second, which gave birth to a new medium: cinematography or motion recording. Thomas Alva Edison and his development team succeeded in developing a device that could play . After the Kinetograph recording device from 1891 , Edison presented a prototype of the Kinetoscope projection device . The film transport was made possible with the help of a perforation in the film, which was defined with four holes per image.
The silent film era (1895 to 1927)
On November 1, 1895, the Skladanowsky brothers showed nine short films with their Bioskop projector as part of a variety program in the Berlin Winter Garden . The approximately ten-minute event was the first in Europe to project films onto a screen in front of a paying audience.
The films of the late 19th century, mostly only a few minutes long, were shown to the public, for example in variety theaters, and were primarily reserved for the middle class. Often what was shown was a simple photo of recurring events from everyday life at that time. But there were also the first humor sequences , forerunners of the later popular slapstick scenes. Interest in a staged or dramaturgically designed plot, such as in a theater play , only slowly arose, because the fascination was primarily made up of the demonstrated technical possibility of producing the moving images.
According to Ulrich Schmidt the screening, which applies Lumiere brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris as the birth of the film medium. The Lumières invented film technology, including the 35 mm cinématograph , which was both a recording, copying and playback device. The aforementioned presentation of their film repertoire took place with this apparatus on December 28, 1895 in a hall (Salon Indién) of the "Grand Café" near the Place de l'Opéra. Since the brothers, as manufacturers and upper-class citizens, had the necessary capital and contacts to the economy, but also because of the unique advantage at the time that the cinématograph they developed combined the functions of camera and projector in one device, their invention was able to materialize in the following years claim. Another advantage of the business practice turned out to be that the Lumières machines were not sold until 1897, but only loaned to showmen. At first they saw film screenings as a sideline, but later, as traveling cinema operators, they were even able to present films as their main livelihood.
Since French film companies were the first to recognize the economic potential of the moving image, they dominated the global film market until the First World War. Great Britain, Italy, Germany, Denmark and the United States were only able to gain significant market shares from 1914 onwards.
The Lumière brothers saw film only as a supplement to photography - they spoke of “living photography” - and limited their work to documenting real events. The French illusionist and theater owner Georges Méliès was the first to recognize the narrative (narrative) potential of the young medium and, from 1896, made exclusively staged films. Méliès has already developed film tricks for the implementation of his largely fantastic subjects and scenes, such as B. the stop-motion process, which is still used today.
The first narrative long film is the Australian film " Soldiers of the cross " from the Limelight Department Film Studios. It is about the sometimes very cruel stories of early Christians who fought for their faith and died. The performance ran for almost two and a half hours and premiered on September 13, 1901 in Melbourne Town Hall.
Brit Arthur Melbourne-Cooper made the first narrative films in England. George Albert Smith presented the close-up of a cat for the first time in 1901 with The Little Doctor , thereby laying the foundation for cinematic storytelling. Through the change of perspective, through the variation of the image sizes and consequently through the montage, which brings these changes into a rhythm, the basic features of the film language developed in the following years . The 12-minute film The Great Train Robbery (1903) by Edwin S. Porter is viewed as groundbreaking for the narrative film . In this first western , a railroad robbery is described from the implementation to the escape to the showdown.
From 1910 onwards, various filmmakers settled in Hollywood , including William Fox , Samuel Goldwyn , Carl Laemmle and Adolph Zukor , and laid the foundation for what would later become the “dream factory”. The reason for choosing California was, on the one hand, the great distance from the industry's turf wars on the east coast, and on the other hand, the sunny weather: due to the relatively light-insensitive film material and the state of the art in lighting technology at the time, daylight was the most important source of lighting during the shoot. The “art of storytelling” was also perfected in the 1910s outside the United States. Italian monumental films , Cabiria (1914), etc. set standards in terms of production effort. Better known and more influential, however, are the films by the American DW Griffith , from which The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916) stand out as milestones.
The First World War isolated the film industries of the two alliance systems from each other and claimed raw materials that were also necessary for film production, which meant a severe setback for the internationally oriented and productive France. For other countries, such as Austria or Germany, the First World War meant getting rid of the previously strong foreign competition. In Germany, towards the end of the First World War, the UFA studios were founded, which were originally planned as a propaganda instrument. After the war, they developed into one of the world's most important film production facilities in the 1920s. At the same time, the film industry in Hollywood, which is far from the theaters of war, was able to develop more and more, as a result of which the American film industry was able to replace France's supremacy after the First World War. In the mid-1920s, this went so far that European countries issued import restrictions in order to save their own film industry from the US film flood and thus from ruin.
Slapstick comedies were very popular with the audience , the most famous representative of which, Charlie Chaplin , had great success with short films from 1914. With The Kid (1921) he made his first full-length film. Also Buster Keaton was a star of slapstick and known for its economical facial expressions. Harold Lloyd was very successful. He developed an average American with horn-rimmed glasses and a circular straw hat as a film character and often showed hair-raising stunts at skyscrapers in his films. In addition, Harry Langdon was one of the stars of the silent film slapstick.
In contrast, showed Fritz Lang with Metropolis a floppenden first at the box office monumental film (created from 1925 to 1926, at the World Heritage by UNESCO). From 1926 the duo Laurel & Hardy worked together and quickly achieved great popularity. While Charlie Chaplin initially did not let his tramp character speak until well into the sound film era ( Lights of the Big City , 1931 and Modern Times , 1936) and only released a pure speech film in 1940 with The Great Dictator , Keaton was already heard in a sound film in 1929. His feature films, which were made by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer until 1933 , may not have been as rich in artistic content as his silent films, but they were all the more successful financially. With films like Feet First (1930) or Movie Crazy (1932), Harold Lloyd also proved that his voice was suitable for sound film. Harry Langdon's star began to decline during the silent film era, while Laurel & Hardy grew in popularity during the talkies and remained in the film business until the early 1950s.
In Europe there has been a special interest in artful film since the 1910s. From this the avant-garde of the silent film developed step by step . The German and Austrian film of this time developed a special aesthetic that was based on expressionist painting . As the first expressionist film applies The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) by Robert Wiene . Metropolis by F. Lang (1925/27) at the end of this era is considered a classic of expressionist film art with the mythical features of a monumental film and bold special effects.
The Russian avant-garde counts artists like Sergej Eisenstein in their ranks, who had a decisive influence on assembly technology . He designed the concept of "assembling the attractions". A type of montage in which the individual settings are joined together in such a way that the content is conveyed in a shock to the viewer. His most famous film, Battleship Potemkin (1925), tells of a revolt on the ship of the same name and the confrontation of the mutineers with the Russian army in Odessa. Some scenes from this film, including the staircase scene in Odessa, are among the most cited in film history.
Talking pictures and the classic Hollywood era (1927 to 1945)
The era of talkies began in 1927 in the USA with The Jazz Singer . Since then, American film production has been converted to sound very quickly and consistently, and the global film industry has followed suit within a few years. The first consequence of this was that the early sound films lost their quality compared to the silent films that had been stylistically well developed up to now. While American film exports used to be simply subtitled, many films, so-called version films, were shot in multiple versions - in other languages and inevitably with completely different cast. For technical reasons, synchronization was not possible with the first sound films. The world market for sound recorders and players was shared in 1930 by the two largest such companies, Western Electric and the Küchenmeister-Tobis-Klangfilm-Gruppe , in the Parisian Tonfilmfrieden .
The sound film supported the development of some new genres in the 1930s: musicals like The 42nd Street (1933), gangster films like Scarface (1932), horror films like Frankenstein (1931) and screwball comedies like It Happened in One Night (1934) Entry into the cinemas.
From 1933, but increasingly from the beginning of the Second World War and the expansion of Nazi Germany to ever wider parts of Europe, a wave of emigration from mostly Jewish filmmakers from Europe began. While their emigration destinations were often European cities with a film industry such as Vienna , Paris or London at the beginning, the up-and-coming Hollywood film industry soon emerged as the most sought-after and most promising destination for emigrants - reinforced by the targeted recruitment of European film greats by Hollywood studio bosses. Overall, Europe lost around 2,000 German-speaking Jewish filmmakers abroad during the Nazi era, including almost the entire elite of German-speaking filmmaking. Around 800 of them ended up in Hollywood. Many had a glorious career there, but many also failed because of the new circumstances.
Classic Hollywood cinema reached its zenith around 1939. It was typical of the classics of that time that they mostly painted an imaginative picture of happiness and hope - a feature of this is also the obligatory “happy ending”. As a distraction from everyday life (the American economy hit rock bottom in the 1930s), Hollywood films were welcomed by many. Therefore, the so-called "golden era" of cinema produced a multitude of blockbusters, e. B. Gone with the Wind (1939). At the beginning of the 1940s, however, a tendency towards realism can also be discerned in the USA , the best example of which is Orson Welles ' Citizen Kane .
During this time the American studio system strengthened its power in the film industry. The division of labor, profit-oriented production, in which all those involved were under the patronage of the producer, severely restricted ambitious directors and other filmmakers. Stars with their respective fixed genres, such as John Wayne in westerns, Cary Grant in comedies or Errol Flynn in adventure films , became the studios' main products and figureheads - accordingly, the plot of a film often took a back seat. A characteristic of that time are the so-called double features , in which a B-film was shown after a main film - for a long time these cheaply produced B-films were the only possibility for individual filmmakers to exist.
After the USA entered World War II, a large part of American production with films such as Hitchcock's The Lifeboat (1943) or Casablanca (1942) was switched to anti-fascist themes. Walt Disney himself took part in this with Der Fuehrer's Face (1943).
In Europe, however, the “talking film” took a different route. Germany was in the time of the New Objectivity in the early 1930s , which is why the expressionist film that had become so famous came to an end. The film The Blue Angel (1930), which made Marlene Dietrich a star, celebrated great success . German sound films increasingly contained socially critical elements, see z. B. M (1931). The rise of National Socialism must be seen as the reason for this.
France produced a series of films such as Port in the Fog (1938) and Children of Olympus (1945) by Marcel Carné or The Great Illusion (1937) by Jean Renoir , which are now ascribed to poetic realism .
The color conquers the canvas
Developments in post-war film (1945 to around 1960)
While American film production was largely going its usual course, European film was facing a new beginning.
The first European post-war films were made in Italy under directors such as Roberto Rossellini , Luchino Visconti and Federico Fellini ; so-called neorealism was mainly influenced by poetic realism and was, among other things, the answer to fascism . There was also a close connection to German debris films , such as B. in Rosselinis Germany in the year zero (1948). Due to the lack of material, the films were so minimalist that they dispensed with all effects and were often even played by amateur actors. They dealt with the life of the little burghers in the post-war period, such as: B. Vittorio De Sica's bicycle thieves (1948) or Giuseppe De Santis Bitterer Rice (1949) or the experiences of the war itself, as in Rosellini's Rome, Open City (1945).
The Swedish film achieved international success with Arne Sucksdorff's People in the City (1948) and above all Ingmar Bergman's The Smile of a Summer Night (1956). In France, in addition to works like Tati's Schützenfest (1947) by Jacques Tati , mainly films with aging actors like Jean Gabin or Jean Marais are made , although they do not meet with great interest.
After the end of the Second World War, the great era of Asian cinema began, especially in Japan and India . Yasujiro Ozu and Akira Kurosawa made Japanese cinema known around the world with Tokyo Story (1953) and Rashomon (1950), and influential films were made worldwide with The Seven Samurai (1954) and Satyajit Ray's Apu Trilogy (1950–1959) .
The European styles did not remain without their effects on American film: the genre of film noir , which began with John Huston's Die Spur des Falken (1941), took over elements of neorealism and expressionism from works such as Fritz Lang's Blinde Wut (1936) and from the Filming poetic realism like In the Dark of Algiers (1936). During the McCarthy era in the early 1950s, many filmmakers, such as the Hollywood Ten in the US, were persecuted for allegedly communist content in their films, which suffered the quality of general film production. A large number of science fiction films were made under the impact of the Cold War . They mostly dealt with alien invasions, e.g. B. The day the earth stood still (1951), The Body Snatchers (1956), Formicula (1954) or the film adaptation of HG Wells ' Battle of the Worlds (1953).
Another turning point in American and worldwide film history is the spread of television , which represented serious competition for cinema. As a consequence, the cinema had to develop further in order to be able to attract the audience for longer. A large number of technical innovations were introduced to make the cinema experience more attractive. The development of the widescreen format with processes such as Vistavision , Cinemascope or Cinerama led to a renaissance of monumental and sandal films , such as Ben Hur (1959) , Quo vadis? (1951) or The Ten Commandments (1956) . Other technical innovations, such as B. 3D films , however, could not prevail in the long run. However, none of this could prevent the cinema from going through a recession for years.
The financial crisis required a fundamental structural change in the film industry. Because of a violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the monopolistic activities of the major studios Warner Bros. , MGM , 20th Century Fox , RKO Pictures and Paramount Pictures were prevented. The ban on the block system and in 1950 the ban on companies operating their own cinema chains ultimately led to the end of the American studio system. More and more films were produced independently and with low budgets. The internationalization of cinema through imports and exports worldwide created a new, more diverse spectrum of films. In addition to films in the tradition of classic Hollywood such as twelve noon (1952), Singin 'in the Rain (1952) or Some Like It Hot (1959), there was a new orientation towards the young audience. With the advent of the beat generation and rock 'n' roll, heroes like James Dean in ... because they don't know what they are doing (1955) or Marlon Brando in Endstation Sehnsucht (1951) lured young people and offered them potential for identification. Drive-in theaters were popular with the youth, not least because of Love Lane , and reached their greatest popularity in the 1950s and 1960s.
New waves (1960s and 1970s)
The 1960s marked the decline of the Golden Age of Hollywood . The abolition of the Hays Code marks the end of classic Hollywood cinema, which with its tried and tested recipes was increasingly falling into crisis. Famous directors such as Alfred Hitchcock or John Ford had completed their main work, and the legendary Golden Age stars were getting on in years. The big studios were run by old men like Jack Warner, some of whom had held their posts since the silent film era and no longer had any contact with social reality. More and more films were being produced by the audience, and in a desperate attempt to win back their viewers, the studios pumped enormous sums into artistically less significant monumental films and musicals in the mid-1960s .
During this time, new creative film trends are developing in Europe. There the director became increasingly important and also became increasingly important as a screenwriter . With a few exceptions ( Ernst Lubitsch , Billy Wilder , Otto Preminger , Alfred Hitchcock), this was not the case in Hollywood cinema of the 1950s and early 1960s.
The French Nouvelle Vague begins as the epoch of auteur films in the late 1950s with You Kissed and They Beat him (1959) by François Truffaut . The films of this era are based on the theory of the politique des auteurs , developed by a group of critics who wrote for the film magazine Cahiers du cinéma . They demanded a clear artistic autonomy for the director and are directed against the tradition de la qualité of French cinema. In addition to Truffaut, these critics included Claude Chabrol , Éric Rohmer , Jacques Rivette and Jean-Luc Godard , who made his debut in 1960 with Out of Breath (based on a script by Truffaut). Truffaut's Jules and Jim (1962) and Robbery Kisses (1968) and Godard's Elf Uhr nachts (1965) are among the great successes with the public .
An English parallel to the Nouvelle Vague is to a certain extent free cinema , which was booming in the early 1960s. The films mostly told stories from the English working class and thus drew attention to social grievances. Film adaptations by the author Alan Sillitoe are best known .
In Latin America, too, a new style of film emerged that had its origins in the population's struggle against political and economic oppression, the so-called Cinema Novo . In the 1960s, artists often saw themselves as political actors, and this is how a number of politically relevant films were made not only in Latin America: in many Eastern European countries, filmmakers rose against the dictatorial regimes.
German film was also revolutionized: a group of young filmmakers dedicated themselves to stylistic and content innovations in film. On the one hand, traditional style conventions were thrown overboard; on the other hand, the new films often dealt with politically explosive topics. Influential directors of the New German Cinema were Werner Herzog , Volker Schlöndorff , Wim Wenders , Hans-Jürgen Syberberg and Rainer Werner Fassbinder .
American films followed, albeit a little later, this era of renewal with New Hollywood cinema. Arthur Penn's Bonnie and Clyde (1967) and Mike Nichols ' The Graduation Examination (1967) are considered the starting point of this era . 1971 marked another turning point with the films A Clockwork Orange , The French Connection and Dirty Harry . American cinema is becoming more political and socially critical, and directors like Martin Scorsese and Francis Ford Coppola are increasingly concerned with social realities such as sex and violence . The horror genre also finds rush with the films The Exorcist (1973), Blood Court in Texas (1974), Carrie of Satan's Youngest Daughter (1976), Zombie (1978) and Halloween the night of horror (1978). John Carpenter's low budget horror film Halloween in particular triggered the slasher films of the 80s and 90s with numerous successful imitators.
After the budgets got bigger and bigger after the success of films like Coppola's The Godfather (1972) or Scorsese's Taxi Driver (1976), New Hollywood came to an end with works like Heaven's Gate (1980) or Apocalypse Now (1979).
Important films of the sixties: Psycho - Breakfast at Tiffany's - Jules and Jim - The Birds - Lawrence of Arabia - Stolen Kisses - Spartacus - Dr. Strange or How I Learned to Love the Bomb - 2001 A Space Odyssey - Play Me a Song of Death - Dance of the Vampires - James Bond - 007 is chasing Dr. No - For a handful of dollars - The Ice Cold Angel.
Important films of the seventies: One flew over the cuckoo's nest - table and bed - Apocalypse Now - Saturday Night Fever - A woman under the influence - Star Wars - The American night - The last tango in Paris - The great white shark - Aguirre, the wrath of God - Close encounter of the third kind.
Between gloss and sophistication (1980s and 1990s)
After the spread of video recorders increased from the mid-1970s and was initially met with great suspicion by the film industry, their advantages later became apparent. By marketing video cassettes, productions that lacked success in the cinema could pay off. On the other hand, attempts were made to build on the success of blockbusters such as Jaws (1975) and Star Wars (1977). In the music sector, the music video became an important marketing tool and at the same time a creative source of inspiration for cinema productions and influenced producers like Don Simpson with films such as Flashdance (1983), Beverly Hills Cop or Top Gun (1986). Above all, the producers and directors George Lucas and Steven Spielberg shaped the decade with film series such as Indiana Jones and Star Wars . In England, the producer David Puttnam was able to record successes with the films The Hour of the Winner (1981), Gandhi (1982), The Killing Fields (1984) and Rooms with a View (1985).
Successful films of the eighties: Amadeus - Blade Runner - Brazil - Pretty Woman - The Name of the Rose - Paris, Texas - Subway - Diva - ET the Extra-Terrestrial - Shining - Full Metal Jacket - Good Morning, Vietnam - The Dead Poets Club - Back into the future - Harry and Sally - Terminator - Dirty Dancing.
In the 1990s, the budgets for Hollywood productions rose to dizzying heights. In addition, the technical possibilities expanded, computer-generated special effects became the standard in many mainstream films , especially in the genres of action and fantasy . Particularly expensive productions like Titanic , Armageddon and Jurassic Park became the box office hits of the decade. In the course of this development, the term blockbuster became popular.
On the other hand, the strengthening of independent film can be observed (parallel to the alternative in popular music). While productions with a lower budget and higher artistic demands were even rarer and more difficult to position on the market in the eighties, independent directors such as Quentin Tarantino , Terry Gilliam , Jim Jarmusch and the Coen Brothers achieved considerable success in the following decade . Many independent films were not market successes, but over time they became cult films .
The German film was also able to record new visitor records. Especially comedies such as Men , Schtonk , Kleine Haie , The Moving Man and Knockin 'on Heaven's Door , but also the production Das Boot or experimental films like Run Lola Run were great successes and in some cases even attracted attention abroad. A stronger genre differentiation and better financing options characterize the German cinema market in the following years.
Successful films of the 1990s: Kevin - Home Alone - The Silence of the Lambs - Mrs. Doubtfire - Basic Instinct - Jurassic Park - The Lion King - Pulp Fiction - Forrest Gump - Schindler's List - Independence Day - Godzilla - Star Wars: Episode I - Men in Black - Matrix - American Beauty - Titanic - Saving Private Ryan - Ghost - Message from Sam - Good Will Hunting.
|World production 1)||3,329|
1) No figures were available for some of the larger producing
countries such as Turkey, Iran and Pakistan
Computer animated animation films
A new development of the 1990s is the computer-animated animation film. The first attempt to produce a full-length computer-animated film was made with The Works in the 1980s, but the project failed. The 1995 film Toy Story by Pixar , in collaboration with Disney , was the first feature length film to be produced entirely on the computer. The Pixar Animation Studios specialized successfully in this type of film and produced in the years to A Bug's Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters, Inc. (2001), Finding Nemo (2003), The Incredibles - The Incredibles (2004), Cars (2006), Ratatouille (2007), WALL-E (2008) and Oben (2009). As a competitor in this field, Dreamworks established itself in 1998 with the computer-animated films Antz (1998), Shrek (2001), Big Sharks - Small Fish (2004), Shrek 2 (2004), Madagascar (2005), Shrek the Third (2007) and Madagascar 2 (2008). As a third competitor, Blue Sky Studios succeeded in establishing itself as a producer of computer-animated feature films with the successful films Ice Age (2002), Robots (2005) and Ice Age 2 (2006). Common to these films that they are the classic narrative structure of the Disney cartoons break stronger and the stories are accompanied by ironic humor.
The new millennium (2000 to today)
In the new millennium, the trend towards high-budget productions continued. At the beginning of the 2000s, the fantasy genre began to flourish. Series of films such as The Lord of the Rings , Harry Potter and Star Wars enjoyed worldwide popularity. However, at the same time there is a growing interest in foreign productions and independent films such as Donnie Darko . The popularization of filmmaking with new technical possibilities through computers and the Internet gives hope for new trends and innovations. At the same time, the film industry sees itself endangered by the advent of the Internet and especially of P2P networks , which enable the mass, unauthorized distribution of films.
Access to film history
The picture we have of film history depends on the films that we have seen or were able to see at all. Anyone who is not currently at a film school or studying film studies has only limited access to film history. Others decide what goes to the cinema or TV. In addition to the well-known economic structures, those interested in films are dependent on the tastes of the program makers or what they consider to be the tastes of the audience. In some cases, this preselection can be corrected through your own initiative (e.g. visiting film festivals ).
Since the invention of the video cassette , and even more so of the DVD , these limitations have been increasingly forgotten, and the illusion of the complete technical availability of film history has prevailed. DVD editions such as B. the Cinemathek of the Süddeutsche Zeitung, which has appeared since March 2005, promises easy and cheap access. In fact, according to my critics, this edition only reinforces the usual, extremely shortened view of film history. It contains z. B. not a single experimental film , not a documentary , not a single African film . Instead, they rely more on the economically secure bank. The continuation of the SZ-Cinemathek, now available, at least partially remedies this problem. Sofia Coppola was recognized as the first female director ( Lost in Translation ). The film collection, based on the SZ-Cinemathek, Der Österreichische Film , which, according to its name, contains exclusively Austrian films from the last few decades, also took into account the experimental and avant-garde filmmaking of the country in the first 50-part edition. Over 100 Austrian films are now available on DVD.
There is a very diverse range of films on DVD in English-speaking countries.
Access to film history has expanded significantly through the Internet . Extensive offers have been created here, some of which are free (e.g. experimental films at UBU Web ), others are subject to a charge (like the classic feature films in the Criterion Collection's online cinematheque ).
- List of film years - The years since 1888 in the focus of film history
- Film museum , film archive , film database
- 20th century # film
- List of the most successful films - internationally and most successful films in German-speaking countries
- David Bordwell, Kristin Thompson: Film Art. An Introduction. 10th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York 2013, ISBN 978-0-07-131831-0 , pp. 457-499.
- David Bordwell, Kristin Thompson: Film History. An Introduction. 3. Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-07-126794-6 .
- Jean-Pierre Coursodon, Bertrand Tavernier: 50 ans de cinéma américain. Revised, u. actual Edition. Nathan, Paris 1995, ISBN 2-258-04027-2 .
- Werner Faulstich: film history . Fink, Paderborn 2005, ISBN 3-8252-2638-7 .
- Joseph Garncarz: US film in Europe. In: European History Online . ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2012 Accessed on: December 17, 2012.
- Andrea Gronemeyer: crash course film. DuMont, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-7701-3844-9 .
- Wolfgang Jacobsen, Anton Kaes, Hans H. Prinzler (Hrsg.): History of the German film. 2nd ext. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-476-01952-7 .
- Siegfried Kracauer u. a .: From Caligari to Hitler. A psychological history of German film. Translated by Ruth Baumgarten and Karsten Witte. Suhrkamp, 1984, ISBN 3-518-28079-1 .
- Siegfried Kracauer u. a .: Theory of the film: The salvation of external reality. Suhrkamp 1985, ISBN 3-518-28146-1 .
- Michaela Krützen : classic, modern, post-modern. A film story. Frankfurt a. M .: Fischer Verlag 2015, ISBN 978-3-10-040504-3
- Corinna Müller: From silent films to talkies. Fink, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7705-3925-7 .
- Geoffrey Nowell-Smith (ed.): History of the international film. Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01585-8 .
- Joachim Pfeiffer, Michael Staiger: Basic course film 2. Film canon - film classics - film history. Schroedel, Braunschweig 2010, ISBN 978-3-507-10019-0 .
- Text collection on film history - steadily growing database at drippink
- William K. Everson Film-History Prize of the National Board of Review
- archive.sensesofcinema.com ( Memento of January 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) - Senses of Cinema - Great Directors
- filmgeschichten.literaturbattleroyal.de - 124 films from 124 years, film history (s) by Dr. Sascha Dornhöfer
- ↑ What Was the First Movie Ever Made? November 14, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2019 (American English).
- ↑ a b c Ulrich Schmidt: Digital film and video technology. 2nd Edition. Hanser Verlag, 2008, p. 11.
- ^ Christian Ortner: The Austro-Hungarian Artillery from 1867 to 1918. Technology, organization and combat methods. Vienna 2007, p. 73.
- ↑ Ulrich Schmidt: Digital film and video technology. 2nd Edition. Hanser Verlag, 2008, p. 12.
- ↑ Ulrich Schmidt: Digital film and video technology. 2nd Edition. Hanser Verlag, 2008, p. 13.
- ↑ David Robinson: Chaplin. His life, his art. Diogenes Verlag, Zurich 1989.
- ↑ James L. Neibaur: The Fall of Buster Keaton. His Films for MGM, Educational Pictures, and Columbia. Scarecrow Press, Plymouth 2010.
- ↑ Jeffrey Vance, Suzanne Lloyd: Harold Lloyd. Master Comedian. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York 2002.
- ↑ Randy Skretvedt: Laurel and Hardy: The Magic behind the Movies. Second edition. Past Times, Beverly Hills 1996.
- ↑ Helmut G. Asper: Something Better Than Death - Film Exile in Hollywood. Schüren Verlag, Marburg 2002, pp. 20, 28.
- ↑ a b c WORLD FILM PRODUCTION / DISTIBUTION [sic] World film production report (excerpt) ( Memento from October 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 280 kB). In: Screen Digest, June 2006, pp. 205-207. On: fafo.at
- ↑ www.matchflick.com of November 9, 2009.
- ^ Katzenbach, Christian: The film industry and broadband Internet. A media economic classification (seminar paper), Free University of Berlin, January 2006, p. 11 f. Viewed on: cultiv.net on December 30, 2014
- ↑ filmsite.org
- ↑ unesco.de
- ↑ jungle-world.com viewed on December 8, 2008.
- ↑ Overview in: Ian Haydn Smith: Home Entertainment In: Ian Haydn Smith (Ed.): International Film Guide 2009. Wallflower Press, London / New York, pp. 76–88 https://web.archive.org/web/ 20100816043155 / http: //www.internationalfilmguide.com/docs/2009/04/Home_Entertainment.pdf (PDF).
- ↑ ubu.com, accessed August 5, 2009.
- ↑ criterion.com. Retrieved August 5, 2009.