|German title||Blade runner|
|Original title||Blade runner|
|Country of production||USA , Hong Kong|
|Age rating||FSK 16|
Hampton Fancher ,
David Webb Peoples
Blade Runner [ bleɪd ˌrʌnɚ ], German distribution title for a time also The Blade Runner , is an American science fiction film released on June 25, 1982 directed by Ridley Scott . The literary source is the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick . This novel was later also sold under the title "Blade Runner". The film, which adopts elements of film noir and creates a dystopia , was initially unsuccessful with both critics and audiences, but over time it became a cult film . The film was shown in cinemas in the Federal Republic of Germany on October 14, 1982.
Noteworthy are the influential visual design, detailed equipment, and soundtrack by Vangelis . In addition, some of the themes in the film offer a wide range of philosophical interpretations. Ridley Scott's first Hollywood film opened the genre of cyberpunk to the cinema and made the author Philip K. Dick famous beyond the science fiction fan scene after his death.
Los Angeles in November 2019: The city juggernaut is saturated with constant drizzle. It's decadent, gloomy, dirty, and overcrowded, and people are exposed to ubiquitous advertising. Animals are almost extinct and it is cheaper to get an artificial copy of the animal. A better life on distant planets is promised, in worlds that have been opened up by so-called " replicants ". These artificial humans, manufactured by the powerful Tyrell Corporation, are outwardly indistinguishable from naturally-born humans, but have far greater physical powers and develop their own feelings and ambitions over time. Since at least some of them also have a high level of intelligence, all replicants are given a lifespan limited to four years in order not to let them become a threat.
When some replicas of the sophisticated Nexus-6 series hijack a spaceship, kill people and flee to Earth, former blade runner Rick Deckard is turned on. He is supposed to "take the replicants out of circulation". In the course of his investigation, Deckard meets Rachael, who works at the Tyrell Corporation, and finds out that she is also a Replicant; she herself is not aware of this, however, since artificial memories have been implanted in her. Deckard relentlessly reveals this truth to her, and she reacts disturbed and hurt. Deckard soon falls in love with her and begins to doubt the legitimacy of his job, especially since Rachael is also on the police death list. Meanwhile, replicant Roy Batty infiltrates the Tyrell Corporation building with the help of sick and naive genetic designer JF Sebastian. He demands clarification from his “creator” Tyrell about its origin and lifespan. When Roy realizes that even Tyrell cannot prolong his life, he kills him and Sebastian.
After Deckard has already killed a replicant and another replicant was shot by Rachael, with which she saved Deckard's life, the latter penetrates Sebastian's apartment, where Roy's companion Pris is hiding. Shortly after he kills her, Roy appears and engages in a dramatic duel with Deckard. Roy mocks Deckard and appears to be playing with him because of his physical superiority. But when Deckard escapes and slips off a skyscraper roof in the pouring rain, Roy saves his life in an act of humanity just before his own time is up and he has to die himself. In the end, Deckard flees the city with Rachael.
History of origin
Since 1975, Hampton Fancher has wanted Philip K. Dick's book Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? film. His friend Brian Kelly was able to buy the rights to a film from Dick in 1977. With a first draft of the script by Fancher, they won the producer Michael Deeley for the idea in 1978 . After further drafts of the script, Ridley Scott, who had just landed a success with Alien , was finally hired as a director in 1980 . In the following years Fancher and Scott worked on further designs.
The film borrowed the title Blade Runner from the title of the book The Bladerunner by Alan E. Nourse , which was reworked into a film draft by William S. Burroughs in 1979 , but otherwise bears no resemblance to the later film - there is the name Blade Runner (Blade Smuggler) still black marketeers for medical products. Scott and Fancher liked the title, and they bought it from Nourse and Burroughs. Earlier planned titles were Android and Dangerous Days .
Because they could not agree on some points, Scott hired David Peoples to rework the script. Eventually, Scott pieced together the final script from several earlier drafts.
Filming began on March 9, 1981 in Los Angeles and film studios in Burbank . The work was accompanied by tensions between the director, actors and film crew as well as by financial problems. The long production time and the associated high costs were blamed on Scott. After the original production company, Filmways, dropped out, producer Deeley was able to get the money he needed from the Ladd Company, Hong Kong producer Sir Run Run Shaw and Tandem Productions. When the production costs finally exceeded the planned budget with 28 million dollars, the rights to the film fell through a contractual clause solely to Tandem Productions, consisting of Bud Yorkin and the media mogul Jerry Perenchio . This legal situation later made the creation of the 1992 Director's Cut and the new Director's Cut from 2000 difficult.
Rough versions of the film (“ Workprints ”) met with criticism from the audience in test screenings in early March 1982. The funders then requested changes to the film. So, much to the director's displeasure, a number of voiceover comments (written by Roland Kibbee ) and a happy ending were added. For the latter, unused footage from Shining (aerial photographs of forests, compare the beginning of Shining ) was used. The voice-overs contain background information, which should make the film plot more understandable and more stringent.
There are three dubbed versions of the film. The first was created in 1982 by Berliner Synchron GmbH Wenzel Lüdecke for the theatrical version. Arne Elsholtz was responsible for the script and direction . The film was completely re-dubbed for the Director's Cut made in 1992. This version was also created by Berliner Synchron GmbH Wenzel Lüdecke. The script and dialogue direction were now in the hands of Benjamin Völz . For the Final Cut (2007) the synchronization of the Director's Cut was used and the additional scenes were supplemented as far as possible with the speakers from 1992. Since Gerd Duwner and Bernd Schramm had already died, the new dialogues were written by Andreas Mannkopff and Kaspar Eichel accepted.
|role||actor||Voice actor (1982)||Voice actor (1992/2007)|
|Rick Deckard||Harrison Ford||Wolfgang Pampel||Wolfgang Pampel|
|Roy Batty||Rutger Hauer||Thomas Danneberg||Thomas Danneberg|
|Bryant||M. Emmet Walsh||Gerd Duwner||Gerd Duwner
Andreas Mannkopff (new scenes in the final cut )
|gaff||Edward James Olmos||Christian Brückner||
Kaspar Eichel (new scenes in the final cut )
|J. F. Sebastian||William Sanderson||Joachim Tennstedt||Stefan Krause|
|Rachael||Sean Young||Jutta Speidel||Bettina White|
|Tyrell||Joe Turkel||Jürgen Thormann||Jürgen Thormann|
|Leon||Brion James||Michael Chevalier||Tilo Schmitz|
|Price||Daryl Hannah||Joseline Gassen||Arianne Borbach|
|Zhora||Joanna Cassidy||Alexandra Lange||Heike Schroetter|
|Holden||Morgan Paull||Arne Elsholtz||Eberhard Prüter|
The music for the film comes from Vangelis , who had previously become known with the music for The Hour of the Winner (Chariots of Fire) . The score combines classical composition with the futuristic sound of synthesizers on which Vangelis recorded it. Vangelis' favorite instrument , a Yamaha CS-80 synthesizer, with its characteristic, wind-like sounds, is particularly often used here. One track came from an earlier album by the artist. The music contributes strongly to the melancholy-dark atmosphere of the film and has been praised by many critics. Vangelis was nominated for the BAFTA Award and the Golden Globe in 1983 for his work . Director Scott Vangelis also engaged as a composer for his later film 1492 - The Conquest of Paradise .
The music basically takes up the themes of nostalgia and the mixing of different epochs and cultures. Based on the film noir, blues and jazz-like saxophone (by Dick Morrissey ) and trumpet solos can be heard. In other parts of the film, synthesizer music is played, which at the beginning of the 1980s was still perceived as significantly more futuristic and typical of science fiction than it is today. Japanese Biwa music can be heard from one of the billboards . The music is particularly important in scenes with little dialogue, for example in the almost wordless romantic scenes between Deckard and Rachael - who herself plays a short Chopin variation on the piano -, in the fight between Deckard and Roy, or in the execution of the replicant Zhora. The effect of the opening sequence with the view over the gloomy expanse of the city and the monologue of Roy's death are clearly enhanced by the music. Some musical leitmotifs run through the film. Attention has also been drawn to the reverberation of sound effects, which is the audible equivalent of the foggy, paranoid-trapped atmosphere of the film.
A soundtrack album for Blade Runner was announced in the film's credits in 1982. Initially, however, only an orchestral rendition of the film's musical themes appeared. The LP , released in 1982, was released under the title: Blade Runner - Orchestral Adaptation Of Music Composed For The Motion Picture By Vangelis - performed by The New American Orchestra . In 1989 the Vangelis compilation Themes appeared , which also includes three themes from the Blade Runner soundtrack. The first original soundtrack , however, was not released until 1994. It contains mostly pieces of music from the film, some extended, as well as some pieces not used for the film. In addition, dialogues from the film can be heard in some places. However, it is far from all of the pieces of music to be heard in the film.
Probably for this reason too, since the film was released, bootleg cassettes and now also CDs have been circulating , which more or less completely summarize or supplement the film soundtrack or aim for an original score . Including the double CD Esper Edition , the three-part Deck Art Definitive Edition and the two-part 2001 Edition .
In 2007 Warner released a box with three CDs for the 25th birthday of the film. The first is the soundtrack from 1994, the second CD mainly contains additional music from the film, and the third includes new music by Vangelis, "inspired" by Blade Runner .
According to the title, the first shot of the film shows "Los Angeles, November 2019", a gigantic city that stretches to the horizon and is illuminated by bursts of fire. A close-up of an eye in which this image is reflected is counter-cut. This scenery, which the film crew called " Hades landscape", determines the whole film. In the flight scenes, the city is shown as a Moloch expanding in all directions, whose gigantic skyscrapers are only towered over by two pyramids, the headquarters of the Tyrell Corporation.
Director Scott and cinematographer Cronenweth - who, contrary to union regulations, agreed to let Scott do the camerawork in some scenes - work with lighting effects in many shots. The pyramids of the Tyrell Corporation, for example, throw dome-like rays into the sky, the headlights of the billboards circling over the city wander through the buildings and ensure stroboscopic alienation. People can often only be seen half in the light and half in the shadow. Other stylistic devices are the use of long shots , in which the characters are mostly positioned at the edge of the picture to emphasize their isolation, and a camera moving into the scene from above. The deaths of all replicants are highlighted and emotionalized by different cinematic means such as slow motion , use of the film music, increased volume and steadicam .
Most of the film consists of long takes, only in the fights between Deckard and the replicants is the pace accelerated by more cuts and fast camera movements. In the final battle between Deckard and Roy, the two keep moving upwards until they face each other on the roof of the building, where they swap the roles of the hunter and the hunted, until Deckard hangs over the abyss and Roy watches him from above like his prey.
The street scenes in the film are particularly rich in symbolism. Here the lower city is shown as an ethnically and religiously mixed slum without human proximity or consideration. The scenes are filled with hundreds of extras, including nuns , Hasidim , businessmen, Hare Krishna -Jünger and punks . Many reviewers noticed the wealth of details - often entertaining, purely incidental - that make it worthwhile to watch the film several times: for example, some people have lighted umbrellas; The caretaker at Leons Hotel, who can only be seen for a split second, wears a CPAP mask. Bryant's office, Deckard's apartment and J. F. Sebastian's apartment are also filled with detailed details.
The intermingling of set pieces from different cultures and epochs continues in the architecture, in the costumes and in the décor: the basic constellation of the lonely detective (Deckard) who falls in love with a femme fatale (Rachael), known from film noir , is carried through Set pieces from that genre are emphasized, including Deckard's trench coat , Rachael's costume and hairstyle as well as, in the original version, the laconic voiceovers of Deckard, who poses as a typical antihero full of self-doubt. Roy wears a black leather jacket and with light blonde hair, blue eyes and a muscular body looks like the prototype of a National Socialist man .
Deckard's and Sebastian's apartments, as well as Tyrell's office, are reminiscent of the loft apartments from the second half of the 20th century, but the exterior architecture also borrows from Art Nouveau and Art Deco . Sebastian lives in the Bradbury Building , Deckard in the Ennis House designed by Frank Lloyd Wright , which was also used for the filming of The House on Haunted Hill with Vincent Price (1959). For the interior design of Deckard's apartment, designer Syd Mead was inspired by a book about futuristic apartments from the early 1980s. The police headquarters is shown from the outside in a trick shot as a dark skyscraper, the inside was filmed in the Los Angeles Union Station - again alienated with light and smoke effects .
Scott and Mead wanted to show a city in which old buildings are not demolished, but are equipped with new technology or finally integrated into new buildings. Futuristic elements have not simply replaced the past, but have resulted in an ambivalent, “ postmodern ” collage. In this way, the contrast between the futuristic skyscrapers in the cityscape and the decaying buildings on the ground could be created, which in turn reflects a contrast in content: As in Metropolis , the mighty live at the top of the city, where the sun can be seen at least briefly through the smog is while the street canyons are shown as a huge, dark slum.
"In Blade Runner, futuristic visions are paired with set pieces of film noir, the combination of end-time fantasy with nostalgic retrospect on style epochs and fashions of past centuries is reminiscent of Fritz Lang's Metropolis [...] and gives the film its characteristic design."
Interpretations of the film have pointed to a variety of themes and themes that play a role in Blade Runner .
"Blade Runner embodies a number of the recurring themes in Dick's writings: the restless paranoia of the characters, the dismissive influence of a higher authority, the substitution of reality by fakes and imitations, the self-perpetuating increase of garbage and waste."
"Blade Runner deals with a number of the themes recurring in Dick's writings: the constant paranoia of the characters, the contemptuous exercise of power by higher authorities, the replacement of reality with fakes and imitations, the self-reinforcing increase in garbage and garbage."
"The film, which follows a rather simple and clearly structured pattern on the action level [...] opens up multilayered levels of interpretation on closer inspection, which above all allow numerous reflections on the modern conception of reality and the associated concept of humanity."
"More human than man"
The central theme of Philip K. Dick's works and also of this film is the question of what makes humans human and the paranoid fear that there are beings that look like humans but aren't. According to the book and film, the replicants can be recognized by the fact that they do not have the human faculty of empathy . You will be tested with a device that checks emotional responses. The usefulness of this differentiation criterion is questioned in the course of the film. It is the people who appear isolated and callous, while the replicants show emotions - fear, affection, hate, sadness. Although they are introduced as merciless murderers and actually kill, the film woos them for sympathy (compare the reception of the portrayal of Roy by Rutger Hauer in the reviews section ). The Tyrell Corporation's motto is "more human than human," and this is what the Replicants end up doing. The suggestion of the possibility that Deckard is a Replicant himself further blurs the line between humans and replicants. This raises ethical questions:
"The theme of 'Blade Runner' is therefore the confrontation with the question: When is the point reached where one has to respect an existence?"
“The film also focuses on this problem area: If [...] Deckard kills a real android in slow motion, to what extent is he better as a human than the android? And why does the supposedly numb replicant Batty finally save the Blade Runner Deckard in the face of his imminent 'death' instead of killing him? "
In the film, a procedure known as the “ Voigt-Kampff test ” is shown at several points, which is used to find out whether a subject is a replicant or a human. Several questions are asked of the test person and their reaction, especially that of the eyes, is recorded and evaluated. This procedure is reminiscent of the Turing test .
The film anticipated some developments in the field of genetic research. Genetically modified organisms are now a reality. The embryonic technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer from a specific genotype using clones , as well as some of the related problems described in the film ( senescence ), were demonstrated in the cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1996. The admissibility of human cloning has been the subject of intense public debate for several years.
These developments reveal a gap between commercial and non-commercial interests. Scientific and business motives collide with ethical and religious concerns about the correctness of human intervention in nature. In the film, the party of self-interest is represented by the rich CEO Tyrell, who is a scientific genius but only pursues commercial interests. Some of the bioethical issues that Tyrell and Roy discuss are real, while others are purely fictional.
Paranoia and distrust, control and power
It is not only the uncertainty about one's own identity and the indistinguishability of real and artificial people that is the subject of paranoia. The topic of distrust runs through the film like a leitmotif . Deckard not only wants to know from Rachael: "Do you love me?", But also: "Do you trust me?". In the bpb film canon it says:
"[T] he looks of the characters in Blade Runner , the short dialogues, the silence of the whole film, the artificiality, the darkness [indicate] a total distrust in the usual forms of communication [...]"
Again and again in Blade Runner situations arise in which people are observed and controlled. The intrusive billboards, omnipresent police, search lights and the overcrowded city are characteristic set pieces in these paranoid scenarios. Deckard is conscripted by his former boss, Bryant, and his mysterious colleague Gaff appears like his overseer. The replicants are also portrayed as machines to be exploited and kept for slave labor. Machines are primarily used to control and maintain power. But people seem to be losing power over the replicants: after all, creatures are superior to their creators in all respects. Some performers see the order of power being questioned or already lost:
"At the same time there is a rebellion against the God-given order."
"In Blade Runner , control is so powerfully and uniformly deployed that the disciplinary order and rational management of urban form have long been abandoned."
"In Blade Runner , control is so strong and evenly distributed that the disciplinary order and sensible planning of the city structure have long been abandoned."
Seeing and remembering
The motif of the eye , which is rich in symbolic interpretations, appears in many places in the film, and the term seeing also occurs several times. Photographs are also often shown. This motif underscores the theme of paranoia and the exercise of power, but also the theme of identity and the reality of memory .
On various levels, the film casts doubt on whether what you see can be trusted: Rachel's souvenir photos are fake. The machine that Deckard uses to examine a found photo for clues rotates the subject until something appears that was not visible in the original image (and the printout does not match the image on the monitor). The replicant, Rachael, has fake memories. The truth of memories is also called into question in other ways: The questioning of Leon by the blade runner Holden from the opening scene is repeated several times in the film, but with small changes each time. Finally, in Deckard's questioning of Rachel (in the English original), an excerpt from a later dialogue between the two can be heard.
The two final movements of the “Tannhauser Tor” monologue by the replicant Roy Batty bring together seeing, remembering and the senseless struggle against transience poetically. The decisive sentence comes from Rutger Hauer himself, who added it to the script on the evening before the shooting of this scene:
“All those moments will be lost in time, like tears… in… rain. Time to die. "
“All these moments will be lost in time, like tears in the rain. Time to die."
In an interview with Dan Jolin, Hauer sums up the overcoming of this very human endeavor when he says that this sentence shows that the character Batty wanted to "set his mark in existence [...] the replicant shows Deckard, by dying, what a real man is made of. "(" [Batty wanted to] make his mark on existence [...] the replicant in the final scene, by dying, shows Deckard what a real man is made of. ")
The themes of seeing and remembering can be combined with the approach, which is increasingly represented in postmodern philosophy, according to which truth depends on the perspective ( perspectivism ) or is always constructed by the observer ( constructivism ).
Technical progress, environmental degradation and decay
In the fictional future of Blade Runner , sophisticated gadgets are ubiquitous. On the other hand, the great outdoors cannot be seen at all, the sun is comparatively seldom and is confined by fog. Most of the time the scenery is dark, rainy and dirty. Animals are created artificially. In the book, environmental degradation appears as a result of nuclear war ; this connection is only hinted at in the film. The city's overpopulation is always present:
"Restlessness, hectic pace and the desperate search for distraction have increased, and the [...] impression of a hopelessly overcrowded city is always omnipresent, even in scenes that show empty spaces."
The film can be described as a dystopia . The billboards suggest that a more beautiful life outside of the earth exists, while here only the sick, the weak and criminals have been left behind, who in turn are ruled by unscrupulous capitalists and the police:
“The masters of the world [have] more or less left the earth to the slum dwellers, criminals and industrialists […] [the film] is the vision of the millennium, an end times vision . He tells us that we have drained the earth and ourselves and that the new story is taking place elsewhere - perhaps on other planets, where happier stories are told. "
Not only the buildings, but also the people - for example J. F. Sebastian, who suffers from accelerated aging. There seems to be no culture, just "lower" forms of entertainment and a lot of crime. The diverse mix of peoples, languages and worldviews - the film shows above all a strong penetration of East Asian elements into American life - is predicted and rated negatively. The city language that Gaff speaks at the beginning of the film is a mixture of Korean, French, Hungarian, German and Japanese, which the actor Edward James Olmos thought up himself. The little people who want to steal parts of Deckard's car speak in the original German. Chew, who makes artificial eyes, speaks a mixture of Chinese and English.
Another element of the film is a translucent melancholy and nostalgia , the longing for a better past in conflict with the promise of a better future. This feeling is mainly conveyed by the film music (see music ). There is also a mixture of past, present and future in the design of the film .
Literary, mythological and philosophical references
At some points in the film references to both biblical and other myths can be found. In addition to the eyes, the symbol of the unicorn , for example, plays an important role. Fans of the film have drawn attention to other possible symbols, including Gaff's origami figures, the animals - an animal can easily be assigned to each character - or the chess combination that comes from the " Immortal Game " (in German dubbing is the English chess notation incorrectly translated).
Roy was created by Tyrell. He calls himself both the creator ("Maker") and the father ("Father"). However, this motif is broken in the middle of the film. When Roy learns that the "father" cannot prolong his life, he blinds and kills him (the omnipresent eye motif shines through here too). Roy quotes, in a slight modification of the text, from the poem America: A Prophecy , (1793) by William Blake and compares the replicants with the angels in the poem. For Blake, however, the angels do not correspond to angels in the Christian-Biblical sense. With Blake you are part of the struggle to be liberated from tyranny.
"The relationship between man and replicant is [...] less determined by the Frankenstein myth than by the Bible."
Topics such as the rule of man over nature and over the replicants ultimately also lead to the motif of hubris from the Greek drama. One critic saw the "old theme of the sorcerer's apprentice [...] varied" and found:
"The real appeal of the film lies less in the [...] vision of a rusty future world, but in the staging of religious myths within the usual detective story."
References to occidental philosophy are suggested by the name Deckard, which aurally reminds of the French philosopher René Descartes , the founder of modern rationalism . Descartes' famous dictum " Cogito ergo sum " - "I think therefore I am" is quoted verbatim in the film. The fact that the replicant Pris utters these words, however, calls into question the absolute validity of the principle for a world with artificial humans.
Cult status, Director's Cut and Final Cut
The film was a failure from a commercial standpoint, but soon found a loyal fan base. By the end of 1982, the first appeared Blade Runner - Fanzine . The various video and laser disc versions that appeared in the course of the 1980s proved to be very successful: the film became one of the most rented and sold films on the video market. There were always new reviews, including academic publications about Blade Runner , which gained cult film status .
The film restorer Michael Arick found one of the workprint versions by chance in 1989 . It was shown at film festivals in 1990 and 1991 and ran in several cinemas from September 1991, where it received an unexpectedly large audience. Warner Brothers expected a US-wide new release with great, also commercial success, and thereupon commissioned a so-called Director's Cut , which was created by Arick in consultation with Ridley Scott. Scott denies that this Director's Cut - which was realized in a hurry and with some technical flaws due to various misunderstandings and conflicts of interest - is the final version, although it comes "closer to his vision".
This version of the film dispenses with all voiceover comments and has an open ending. Another important change it contains is an additional scene that suggests Deckard might be a replicant himself. Thus, even more than the cinema version, it does without Deckard as a figure of identification. It is considered darker and requires even more attention to understand. The Director's Cut also met with approval from the critics ( see below ). It was released in cinemas around the world from 1992 (Germany: April 22, 1993) and was released soon afterwards on video cassette and - in the United States in March 1997 and thus one of the first films ever - on DVD .
Since the DVD was not produced in optimal quality and had not been available for a long time, Warner wanted to bring out a greatly expanded DVD set in 2001 with many extras and a new, "real" Director's Cut based on Scott's ideas with today's picture and sound standards . After lengthy start-up problems, Warner announced a "25th Anniversary Edition" for early 2007. The date was later postponed to October 2007 and two additional versions for HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc were announced. Scott's new version was shown at the Venice International Film Festival on September 1, 2007 and opened in several US cinemas in October 2007. A DVD with this “Final Cut” was released on December 7, 2007 on the German DVD market. The new version contains new and extended scenes, new music, improved special effects and an improved sound ( 5.1 ).
The original version was broadcast in Germany in the 1990s and 2000s on the channels Sat.1 , ProSieben and Kabel 1 . The Director's Cut was shown several times on Pay TV (first DF1 , then Premiere ) and in 1998 for the first time on Free TV on Kabel 1. In 2007 the Final Cut was shown in German cinemas. On August 6, 2009, Das Erste showed the final cut version as a free TV premiere. The older versions are still shown: The Director's Cut was last shown in 2017 on arte , the original theatrical version also in 2017 on ORF Eins .
In Germany, the Director's Cut was released on DVD in September 1999 with minimal equipment. In addition to this DVD, a box sold as a special edition contained some pictures from the film, a script and a film poster. The Director's Cut was digitally restored in 2006 and republished in December of this year. In 2008 the German version of the 25th Anniversary Edition was released as an edition with five DVDs ("Ultimate Collector's Edition"), which contains five versions of the film (workprint, US theatrical version, international theatrical version, 1992 Director's Cut, 2007 Final Cut) as well as extensive bonus material . In November 2012, these five versions were again released in Germany in HD quality under the title 30th Anniversary Collector's Edition in a box with three Blu-rays, a model of the Spinner vehicle and a 72-page art book with archive images, production drawings and storyboards.
Novel Original and Influence
Some changes, including major ones, are easy to understand. The religion of “Mercerism”, a surreal scene in a police station run by androids or the identical appearance of the characters Rachael and Pris should have been explained and thus the film would have been extended beyond measure.
The portrayal of the replicants in the film is considered to be one of the major changes from the book. Dick conceived them as soulless, selfish beings. While the film wants to grant them humanity and human rights (already by the name "replicant"), the book turns against this possibility in the end. Dick's text focuses on the observation that people sometimes act like machines; the film makes the opposite statement. The question of what is human is discussed in the book almost exclusively in Deckard's mind. In the first version of the film, this was apparently supposed to be reproduced through Deckard's voice-overs. In the Director's Cut, the director trusted that this question would already be sufficiently raised by the actions of the replicants, especially in the case of the character Roy, who was most valued in comparison to the book.
In reviews there are very different interpretations and evaluations of the differences between books and films. Most reviewers point out that the adaptation is not very faithful to the original, and the screenwriters Fancher and Peoples have also stated that they only orientated themselves loosely to Dick's book. But it has also been stated that the film at least correctly reproduces Dick's key messages. Ultimately, opinions differ among those who recognize clear differences: The bpb film canon contrasts the film's “tendency towards the global consecration game” with the “satirical, crazy” model and sees the lack of the “bittersweet Sarcasm “Dick's only flaw in the film. Others also see Dick's satire replaced by an abstract symbolism, but consider the film to be more powerful precisely because of its changes. Finally, the position has also been taken that the book and film are two independent, important works with a similar, but not the same message.
Philip K. Dick himself was initially very skeptical of the film and criticized it publicly as early as the drafting phase. After seeing a few sequences from the film, including at the invitation of Ridley Scott, Dick changed his mind and expressed himself enthusiastically about the project. According to Paul Sammon, it was above all the changed portrayal of the androids that Dick had initially taken against the film. In the end, however, he agreed and saw his warning against human arrogance realized in the film, albeit by other means than in the book. Although Dick was offered the then very high sum of 75,000 USD to have him write a new version of his novel as a book for the film, he declined and devoted his energy to a new book, for which he received significantly less money. Dick died a few months before the film came out.
Fritz Lang's Metropolis is often cited as a model for the Los Angeles of the film . What is to come , Just Imagine and Alphaville were named as further cinematic precursors . The atmosphere and parts of the plot are also in the tradition of film noir , see above under analysis . Ridley Scott and Syd Mead cited Edward Hopper's famous painting Nighthawks as further inspirations for the design , as well as the French comic magazine Métal hurlant or its American counterpart Heavy Metal , in particular the short story The Long written by Dan O'Bannon and illustrated by Moebius Tomorrow .
The film opened in the United States on June 25, 1982 in 1,295 theaters. At just over $ 26 million, it didn't even recoup the cost of production, at least in the United States. One reason for the poor performance was that ET - The Extra-Terrestrial was released at the same time and held the market for science fiction films for months. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the film was initially announced under the title Uprising of the Anti-People , but was then released in cinemas on October 14, 1982 under the title The Blade Runner and attracted around one million visitors.
When it first appeared in 1982, the reaction of critics was mixed. On the one hand, the film was praised as ambitious. The production design , created by Lawrence G. Paull based on the designs of Scott and Syd Meads, and the special effects , for which Oscar winner Douglas Trumbull was responsible, received consistently high recognition . Vangelis' film music was also highlighted as an important contribution to electronic music . On the other hand, it was repeatedly criticized that the development of the plot and the characters lag behind the formal design:
"Overwhelmed by the great sets and the striking images, the thin plot [...] is in parts threatened with disappearing entirely."
Some critics thought the film was too long, even boring. Well-known reviewers who thought the film had failed include Pauline Kael and Roger Ebert . The film service , on the other hand, praised the “calm and stylization over long stretches of the film” as well as the “brilliant scenarios of decay” , but criticized the neglect of plot management and character drawing. There were different opinions about the voice-over comments, the happy ending was felt by most of the critics as artificial and inappropriate. Der Spiegel wrote that the “kitschy happy ending” was a “misunderstood concession to the rites of the cinema”, and a British critic even judged the ending:
"[T] he hero's voiceover and the ending feel as if they've strayed in from another movie."
"The hero's voice-over and the ending seem like they got lost here from another film."
Many reviewers pointed to the stylistic references to film noir, in particular "the film critics [in Deckard] recognized in droves the Philip Marlowe of the 21st century".
Hellmuth Karasek described the film as a “gloomy replica of E. T.'s space optimism” , praised “its impressive nightmarish future design” and saw the film as a far above-average science fiction film due to its “surprising, profound sides” .
With the exception of Harrison Ford's 1982 actors, who were quite unknown, Rutger Hauer was particularly praised, who managed to arouse sympathy for a fighting machine in the audience:
"[...] Hauer [grabs] the film with its strangely moving role of a renegade Aryan replicant who fights blindly for more time."
“Another reason why the film grabbed its audience so much is the portrayal of Roy by Rutger Hauer […] [A] at the end of the film we regret our mistake. We can understand Roy's actions [...] When Roy dies, we suffer with him. "
Sean Young and Harrison Ford were also recognized by the majority of the critics. In 1982 parts of the audience were apparently irritated by the fact that Ford's role did not meet the expectations raised by Star Wars and Indiana Jones . This is what Scott said in an interview when he said that “the fans of a star like Harrison Ford [...] did not see their hero shoot at women or see him being beaten. “The fact that the character Deckard is not a hero and no identification figure for the audience was criticized by critics of both versions of the film.
Unlike the first version, the Director's Cut from 1992 was largely praised; the changes were welcomed:
“In its earlier incarnation, the film was a flawed masterpiece; in Scott's restored version, it is, quite simply, a masterpiece. "
“In its earlier version, the film was a flawed masterpiece; in Scott's restored version it is simply a masterpiece. "
"[T] he Director's Cut turns out not only to be the better cinematic version, but also the only logical one."
The high level of recognition for the Director's Cut is still astonishing because at least some of the points criticized earlier have not been significantly changed. Apparently the critics no longer regarded them as grave as they did ten years earlier; some also admitted to having changed their minds. However, some stuck to their criticism and referred to elements of the film that they found even more confusing or pointless, either still or without the voiceovers. Attention was drawn to the polarizing effect of the film on the audience: many would find it very good, but many would also find it very bad.
Since the mid-1990s at the latest, the film has appeared in many of the popular lists of the best films (from a genre, decade or in general). It is usually even better placed in public surveys than in surveys of professional film critics.
The film received the following awards, among others:
- 1982: Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award - Jordan Cronenweth (Best Cinematographer)
- 1983: 3 BAFTA Awards - Jordan Cronenweth (Best Cinematographer), Charles Knode and Michael Kaplan (Best Costume Design), Lawrence G. Paull (Best Production Designer); 5 more nominations
- 1983: Hugo Award for Best Screenplay (Best Dramatic Presentation)
- 1983: London Critics Circle Film Award - Special award for visual design to Lawrence G. Paull, Douglas Trumbull and Syd Mead
- 1993: Entry into the National Film Registry
- 2017: Induction into the Science Fiction Hall of Fame
In addition, there were two nominations for an Oscar ( Best Production Design and Best Visual Effects ) and a Golden Globe nomination for the music of Vangelis. Blade Runner was nominated for the Saturn Award in four categories , namely Best Science Fiction Film , Best Director , Best Special Effects and Best Supporting Actor (Rutger Hauer); Another nomination for the Saturn Award in 1994 was the Director's Cut for Best Video Release . The original version was proposed as Best Film in 1983, the Director's Cut in 1993 at the Fantasporto Film Festival , Jordan Cronenweth received a nomination for Best Cinematography from the British Society of Cinematographers in 1982 .
In 2003, the Federal Agency for Civic Education, in cooperation with numerous filmmakers, created a film canon for work in schools and included this film on their list. The film was also selected in the 2005 Time selection of the best 100 films from 1923 to 2005 .
The German Film and Media Assessment FBW in Wiesbaden awarded the film the rating particularly valuable.
Sequels, offshoots and successors
KW Jeter , a friend of Philip K. Dick, has written three sequels so far. The film's rightsholders allowed him to use the title Blade Runner . The original titles of the books are:
- Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human (released 1995)
- Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night (1996)
- Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon (2000)
Jeters books are said to be a sequel to both Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? as well as the film, which is difficult due to the marked differences between the two. In order to reach as wide a readership as possible, he uses a language that is simpler in relation to both the film and the novel and uses the trick of explaining the plot rather than depicting it.
Books 2 and 3 have been published in German so far, with the second part simply being called “Blade Runner II” without the additional title. It was published by Heyne-Verlag. The third volume was published in a double pack with the second together under the title Blade Runner: The Return .
The 1998 film Star Force Soldier takes place in the same fictional world as Blade Runner , according to director Paul WS Anderson and screenwriter David Peoples . Peoples, who co-wrote the Blade Runner script, built some references to it in Soldier's script .
After suspicions about a possible successor surfaced at the end of 2008, John Glenn initially admitted that he, together with Bud Yorkin and Travis Wright, had been working on a sequel a few years ago (2003-2005) . Glenn personally denied being involved in the project.
"Travis and I actually broke off as writing partners years ago."
"Travis and I actually split up as writing partners years ago."
Travis Wright also later relativized the rumors by admitting that although different approaches had been developed, they did not result in a production-ready script.
“John Glenn and I were paid to explore a potential secret sequel from  03–  05 and wrote several BR sequel approaches working with Bud Yorkin. We never went to script. "
“John Glenn and I were paid to research a possible secret sequel from 2003-2005 and wrote several BR sequel approaches with Bud Yorkin. We never wrote a script. "
In mid-2009, Ridley Scott planned the production of the web series Purefold with his son Luke and brother Tony Scott . In cooperation with the Ag8 studio, short stories were to be published on the Internet that predate the Blade Runner story. The short films should be produced under the Creative Commons license BY-SA . The project also envisaged that users could have a significant impact on the stories. Furthermore, it was envisaged that manufacturers would use the project for product placement in order to support the financing. However, since the Scott brothers and the Ag8 production studio did not own the rights to the material by Phillip K. Dick, a direct reference to Blade Runner was not possible. In spring 2010 it became known that the project had to be discontinued for financial reasons.
On March 3, 2011, Alcon Entertainment announced in a press release that they are in final negotiations with Bud Yorkin to acquire the rights to Blade Runner. A sequel and a prequel to the original film from 1982 would therefore be possible . Ridley Scott has meanwhile confirmed that work on a new film should begin in 2013 at the earliest. The likelihood that Harrison Ford will participate in the sequel again is quite high, but it is still unclear whether only as a cameo or as the main character. In February 2015 it was confirmed that there was a script by Hampton Fancher and Michael Green , that Harrison Ford would again play the role of Rick Deckard and that the filming should take place under the direction of Denis Villeneuve . On November 17, 2015, Ryan Gosling confirmed that he would star in the sequel. The film finally opened in international cinemas on October 5, 2017, for example in Germany, and in the United States on October 6.
In addition, three short films were made in 2017 with 2036: Nexus Dawn, 2048: Nowhere to Run and Black Out 2022 , which cover important events between the two films. The latter was staged as an anime by Shin'ichirō Watanabe , and the others were directed by Luke Scott .
The CRL Group's shoot 'em up Blade Runner for the Commodore 64, the ZX Spectrum and the Amstrad CPC was released as early as 1985 . However, since the developers did not receive a license for a film tie-in , the game was only based on the soundtrack of the same name by Vangelis. The reviews of the game were negative.
In 1997, the game company Westwood Studios released the official PC game Blade Runner , the plot of which takes place around the same time as that of the film. The player takes on the role of the blade runner Ray McCoy and decides whether to help a group of replicants around their leader Clovis or to “pull them out of circulation”. Depending on how he decides and who was set as the replicant by the computer at the beginning, there are twelve different end sequences, although the gameplay is still quite linear. Several of the film's supporting actors also speak their roles in the game.
In 1999 Bayerischer Rundfunk produced a radio play version entitled "Träume Androiden?" , Which was published on CD in 2005 by Hörverlag (53 minutes). Marina Dietz was responsible for editing and directing; the speakers included Udo Wachtveitl , Sophie von Kessel , Max Tidof , Michael Mendl and Arne Elsholtz, who was responsible for the original dubbed version .
The film is regarded as atmospheric and visually formative for the cyberpunk literature that emerged later, also in the 1980s . William Gibson has stated that he started his influential novel Neuromancer when he saw Blade Runner . Also it had the Heavy Metal comics inspired. To this day, the look of the film conceived by Scott and Mead is the model for many fantastic works. The films Brazil , Terminator , Batman , RoboCop , The Fifth Element , Strange Days and Matrix as well as the television series Max Headroom and Total Recall 2070 are often mentioned here . A number of animes - such as Akira , Bubblegum Crisis , Cowboy Bebop , Silent Möbius , Armitage III and Ghost in the Shell - and computer games - such as Snatcher or Final Fantasy VII - in the cyberpunk genre are influenced by Blade Runner . The South Korean production Natural City by Min Byung-chun from 2003 can be considered a direct remake . This film not only takes up the look of Blade Runner , but also largely takes over the course of the plot.
The topic of the humanity of robots and androids or the differentiation between humans and humanoids is taken up in many other films, such as B. Aliens , AI - Artificial Intelligence , I, Robot and Der 200 Jahre Mann (whereby the underlying narratives of the latter two films are older than Dick's work). Blade Runner made Philip K. Dick known posthumously in Hollywood. Films made later that use Dick's stories as a template include Total Recall , Screamers , Minority Report , Paycheck , A Scanner Darkly and Next .
There are many other works, especially pop culture , that make reference to the film. Among them are pieces by the groups Audioslave , Bomb the Bass , White Zombie and the singer Gary Numan . The video for Tonight, Tonight, Tonight by Genesis is modeled after the scenes in the Bradbury Building and was also shot there. For the cover of their 1986 album Somewhere in Time , the English heavy metal band Iron Maiden borrowed from Blade Runner , who is even named. The band photos for this album were created in a kind of vehicle fleet, which also includes the flying car and the "normal" car that Deckard and Gaff use. The German speed metal band Blind Guardian takes up the topic in their song Time What Is Time from the 1992 album Somewhere Far Beyond . The British singer Kim Wilde released a piece called Bladerunner on the album Teases & Dares in 1984 and also used some short sound samples from the movie. The 1996 album Dead Cities by the English electronica band The Future Sound of London creates a gloomy, eschatological atmosphere through music, themes and cover artwork and also cites Blade Runner or especially his film soundtrack. In the track My Kingdom a vocal sample from Rachel's song is used. The published in 2015 electropop -Titel RM486 of Rose McGowan starts with the monologue of the dying Roy Batty backed by the soundtrack ajar melody .
The fictional location Tannhäuser Tor , mentioned for the first time in the film, has become more widespread in science fiction circles.
"The Replicants" and "The Blade Runners" were names of two groups from the Atari ST - demo scene . The name of the demo group " Haujobb " referring to the eponymous band Haujobb named, probably based the film on a translation error in the German dubbing.
- Philip K. Dick : Blade Runner . 2002, ISBN 3-453-21728-4 (see Do androids dream of electric sheep? )
- Paul M. Sammon: Future Noir - The Making of Blade Runner . Orion Media, London 1996, ISBN 0-7528-0740-4 . (The film journalist Sammon was already watching the filming, did further research for this book and interviewed many people involved. The book is not entirely free of errors, however.)
- Scott Bukatman: Blade Runner (BFI Modern Classics) . British Film Institute, London 1997, ISBN 0-85170-623-1 .
- Judith B. Kerman (Ed.): Retrofitting Blade Runner . University of Wisconsin Press, 2nd Edition Madison 1997, ISBN 0-87972-510-9 . (About 20 essays on the film and Dick's book, including an annotated bibliography.)
- Frank Schnelle: Ridley Scott's Blade Runner . Wiedleroither, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-923990-06-5 .
- Ronald M. Hahn , Volker Jansen: The 100 best cult films from “Metropolis” to “Fargo”. Wilhelm Heyne, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-453-86073-X , pp. 45-51.
- Stefan Jung: Levels of time in Ridley Scott's BLADE RUNNER , in: Encyclopedia of Fantastic Films , Part III: Topics and Aspects. Corian-Verlag, Meitingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-89048-497-6 . (An overarching thematic essay that is able to discuss the cinematic motifs of 'time' in more detail; in addition to influences from literature and architecture, the author mainly deals with the differentiation of temporal perception - both on a formal level within the film and from the perspective of one itself In addition to detailed sequence analyzes, which are completely assigned time codes and take into account all five versions of the film, there is also an examination of the concept of 'postmodernity', the classification of the film as a 'cult-canonical movie' according to Bukatman, as well as his Status as a representative of the cinematic cyberpunk entrance. With detailed bibliography and filmography, numerous images and specially designed time graphics in the appendix.)
- Dietrich Neumann (Hrsg.): Filmarchitektur. From Metropolis to Blade Runner. Prestel, Munich and New York 1996, ISBN 978-3-791316-56-7 .
- Don Shay: Blade Runner: The Inside Story. Cinefex, Titan Books, London 2000, ISBN 1-84023-210-2 .
- Johannes F. Sievert : Theoretical and film analytical aspects in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner . 2000, ISBN 3-930258-72-2 .
Detailed lists of international reviews and other literature can also be found below under web links and in:
- Michael Töteberg (Ed.): Metzler-Film-Lexikon . 2nd Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-476-02068-1 , p. 79.
- International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers. Volume 1: Films . 2nd Edition. St. James Press, Chicago 1990, ISBN 1-55862-037-0 , pp. 113 f.
- Blade Runner in theInternet Movie Database(English)
- Blade Runner in the online film database
- Official German website for the film
- brmovie.com (extensive English site) with the Blade Runner FAQ
- bladezone.com (extensive English site)
- Comparison of the cut versions Director's Cut - Unrated Laserdisc , Director's Cut - Final Cut by Der Blade Runner at Schnittberichte.com
- Benjamin Maack: 30 years of “Blade Runner”: Legend with a false start on one day of June 25, 2012
- Extensive film criticism and interpretation of Siegfried König's symbols on filmzentrale.com (German)
- Extensive review by Tim Dirks on filmsite.org (English)
- Reviews of the original version on rottentomatoes.com (English)
- Final Cut reviews on rottentomatoes.com
- Discussions of the Director's Cut on metacritic.com (English)
- Film review , as well as a film clip by Roberto Missbach on kino-vorschau.com (German)
- Interview with Ridley Scott at Spiegel Online
- br-insight.com (English, contains many analyzes and interpretations of the film)
- 2019: Off-World (English, contains some essays on the film, an unprinted chapter from Sammon's book and extensive archives)
- Blade Runner and The Postmodern City - (English collection of essays and links) ( Memento from June 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- "Multiscript" (script created by fans, parallel to the workprint, original version and director's cut; English, txt format)
- Draft script by Fancher, July 24, 1980 (English, txt format)
- Screenplay by Fancher and Peoples, version dated February 23, 1981 (English, txt format)
- B. Duke: Harrison Ford: The Films , Jefferson 2005, ISBN 0-7864-2016-2 , pp. 97 f.
- Blade Runner. In: synchronkartei.de. German synchronous index , accessed on October 17, 2017 .
- Blade Runner Director's Cut. In: synchronkartei.de. German synchronous index , accessed on October 17, 2016 .
- A. Stiller: The Music in Blade Runner in: Kerman, pp. 196-201
- The Perfect Blade Runner Soundtrack , as of October 6, 2007
- Interview with actor Morgan Paull at bladezone.com, compare also: Paul M. Sammon: Future Noir - The Making of Blade Runner . Orion Media, London 1996, p. 220
- B. Sherris in Videofax Magazine , Spring 1988, p. 43, and H. Lightman / R. Patterson in American Cinematographer , July 1982, pp. 720-725; after Kerman p. 171
- MC Boyer: Cybercities, New York 1996, ISBN 1-56898-048-5 , p. 112 ff .; R. Scott: Interviews , Jackson 2005, ISBN 1-57806-726-X , pp. 50f.
- Fabienne Will: The Blade Runner . In: Thomas Koebner (Ed.): Film genres: Science Fiction . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-15-018401-0 , pp. 376-387.
- Volume 1, 2nd edition 1990, ISBN 1-55862-037-0 , p. 114 f.
- Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-89602-216-4 , p. 33 f.
- 7th edition, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-453-86073-X , p. 49 f.
- Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-86505-160-X , p. 210
- in: Metzler Film-Lexikon , 2nd edition, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-476-02068-1 , p. 79
- MC Boyer: Cyber Cities . New York 1996, ISBN 1-56898-048-5
- Jason P. Vest: Future Imperfect . University of Nebraska Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8032-1860-4 , pp. 24 .
- Rutger Hauer & Patrick Quinlan: All Those Moments: Stories of Heroes, Villains, Replicants and Blade Runners . HarperEntertainment, New York 2007, ISBN 978-0-06-113389-3 .
- Laurence Raw: The Ridley Scott encyclopedia . 2009, ISBN 978-0-8108-6952-3 , pp. 159 .
- N. Wheale: Recognizing a 'human-Thing' in: ibid .: The Postmodern Arts: An Introductory Reader , London, 1995, ISBN 0-415-07776-1 , pp 101-117
- cit. after R. Hahn / V. Jansen: Heyne Lexikon des Science-Fiction-Films , Munich 1993, ISBN 3-453-06318-X , p. 100
- Munich 1996, ISBN 3-453-11512-0 , p. 289
- Woodcock, B. (Ed.): The Selected Poems of William Blake , Ware 1994, Wordsworth Editions Limited, p. 244.
- in: Der Spiegel No. 43/1982, p. 286
- John W. Whitehead: What it Means to Be Humans in the Cybernetic State . On: Huffington Post Online, April 24, 2012. For other references in the film to Descartes, see: Stephen T. Asma: Philosophy Meets Hollywood. Descartes Among the Androids . On: annhetzelgunkel.com , 1999.
- Paul M. Sammon: Future Noir - The Making of Blade Runner . Orion Media, London 1996, pp. 321-330
- W. Kolb: Reconstructing the Director's Cut in: Kerman, pp. 294-302; Paul M. Sammon: Future Noir - The Making of Blade Runner . Orion Media, London 1996, pp. 330-368
- http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=entertainmentNews&storyID=2006-05-30T071105Z_01_N29266256_RTRUKOC_0_US-BLADERUNNER.xml (link not available)
- Report to areadvd
- Venice to unspool Blade Runner ( Memento from September 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- The Blade Runner on OFDb.de
- Comparison, see differences between book and film
- M. Casey: Do Android's Dream of Bladerunning? , P. 24 f.
- J.J. Oleniacz: How & Why the Movie is Different ( Memento from July 14, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- P. Meaney: Alienations in a Dystopia ( Memento from August 26, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- so Hardy, Strick and Will
- M. Casey: Do Android's Dream of Bladerunning? , Pp. 18 and 25.
- Hahn / Jansen, Casey, Norman Spinrad in Starlog magazine (November 1982)
- on Dick's changing views on the film, see Paul M. Sammon: Future Noir - The Making of Blade Runner . Orion Media, London 1996, pp. 282-286 and passim; G. Rickman: Philip K. Dick on Blade Runner: "They Did Sight Stimulation On My Brain" in: Kerman, pp. 103-109; Interview with Sammon at brmovie.com; Letter from Dick to the Ladd Company, October 11, 1981
- S. Bukatman: Blade Runner , pp. 84f .; D. Desser: Race, Space and Class in: Kerman, pp. 110-124
- Paul M. Sammon: Future Noir - The Making of Blade Runner . Orion Media, London 1996, p. 74
- Blade Runner (1982). Rotten Tomatoes , accessed February 19, 2016 .
- Blade Runner. Metacritic , accessed February 19, 2016 .
- The Blade Runner (1982). IMDb , accessed on February 19, 2016 .
RA: Vivid LIVE: Vangelis - Music From Blade Runner at Sydney Opera House, Sydney (2013). In: Resident Advisor. Retrieved October 12, 2017 . The Music Writers Collective. In: The Music Writers Collective. Retrieved October 12, 2017 . Alan McGee: Massive Attack, Vangelis and other replicants. In: the Guardian. Retrieved October 12, 2017 . Si Truss: 9 incredible synth film soundtracks. In: MusicRadar. Retrieved October 12, 2017 .
- Königswinter 1998, ISBN 3-89365-601-4 , p. 385.
- as an example Chris Hicks in Desert News - Blade Runner - by Chris Hicks ( Memento of December 21, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), further examples are under Blade Runner Retrospective - Dr. John L. Flynn ( August 4, 2003 memento on Internet Archive ) cited
- J. Schnelle in film-dienst , October 1982
- in: Time Out Film Guide . London 2000, ISBN 0-14-028365-X
- H. Karasek: Mein Kino , Munich 1999, ISBN 3-453-14853-3 , p. 479 ff.
- Interview with the director on Spiegel ONLINE from December 19, 2007
- For example Siskel & Ebert according to IMDb Trivia for Blade Runner .
- Compilation of some placements at http://www.brmovie.com/BR_Views.htm
- Science Fiction Hall of Fame 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2017 .
- Exclusive: Eagle Eye Co-Writers Working on Blade Runner 2 ( Memento from January 11, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Alex Billington: firstshowing.net: Writer Travis Wright Responds to Blade Runner 2 Backlash. October 7, 2008, accessed June 28, 2010 .
- Peter Sciretta: slashfilm.com: Exclusive: Screenwriter Travis Wright Responds to Blade Runner 2 Story. (No longer available online.) October 6, 2008, archived from the original on June 28, 2010 ; Retrieved June 28, 2010 .
- Brad Stone: nytimes.com: Web Series Tied to 'Blade Runner' Is In the Works. June 4, 2009, accessed June 28, 2010 .
- Purefold ( Memento of August 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed October 12, 2017.
- Branded Blade Runner-inspired web series shelved ( Memento from January 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Jenny Jecke: Blade Runner Franchise in progress. March 3, 2011, accessed March 18, 2011 .
- Özkan Cira: Ridley Scott directs the new "Blade Runner" film. In: filmstarts.de. August 19, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Andrea Wöger: After 31 years: Harrison Ford wants to work on Blade Runner 2. In: moviepilot.de. October 9, 2013, accessed January 26, 2017.
- Harrison Ford to Return for 'Blade Runner' Sequel Directed by Denis Villeneuve. In: variety.com. February 26, 2015, accessed January 26, 2017.
- Ryan Gosling Just Confirmed His Next Big Movie Role: Blade Runner 2! In: imdb.com. IMDb, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
- Blade Runner 2049 News. Gamesradar.com. September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
- ARD audio game database
- Interview with Gibson in Details magazine , October 1992, quoted from Blade Runner FAQ: Did Blade Runner influence cyberpunk?
- History of the demo group "The Replicants" http://replicants.free.fr/history.php , accessed on August 22, 2013.