John Wayne (born May 26, 1907 in Winterset , Iowa , † June 11, 1979 in Los Angeles ; born Marion Robert Morrison , later renamed Marion Mitchell Morrison ), nickname Duke , was an American film actor , producer and director . He was one of the most influential, successful and best-paid Hollywood actors of his time.
During his 50-year career, Wayne has continued to star in western films . The 1.93 meter tall Wayne shaped the image of this film genre in a decisive way in roles such as that of the rough western man, sheriff , marshals and cavalry commander.
Wayne won an Oscar for Best Actor for The Marshal (1969) . He played in western classics such as Ringo (1939), Red River (1948), The Black Falcon (1956) or Rio Bravo (1959) and was also often seen in war and adventure films. As an actor and private person, he personified the traditional values of the pioneering days and became a larger than life figure in American film history. Wayne was best known in the United States by the nickname The Duke , after a dog he owned as a child.
Childhood and college
John Wayne was born in 1907 under the name Marion Robert Morrison in Winterset , Iowa to Clyde Leonard Morrison (1884-1938) and his wife Mary Alberta (née Brown, 1885-1970). When his parents decided to name their next son Robert, they changed Wayne's maiden name to Marion Mitchell. Because of the lung problems of his father, a pharmacist , the family moved to warmer California in 1911 , where Clyde Morrison ran a farm in Lancaster . While he could not cope with farming himself, his son familiarized himself with the horses on the farm and became a skilled rider. He usually covered the ten-kilometer way to school in the saddle.
After two years, Wayne's father gave up the farm again and opened a pharmacy in Glendale , a suburb of Los Angeles , which, however, made little profit. Wayne and his younger brother Robert carried newspapers and ran errands to help support the family. A cinema was also housed in the building of the father's pharmacy . Wayne distributed leaflets for the owner and was allowed to watch films for free. He was always out and about with his Airedale Terrier "Duke" ( Duke ), which is why the neighbors began to call him "Duke" as well. Wayne liked that nickname. In Hollywood, too, the actor was later known as the "Duke".
In Glendale there was an outdoor area of the Triangle film studios. Wayne stopped by occasionally and was the first to come into contact with the film world. At Glendale High School , he impressed with his academic and athletic achievements and was the star of the football team. After finishing school, he made his way as an apricot picker, truck driver and ice cream seller. He tried in vain for admission to the US Naval Academy and went to the University of Southern California (USC), where he also played on the football team. There he studied economics and law with the help of a scholarship . He achieved an average grade of 1.0 in both departments. His 1926 teammates included Jesse Hibbs , a well-known film and television director. After a swimming accident, he had to end his career as an athlete. When, despite his achievements, the scholarship was not extended, he was forced to give up his studies.
In 1926, John Wayne began working in the area's film studios as a set carrier and prop master.
Small and extras roles
At university, John Wayne began working for the local film studios to finance his studies. The well-known western star Tom Mix found him a job as a prop master. At times he was also responsible for the so-called “continuity” - his job was to monitor the correct connections of individual scenes that were shot on different days. From 1926 Wayne (still as Marion Mitchell Morrison) stood as an extra in front of the camera. In 1928 he played his first visible role in Hangman's House and was seen in four scenes as a spectator at a horse race. Wayne made friends with director John Ford and took on minor roles for him from 1928.
Serials and B-Movies
In 1930, director Raoul Walsh gave Marion Mitchell Morrison the stage name "John Wayne" and the lead role in his western The Great Trek . Broad-shouldered, 1.93 meters tall, Wayne was seen as the heroic leader of a trek of settlers. At William Fox Studios, he earned $ 75 a week and was trained by stuntmen in the typical skills of a western hero. Walsh's film, the first epic western of the sound film era, was a commercial failure, which is why Wayne's contract was not renewed. The film later became a classic.
John Wayne got a new chance through Harry Cohn , head of Columbia Pictures . Thought Wayne was handsome in a tuxedo, Cohn cast him in a couple of society comedies. Then he started bullying the actor for believing Wayne had his eye on a starlet he was interested in himself. The Columbia contract expired and Wayne was unemployed for a few months. Later he never wanted to work for Columbia again.
Wayne found work at the production company Mascot, where he met Yakima Canutt , an actor and well-known stuntman (in 1959 Canutt directed the chariot race in Ben Hur ). Canutt not only taught Wayne the fine art of film beating, but also inspired the rocking gait that the "Duke" made his trademark. Throughout the 1930s, Wayne played typical western heroes in Serials , the cheap predecessors of the television series, and B-category films . Although he was used as the main actor here, the artistic quality of the schematic, quickly produced films was insignificant. Wayne's career stagnated .
Ringo: breakthrough to become a top star
In 1939 John Ford staged the pioneering Western Ringo (English: Stagecoach ), which tells of a dangerous stagecoach ride through the Apache country. The western genre, until then characterized by low budgets and formulaic content, was significantly enhanced by Ford's film. As the main actor, the director was able to get his friend John Wayne through, although producer Walter Wanger had initially refused to hire a B-movie actor. Against the impressive backdrop of Monument Valley , Wayne made a name for himself in the role of the adventurer Ringo Kid and rose to become a top star. Ringo is considered to be one of the most important classics in American film history and shaped its genre in a decisive way.
During the 1940s Wayne appeared in numerous westerns ( The Daredevil from Boston , 1942, The Stranger from Arizona , 1944), but also starred in dramas ( Pittsburgh , 1942) and adventure films ( Pirates in the Caribbean Sea , 1942). In 1940 he appeared alongside Marlene Dietrich in the comedic adventure flick The House of Seven Sins . During the Second World War , Wayne also made his first war films: Alarm in the Pacific (1944), Stahlgewitter (1945) and Schnellboats off Bataan (1945, director: John Ford).
Masterpieces with Ford and Hawks
From the late 1940s Wayne worked regularly for the directors Howard Hawks and John Ford and created several masterpieces of the western genre with them. In Hawks' Red River in 1948, Wayne played a cattle baron who drove a huge herd of cattle from Texas to Missouri and turned his adopted son ( Montgomery Clift ) against him. The impressively photographed film is considered one of the most important American film classics.
John Ford cast Wayne in his classic cavalry trilogy, which consists of the films To the Last Man (1948), The Devil's Captain (1949) and Rio Grande (1950). Wayne played cavalry officers fighting Indians and superiors here (in To the Last Man ). In all three cavalry westerns Wayne played significantly older men, in the devil's captain even an officer in the late autumn of his life. This role was considered by director Ford, by film critics and by Wayne himself as his best acting performance to date, but was not included in Oscar awards. "Now you're an actor!", Ford is said to have certified him for what, given the usual rough handling of the director with his actors, can be seen as an expression of the highest praise. In Footsteps in the Sand (1949, John Ford) Wayne appeared as an outlaw who involuntarily becomes the “nanny” of an orphaned baby. (The film, which clearly relates to the story of the three wise men, is often shown on Christmas days.)
In 1952, in Ford's romantic comedy The Victorious , Wayne played a boxer in Ireland who reluctantly falls in love with a beautiful redhead ( Maureen O'Hara ). This film achieved particular fame through one of the longest brawls in film history. In 1956, Ford staged an epic western with The Black Falcon , which is now a masterpiece and cult film. Wayne acted against the backdrop of Monument Valley as a fanatical Indian hater and delivered in the multi-layered role of Ethan Edwards according to the general tenor one of his best acting performances.
In 1959, again directed by Ford, he starred alongside William Holden in the Civil War Western The Last Orders . In the same year he appeared for Howard Hawks in Rio Bravo in one of his most famous western roles: As Sheriff John T. Chance , he has to defend a small town against a gang of gangsters and is on the help of an old veteran ( Walter Brennan ), a drunkard ( Dean Martin ) and a young man ( Ricky Nelson ). Dean Martin and Rick Nelson also contribute the distinctive western songs to this film. The film is still very popular even after decades.
During the 1950s, Wayne appeared in a variety of films. He played in war and military stripes ( Steel wings , 1950, Der Seefuchs , 1955, Düsenjäger , 1957), westerns ( They call me Hondo , 1953) and adventure films ( The Yellow Stream , 1955, The City of the Lost , 1957). In the unusual role of Genghis Khan ( The Conqueror , 1956) he was seen by many as a blatant miscast.
The 1960s and 1970s
The 1960s began with an unpleasant experience for John Wayne: The actor made his debut as the lead actor, producer and director in the epic Western Alamo (1960), which retold the dramatic events surrounding the Texas fort of the same name . Due to the commercial failure of the elaborately produced film, Wayne's finances were ruined for years.
In 1962 Wayne was again in front of the camera for John Ford and starred in the melancholy western The Man, the Liberty Valance shot an old man from the West who has no place in an increasingly civilized world. The strip is considered one of Ford's central masterpieces. Ford was also one of the four directors who realized the lavish Cinerama western epic That Was the Wild West in 1962 . Wayne played the brief role of Civil War General William T. Sherman . In 1963 the actor appeared for Ford in the comedy Die Hafenkneipe von Tahiti . With this film, one of the most important artistic partnerships in American film ended after 35 years. Ford developed lung cancer the following year and died a few years later.
In the comedic adventure flick Hatari! by Howard Hawks Wayne was seen catching animals in Africa in 1962 . The film was a surprise success , not least because of the music by Henry Mancini ( Baby Elephant Walk ). In 1966 Hawks varied his successful western Rio Bravo with El Dorado and showed Wayne at the side of Robert Mitchum , who added to the amusement as an alcoholized sheriff . In 1970 Hawks, again with Wayne in the lead role, varied the story for a third time in Rio Lobo . With this film, Hawks' last directorial work, the collaboration between Wayne and Hawks ended after 22 years.
During the 1960s and 1970s, Wayne also appeared regularly in his typical western films, cementing his image as a larger-than-life figure in American film history. He starred in The Comancheros (1961), The Four Sons of Katie Elder (1965), The Powerful (1967), Chisum (1970) and The Cowboys (1972). For his comedic portrayal of the one-eyed, permanently drunk Marshal Rooster Cogburn in the western The Marshal ( True Grit ), the actor received his only regular Oscar.
In 1962, John Wayne appeared in the epic war film The Longest Day , which portrayed the events of D-Day 1944 with a large cast of stars . With another war film sparked Wayne in 1968 a controversial debate and sharp protests from: The Green Berets described him as a leading actor and co-director in significantly patriotic tone, the experiences of a Green Beret unit in the Vietnam War.
In the early 1970s Wayne was offered the lead role in the later cult film Dirty Harry . But the actor refused, and Clint Eastwood took the part. After Dirty Harry became a huge box office hit, Wayne tried to make up for his mistake by appearing in similar urban thrillers ( Brannigan , 1975). But the audience no longer wanted to relieve the aged, also clearly overweight star of the image change.
After exactly 50 years ended in 1976 Wayne his film career with the melancholy late Western The Shootist (The Shootist) , in which he - himself suffering from cancer for years - as with cancer gunslinger JB Books occurred. The film illustrated Books' career through a montage of short scenes from older Wayne films.
Wayne stopped going in front of a movie camera in the last three years of his life. A few months before his death, clearly marked by his illness, he made his last public appearance at the 1979 Academy Awards.
The actor Wayne
More than almost any other actor, John Wayne is identified by the audience with a clearly defined character type, but he also played complex character roles from time to time. For example those of Ethan Edwards in The Black Falcon , Nathan Brittles in The Devil Captain or Sergeant Stryker in You Were Our Comrade . Many of his character roles have earned him critical acclaim. In his films he developed the role of the rough figure of authority, who appears, for example, as a sheriff or commander and is characterized by experience, toughness and tenacity. Even when he is under the command of someone else, as in The Black Hawk , he is always the one who shapes what happens and only accepts orders as long as they do not run counter to his own intentions (“That's an order, Ethan!” “Yes , but if it goes wrong, that was your last order! ”) .
In his western films, Wayne was committed to depictions of this kind from Red River (1948) at the latest and only varied them deliberately within relatively narrow limits. He played his most complex role as a Western man in The Black Falcon (1956), where he was seen as a fanatical Indian hunter who secretly loves his brother's wife and embarks on a year-long odyssey to avenge her death. Over the years he enriched his appearances as a grumpy ruffian with self-deprecating undertones ( Rio Bravo, Hatari, The Marshal ).
Wayne played the corresponding roles for decades and became a larger than life figure in film history, in which the values of the American pioneering days were condensed in an archetypal way. As an actor, he did not show the ambition to expand his acting spectrum, especially since this was not expected by the audience. Wayne appeared 25 times - more than any other star - on the list of the ten most commercially successful actors compiled annually by Quigley Publications. It was only towards the end of his career that he was replaced as a leading genre star by younger actors such as Charles Bronson and Clint Eastwood .
John Wayne was known as an American patriot and, as a private citizen, also cultivated the traditional values that he personified in his film roles. He was considered the most popular Republican Hollywood star of the time, joined the extreme right-wing John Birch Society in 1960 and supported the 1964 presidential campaign of Republican Barry Goldwater , who was described as a " conservative hardliner ". Shortly before his death, he also stood up for the Republican Ronald Reagan , who then became President of the USA in 1981. Wayne had supported Ronald Reagan in the election for governor of California in 1966 and 1970 . He had turned down an offer from the Republicans in Texas to run as a candidate in 1968 because he did not believe that an actor would be accepted by the general public in the White House.
During the McCarthy era , Wayne chaired the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals , which claimed to have set itself the goal of fighting the spread of "communist, fascist and other totalitarian groups" in the American film industry. During this period, suspected filmmakers were summoned, among other things, to the Committee for Un-American Activities (HUAC) and given the choice of cooperating with the appropriate committees or risking prison sentences or a career break for themselves. For many observers - especially with the hearings in Hollywood - the activities of the HUAC committee finally assumed the character of a “witch hunt”.
Wayne's views made him an attractive figure for many, especially at the time of the Vietnam War . In order to support the war, he turned as a director and leading actor of the propaganda film The Green Berets (The Green Berets) and visited US troops on the ground. However, he did not avoid the confrontation and attended a panel discussion at the invitation of student groups critical of the Vietnam War.
“The gap between his image and reality was enormous,” says Glenn Greenwald . The author proves this in his book "Great American Hypocrites". Greenwald quotes Wayne with a remark about Native America from a Playboy interview in 1971: "I don't think we did anything wrong when we took this great country away from them [...] There was one Lot of new people who needed a lot of land. The Indians were selfish and wanted to keep it. "
At the 1973 Academy Awards , where Wayne introduced a musical performance, he is said to have reacted aggressively to Littlefeather , who refused to accept the Oscar on behalf of Marlon Brando and who drew attention to the treatment of indigenous people. Littlefeather said Wayne had to be held back by security guards as he planned to drag her off the stage. There is evidence of Wayne's statement that Brando should have appeared himself and made his point of view clear instead of “putting a little unknown girl in an Indian costume”.
Blacks were not equals for Wayne: “I believe in white superiority until blacks are educated enough to take responsibility.” And about slavery he said: “I don't feel guilty that it was five or ten generations ago Slaves were [...] It was just like that. "
John Wayne was married three times, all women were of Hispanic-American or Hispanic backgrounds. From 1933 to 1945 he was married to Josephine Alcia Saenz (1908-2003), the couple had four children: Michael Wayne (1934-2003), Mary Wayne LaCava (1936-2000), Patrick Wayne (* 1939) and Melinda Wayne Munoz (* 1940). From 1946 to the divorce in 1954 he was married to the Mexican actress Esperanza Baur (* 1924 / 1926–1961), from this marriage there were three children. In 1954 Wayne married the Peruvian actress Pilar Pallette (* 1928). They had three children together: Aissa Wayne (* 1956), John Ethan Wayne (* 1962) and Marisa Wayne (* 1966). In 1973 he separated from his wife and spent the last years of his life with his former secretary, Pat Stacy (1941-1995), but remained formally married to Pallette until his death.
In addition, John Wayne was since July 11, 1970 a member of the Masonic Lodge Marion McDaniel Lodge # 56 (The Duke's Lodge) in Tucson , Arizona, and then moved to Hollywood Lodge , which he was a member until his death. He was honored with the 33rd degree by the Scottish Rite Bodies in Los Angeles . In 1978 he converted to the Catholic faith.
In World War II, Wayne was freed as a father of four children, because of his age and a slight shoulder injury from his time as a young football player from military service, but took in the Pacific War to several months of troop entertainment tour of the United Service Organizations in part.
His application to the Office of Strategic Services , the forerunner of the CIA , was unsuccessful in 1943.
Sickness and death
Wayne died of stomach cancer in 1979 after a fifteen year medical history . His left lung had already been removed in 1964. The possible cause of his cancer is the circumstances of the shooting of The Conqueror (1956) in the US state of Utah , which took place near the Nevada National Security Site nuclear test area . Wayne himself saw the cause in the three to four packs of cigarettes he had smoked every day. In addition to Wayne, many other crew members of The Conqueror also developed cancer.
Wayne's grave is located in Pacific View Memorial Park in Corona del Mar , a borough of Newport Beach , in Orange County , California . Orange County Airport was named after him. Wayne's wish to have a gravestone with the inscription “ Feo, fuerte y formal ” (German: “He was ugly, strong and had dignity”) has not been fulfilled to this day. Instead, because of the fear of grave robbers, he was given the emphatically unadorned resting place 20 years after Wayne's death, a gravestone with a relief of the actor on horseback in front of the Alamo and a quote from an interview:
“Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. Comes into us at midnight very clean. It's perfect when it arrives and it puts itself in our hands. It hopes we've learned something from yesterday. "
“Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. He comes to us at midnight - all in. It is flawless when it arrives and is in our hands. He hopes that we have learned something from yesterday. "
As an actor
- 1926: Robbery of the King's Gorge ( Great K & A Train Robbery )
- 1926: Brown of Harvard
- 1926: Gallows Wedding / The Gallows Count ( Bardelys the Magnificent )
- 1927: Reluctant womanizer ( The Drop Kick ) - J. Wayne as an extra
- 1927: Annie Laurie - A Hero Song of the Highlands ( Annie Laurie )
- 1928: Mother Machree
- 1928: Four Sons ( Four Sons )
- 1928: Hangman's House
- 1928: The Drama of the Flood / Noah's Ark ( Noah's Ark )
- 1929: The Black Guard / India in Flames ( The Black Watch )
- 1929: Speakeasy
- 1929: The Forward Pass
- 1929: Words and Music
- 1929: Salute
- 1930: The Big Trail ( The Big Trail )
- 1930: U 13 / The Downfall of US 13 ( Man Without Women )
- 1930: Murder in Alaska ( Rough Romance )
- 1930: Cheer Up and Smile
- 1931: Girls Demand Excitement
- 1931: Three Girls Lost
- 1931: The Devil of Arizona ( Arizona / Men Are Like That )
- 1931: The Rancher Feud ( Range Feud )
- 1931: The Deceiver
- 1931: Maker of Man
- 1932: Shadow of the Eagle (twelve-part series)
- 1932: Texas Cyclone
- 1932: The law in your own hands ( Two-Fisted Law )
- 1932: Who is right here? / The man of steel ( Lady And Gent )
- 1932: The falcon / Hunt for the falcon / My horse Duke ( Ride Him, Cowboy )
- 1932: Hurricane Express ( The Hurricane Express ) (twelve-part series)
- 1932: The Big Stampede / Kill the Cattle Thief ( The Big Stampede )
- 1932: That's My Boy
- 1932: Haunted Gold / The Phantom and the Goldmine ( Haunted Gold )
- 1933: High Wolf / Indian on the wrong track ( The Telegraph Trail )
- 1933: The road into the unknown ( Central Airport )
- 1933: The Three Musketeers (twelve-part series)
- 1933: Settlement in Sonora ( Somewhere in Sonora )
- 1933: His personal secretary ( His Private Secretary )
- 1933: Life of Jimmy Dolan
- 1933: Baby Face
- 1933: The Man from Monterey ( The Man from Monterey )
- 1933: The water rights of Lost Creek / rider of justice ( Riders of Destiny )
- 1933: College Coach
- 1933: His friend, the Desperado / Desperado Man or Stolen Goods ( Sagebrush Trail )
- 1934: The Gold of Texas / Lucky Texan / Lucky Texan in Danger / The Relentless Texan ( The Lucky Texan )
- 1934: Downstream ( West of the Divide )
- 1934: Showdown at the Adler Pass / Avengers of the West / Gold in the Clouds ( Blue Steel ) / Gold in the Hills
- 1934: Rodeo ( The Man from Utah )
- 1934: The Lone Rider (aka: Randy's Fatal Ride) ( Randy Rides Alone )
- 1934: US Marshal John (also known as: The Shadow , The Inexorable , He Wore a Star or Man of the Law ) ( The Star Packer )
- 1934: They Kill for Gold (aka: Greed for Gold) ( The Trail Beyond )
- 1934: Land Without a Law (also known as: The Law of the Stronger or The Lonely Avenger) or ( The Lonely Avenger ) ( Lawless Frontier )
- 1934: Under the Arizona Skies ( 'Neath the Arizona Skies )
- 1935: Adventures in Texas ( Texas Terror )
- 1935: In the valley of the rainbow ( Rainbow Valley )
- 1935: The Rodeo Heist ( Desert Trail )
- 1935: Riders at dusk / friends / Death Wish II / The Mysterious Rider ( The Dawn Rider / Gunfighter )
- 1935: Fire water and fresh flowers / The Trail of Death ( Paradise Canyon / Paradise Ranch )
- 1935: Westward! ( Westward Ho )
- 1935: Flaming Frontier ( New Frontier )
- 1935: Valley of Fear / Highnoon in Helltown ( Lawless Range )
- 1936: The Oregon Trail
- 1936: Land of the Future ( The Lawless Nineties )
- 1936: The King of the Pecos ( King of the Pecos )
- 1936: Gone with the Wind ( The Lonely Trail )
- 1936: Winds of wilderness / storms in the Wild West ( Winds of the Wasteland )
- 1936: The Sea Spoilers
- 1936: Conflict
- 1937: California Straight Ahead
- 1937: Bombs over the Orient / On a dangerous mission I Cover the War
- 1937: Idol of the Crowds
- 1937: Night of horror / Treasure on the seabed ( Adventure's End )
- 1937: The Wyoming gambling den ( Born to the West )
- 1938: Friends in the Saddle ( Pals of the Saddle )
- 1938: Gold in the Clouds ( Overland Stage Raiders )
- 1938: uprising in Santa Fé ( Santa Fe Stampede )
- 1938: Battle on the Red River Range
- 1939: Reiter in der Nacht / Terror Reiter der Nacht ( The Night Riders )
- 1939: The Stars of Texas Three Texas Steers
- 1939: The Bandit of Wyoming ( Wyoming Outlaw )
- 1939: Water for Arizona ( New Frontier / Frontier Horizon )
- 1939: Black River / The Man from the Black River ( Allegheny Uprising )
- 1939: Ringo / Hell trip to Santa Fé ( Stagecoach )
- 1940: The Long Voyage Home ( The Long Voyage Home )
- 1940: Dark Command ( The Dark Command )
- 1940: Three Faces West / The Refuge
- 1940: The House of Seven Sins ( Seven Sinners )
- 1941: A Man Betrayed
- 1941: Lady From Louisiana
- 1941: The Shepherd of the Hills ( The Shepherd of the Hills )
- 1942: Lady For A Night
- 1942: Pirates in the Caribbean Sea ( Reap the Wild Wind )
- 1942: The Buccaneer (also Steel Fists; A Woman Without Morals; Gold Rush in Alaska; ( The Spoilers) )
- 1942: The Boston Daredevil ( aka : California Gold Rush) ( In Old California )
- 1942: Company Tigersprung ( Flying Tigers )
- 1942: Reunion in France
- 1942: Pittsburgh
- 1943: tough guys - steep teeth / Der Wildwestkavalier ( A Lady Takes a Chance )
- 1943: The Hell of Oklahoma ( In Old Oklahoma )
- 1944: Alarm in the Pacific ( The Fighting Seabees )
- 1944: With rifle and lasso / The avenger of the disinherited / In Arizona all hell is going on / The stranger from Arizona / Stuck in the saddle ( Tall in the Saddle )
- 1945: San Francisco Lilly ( Flame of Barbary Coast )
- 1945: Steel storm / Two strike back ( Back to Bataan )
- 1945: love in the wild (also blood on the Fargo River , cowboy love , burning prairie , OT Dakota )
- 1945: Speedboats in front of Bataan ( They Were Expendable )
- 1946: Without Reservations
- 1947: The Black Rider ( Angel and the Badman )
- 1947: Tycoon ( Tycoon )
- 1948: Red River / Panic on the Red River ( Red River )
- 1948: To the Last Man ( Fort Apache )
- 1948: Footsteps in the Sand ( Three Godfathers )
- 1949: Under the spell of the red witch / the secret of the red witch ( Wake of the Red Witch )
- 1949: The Devil's Captain ( She Wore a Yellow Ribbon )
- 1949: In the Last Second ( The Fighting Kentuckian )
- 1949: You were our comrade / Death Squad / Iwo Jima, the great battle ( Sands of Iwo Jima )
- 1950: Rio Grande
- 1950: Steel wings / Wildcat Fighter Squadron / Guadalcanal - decision in the Pacific ( Flying Leathernecks )
- 1951: Operation Seeadler ( Operation Pacific )
- 1952: Miracle in Motion
- 1952: The Winner / The Red Haired Cat ( The Quiet Man )
- 1952: Marijuana ( Big Jim McLain )
- 1953: I'm called Hondo ( Hondo ) ( 3D movie )
- 1953: The Last Signal ( Island in the Sky )
- 1953: trouble down the line ( Trouble Along the Way )
- 1954: The High and the Mighty ( The High and the Mighty )
- 1955: The Sea Chase ( The Sea Chase )
- 1955: The Yellow Stream ( Blood Alley )
- 1956: The Conqueror ( The Conqueror )
- 1956: The Black Hawk ( The Searchers )
- 1957: jet fighter (Jet Pilot)
- 1957: The Eagle equal ( The Wings of Eagles )
- 1957: The City of the Lost ( Legend of the Lost )
- 1958: Left and right of the marriage bed ( I Married a Woman , guest role)
- 1958: The Barbarian and the Geisha ( The Barbarian and the Geisha )
- 1959: Rio Bravo
- 1959: The last command ( The Horse Soldiers )
- 1960: Alamo ( The Alamo ) (also director and producer)
- 1960: Land of a Thousand Adventures ( North to Alaska )
- 1961: The Comancheros ( The Comancheros )
- 1962: The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance ( The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance )
- 1962: Hatari! ( Hatari! )
- 1962: The Longest Day ( The Longest Day )
- 1963: How the West Was Won ( How the West Was Won )
- 1963: The Tahiti Harbor Pub ( Donovan's Reef )
- 1963: MacLintock ( McLintock! )
- 1964: Circus World / hero of the arena / circus ( Circus World )
- 1965: The Greatest Story Ever Told ( The Greatest Story Ever Told )
- 1965: First Victory ( In Harm's Way )
- 1965: The Sons of Katie Elder ( The Sons of Katie Elder )
- 1966: Cast A Giant Shadow / Commander Stones - your best man / throw a big shadow ( Cast a Giant Shadow )
- 1966: El Dorado ( El Dorado )
- 1967: The War ( The War Wagon )
- 1968: The Green Berets ( The Green Berets ) (also co-director)
- 1968: The Intrepid ( Hellfighters )
- 1969: The Marshal ( True Grit )
- 1969: The Undefeated ( The Undefeated )
- 1970: Chisum ( Chisum )
- 1970: Rio Lobo ( Rio Lobo )
- 1971: Big Jake ( Big Jake )
- 1972: The Cowboys ( The Cowboys )
- 1972: Dirty Gold ( The Train Robbers )
- 1973: Vultures have no mercy ( Cahill, US Marshal )
- 1973: McQ strikes ( McQ )
- 1975: Brannigan - A Man of Steel ( Brannigan )
- 1975: With dynamite and pious sayings ( Rooster Cogburn )
- 1976: The Shootist / The Shootist ( The Shootist )
John Wayne as a producer
(Only the films in which he himself has no role)
- 1951: Bullfighter and the Lady
- 1953: The Mysterious Testament (Plunder of the Sun)
- 1954: Gala premiere (Ring of Fear)
- 1954: trail in the mountains / track the cat (Track of the Cat)
- 1956: Goodbye, my girlfriend (Goodbye, My Lady)
- 1956: It's the turn of the seventh (Seven Men from Now)
- 1956: shoot the man! (Gun the Man Down)
- 1956: Man in the Vault
- 1958: China Doll
- 1967: Hondo ( Hondo and the Apaches , remake of his 1953 film)
- 1969: Patrol westward (Escort West)
John Wayne as a director
- 1960: Alamo ( The Alamo )
- 1968: The Green Berets ( The Green Berets )
John Wayne on TV
- 1955: Rookie of the Year
- 1960: The Colter Craven Story (The Colter Craven Story)
- 1962: Flashing Spikes
- 1970: Sing Out Sweet Land
He also had appearances in the shows Lough In , I Love Lucy and The Dean Martin Show .
German voice actors
Wayne has been spoken by various actors in the German dubbed films over the decades. During the 1940s and 1950s, his speakers changed constantly, Wolfgang Lukschy was used more often , his most frequent speaker until the mid-1960s was Heinz Engelmann - due to the proximity to Wayne's original vocal range . In the second half of the 1960s, Arnold Marquis , the so-called "King of Dubbing", established himself as Wayne's best-known German voice - despite his much rougher, deeper voice. Marquis knew Wayne personally and after his death released the single "I was the voice of John Wayne". Other speakers included Curt Ackermann , Ernst Wilhelm Borchert , Hans W. Hamacher , Richard Münch and Peter Pasetti .
- 1950: Nomination for best leading actor in You were our comrade
- 1961: Nomination for Best Picture for Alamo
- 1970: Oscar for Best Actor in The Marshal
- 1953: Henrietta Award as the world's most popular actor
- 1966: Cecil B. DeMille Award for his life's work
- 1970: Best Actor in The Marshal
- 1961: Bronze Wrangler for the Alamo
- 1962: Bronze Wrangler for The Comancheros
- 1963: Bronze Wrangler for The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance
- 1970: Bronze Wrangler for The Marshal
This award is always given to several participants in the film.
- 1975: Favorite movie star
- 1976: Favorite movie star
- 1977: Favorite movie star
- 1978: Favorite movie star
This award has been given annually since 1975.
- 1950: Most Popular Male Star for Death Squad
- 1996: In Memoriam Award (posthumous)
- 2007: Founder's Award (posthumous)
- 1965: Most Cooperative Actor of the Year
- 1976: Male Star of the Year
- 1961: Best Action Drama Producer on Alamo
- 1961: Best Action Performance for Alamo
- 1962: Best Action Performance for The Comancheros
- 1963: Best Action Performance for The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance
- 1964: Best Action Performance for McLintock
- 1968: 3rd place Best Action Performance for The Green Devils
- 1970: Best Action Performance for Der Marshal
- 1971: Best Action Performance for Chisum
- 1958: Top Male Star
- 1959: Top Male Star
- 1960: Top Male Star
- 1961: Top Male Star
- 1962: Top Male Star
- 1964: Top Male Star
- 1965: Top Male Star
- 1966: Top Male Star
- 1967: Top Male Star
- 1968: Top Male Star
- 1968: 4th place for best film for the Green Devils
- 1970: Top Male Star
- 1971: Top Male Star
- 1979: Congressional Gold Medal
- 1980: Presidential Medal of Freedom (posthumous)
These two medals are the highest civilian awards in the United States. They were awarded to John Wayne for his public service to the United States, as well as for having been honored like no other star by the United States Congress and the public, especially in the last few years of his life .
Wayne earned a star at 1541 Vine Street.
- Wayne left his footprints and a dedication in Grauman's Chinese Theater on January 25, 1950 .
In 1998 the renowned American Film Institute published a series of top lists in which actors and films are honored. Wayne was able to place in several categories:
- He was voted the 13th greatest male film legend of all time.
- In the list of the 50 greatest hero characters in an American film, he reached number 36 with the portrayal of Rooster Cogburn in The Marshal .
He was able to place himself indirectly in the following categories, as he embodied leading roles in these films with complex characters and thus contributed significantly to the success of the films:
- The film The Black Falcon was voted number 12 of the 100 greatest American films of all time.
- The 10 greatest westerns of all time:
- 1st place the black falcon
- 5th place Red River
- 9th place Ringo
Wayne has been voted into the top 10 commercially successful actors 25 times in his 50-year career, more than any other star. Several times he took the top position.
No other actor has ever made it into the top 10 most popular actors in America more often than John Wayne, taking the number one spot several times. Even today, several decades after his death, he is still voted into the top 10 more regularly and more often than any other star. Here, too, he has already reached number 1 several times.
- While Big Jim McLain's original John Wayne is persecuting communists for the Committee for Un-American Activities , he is chasing a marijuana smuggling ring in the German-language dubbed version .
- Wayne also tried his hand at singing cowboy in his first western films , but without much success. The singing did not come from himself, rather it was dubbed by different singers . The identity of these singers has been heavily disputed in the past. While it is considered certain that the singing in Westward! ( Westward Ho!, 1935) by Jack Kirk , both Smith Ballew and Bill Bradbury (the twin brother of Bob Steele ) are named for The Lost Creek Water Rights ( Riders of Destiny , 1933) . However, while filming, Ballew was on tour with his band outside of California , where the film was being shot. In addition, Ballew himself denied singing for Wayne. So it seems more likely that it was actually Bill Bradbury, especially since his father, Robert N. Bradbury, was the director of the film.
- In 1953 Wayne also made a 3D film : They call me Hondo ( Hondo ), which later served as the template for a television series (but in which he did not participate). This film is in the series " Married with Children " ( Married with Children regularly cited).
- John Wayne got for his role as Genghis Khan in the film The Conqueror ( The Conqueror , 1956) to The Golden Turkey Awards in the category largest miscast all time .
- Wayne traveled to Europe in 1956 to promote his film The Conqueror and also visited West and East Berlin from January 26th to 29th, 1956.
- A large number of the cast and cast in The Conqueror , like Wayne, died of cancer. The film was shot in Snow Canyon State Park , Utah , which was exposed to radioactive fallout in 1953 as a result of nuclear weapons tests at the Nevada National Security Site .
- Wayne is in the Guinness Book of Records as an actor with the most leading roles. Wayne starred in 142 of his 153 films.
- In the year of his death, Orange County Airport in Santa Ana was renamed John Wayne Airport ( IATA airport code : SNA , ICAO code : KSNA , FAA LID: SNA ) in honor of him. The airport serves the surrounding cities in Orange County : Santa Ana , Newport Beach , Costa Mesa , Irvine and Anaheim .
- In Switzerland "John Wayne" is the nickname for the canned meals served in the military.
- Boxer Tommy Morrison , who also appeared in Rocky V , was the great-nephew of John Wayne. His battle name was "The Duke", the nickname of his great-uncle.
- In the movie Full Metal Jacket , the saying “Are you John Wayne? Or is that me? ” The character Private Joker refers to the glorification of the military and war by the Hollywood film industry , which starred Wayne in the lead role in many of its war films.
- The cover picture of Perry Rhodan's booklet No. 120, Der Planet Mechanica, created by Johnny Bruck , depicts the character of Colonel Jefe Claudin . She has Wayne's facial features.
- Andreas Baur, Konrad Bitterli (eds.): Brave Lonesome Cowboy. The myth of the western in contemporary art or: John Wayne on his 100th birthday. Verlag für Moderne Kunst, Nuremberg 2007.
- George Carpozi: John Wayne. His films - his life (The John Wayne Story). Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-86071-3 .
- Scott Eyman : John Wayne: The Life and Legend . Simon & Schuster, New York 2014, ISBN 978-1-4391-9958-9 .
- Jörn Glasenapp : From the Cold War in the Western to the Vietnam War: John Wayne and the Alamo myth . In: Heinz-B. Heller, Burkhard Röwekamp, Matthias Steinle (Eds.): All Quiet on the Genre Front? On the practice and theory of war films . Schüren Verlag, Marburg 2007, pp. 75–92.
- Michael Goldmann: John Wayne - Pictures and documents from the life of a legend . Knesebeck Verlag, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-86873-733-2 .
- Uwe Nettelbeck: The Western and the American Right. John Wayne as an example . In: Filmkritik , 5/65, pp. 250–258, 298–299, reprint of the year 1965, Munich. Film critic cooperative 1976.
- Peter Osteried: The great John Wayne book. MPW, Hille 2010, ISBN 978-3-931608-99-6 .
- Andrea Rennschmid: Alamo - John Wayne's epic of freedom . Reinhard Weber Verlag, Landshut, ISBN 978-3-9802987-3-5 .
- Mark Ricci, Boris Zmijewsky, Steve Zmijewsky: John Wayne and his films (The Films of John Wayne). Citadel film books from Goldmann, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-442-10202-2 .
- Interview in Playboy May 1971
- Literature by and about John Wayne in the catalog of the German National Library
- John Wayne in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- John Wayne at Prisma.de
- John Wayne Cancer Institute (English)
- "The Duke is dead - long live the Duke!" In memoriam, John Wayne
- ^ Bryan Enk: The Secrets Behind John Wayne's Many Names. In: movies.yahoo.com. Yahoo Movies, March 28, 2014, accessed October 27, 2014 (Marion Michael Morrison is a widespread misrepresentation of his name.): “So his brother was named Robert and they changed Marion's middle name to 'Mitchell,' after his grandfather. "
- ↑ Everything that is right . In: NZZ , May 26, 2007
- ↑ a b James Kent: John Wayne The Restless American ( Memento from April 18, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) Documentary, Great Britain 1997, 58 minutes, broadcast on March 7, 2010 on arte .
- ↑ Tony Shaw: Hollywood's Cold War. Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1-55849-612-5 , p. 207.
- ↑ https://www.arte.tv/de/videos/083274-000-A/john-wayne- Amerika-um-jeden-preis /
- ↑ https://web.archive.org/web/20020430165124/http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/88.2/bennett.html
- ↑ https://archive.org/details/Challeng1961
- ^ John Wayne: American , Bison Books, 1997, p. 338.
- ↑ John Wayne: Playboy Interview / MAY 1971. University of Virginia, May 1971, p. 8 , accessed June 1, 2019 .
- ↑ Kate Taylor: Dingen Littlefeather, Marlon Brando's one-time Oscars accomplice, on how Hollywood has changed . February 25, 2016 ( theglobeandmail.com [accessed February 26, 2019]).
- ↑ Catching up with Sacheen Littlefeather, 40 years after her controversial brush with Oscar history. Accessed February 26, 2019 .
- ↑ John Wayne: Playboy Interview / MAY 1971. University of Virginia, May 1971, p. 7 , accessed June 1, 2019 .
- ↑ John Wayne: Playboy Interview / MAY 1971. University of Virginia, May 1971, p. 8 , accessed June 1, 2019 .
- ↑ Masonic Trivia ( Memento of April 5, 2004 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ John Wayne, Hollywood legend, convert, and Catholic on kath.net , October 14, 2011, accessed October 21, 2012
- ↑ David Kerr: My 'granddaddy' John Wayne, actor and Catholic convert on CNA , October 1, 2011, accessed October 21, 2012
- ↑ archives.gov
- ↑ findadeath.com ( Memento from January 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ After 25 years, 91 members of 220 members of the closer crew had developed cancer and 46 died from it. Source: Karen G. Jackovich, Mark Sennet: The Children of John Wayne, Susan Hayward and Dick Powell Fear That Fallout Killed Their Parents In: People Magazine Vol. 14, No. 19, November 10, 1980. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- ↑ knerger.de: The grave of John Wayne
- ^ Entry on the film Frauenheld against Will in the online film database
- ^ Entry on the film Arizona in the online film database
- ^ Entry on the film The Rancher Feud in the online film database
- ^ Entry to the film Im Schatten des Adler in the online film database
- ^ Entry on the film The Law in Your Own Hand in the online film database
- ↑ Entry on the film Who is right here? in the online film database
- ^ Entry on the film Der Falke in the online film database
- ^ Entry on the film The Hurricane Express in the online film database
- ↑ imdb.com
- ↑ List of alternative titles in the IMDb
- ↑ Cinefacts New German dubbing version 2007
- ↑ List of alternative titles in the IMDb
- ↑ Peter Mühlbauer : Zensynchronisation . Telepolis , July 16, 2009
- ^ The Old Corral - Homepage
- ^ Douglas Green: Singing Cowboys. Gibbs Smith, Layton 2006, ISBN 978-1-58685-808-7 , p. 134.
- ^ Bodo V. Hechelhammer: John Wayne on Kurfürstendamm. How Genghis Khan conquered divided Berlin in 1956 . Ed .: Werner Breunig and Uwe Schaper. Gebr. Mann Verlag, 2017, ISBN 978-3-7861-2769-7 , pp. 153-170 .
- ↑ See Wikipedia article on the film Full Metal Jacket .
- ^ Cover picture from Johnny Bruck on KH Scheer : Der Planet Mechanica, Perry Rhodan No. 120, Moewig, Munich, December 20, 1963.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Morrison, Marion Robert (maiden name); Morrison, Marion Mitchell (real name); The Duke (nickname)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||US-American actor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 26, 1907|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Winterset , Iowa , United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 11, 1979|
|Place of death||Los Angeles , California , United States|