Harry Potter is a children's and youth novel series by the English writer Joanne K. Rowling . It tells the story of the eponymous character Harry Potter, who learns of his magical origins on his eleventh birthday and is now a student at the British wizarding boarding school at Hogwarts . Each of the seven volumes describes a school year and year of life for Harry Potter and his friends. The book series, including three offshoots , has been sold over 500 million times worldwide and has been translated into 80 languages. Over 33 million Harry Potter books were sold in German alone.
The first part Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was published on June 26, 1997 in a first edition of 500 copies by Bloomsbury Publishing . The second part Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets followed in 1998 and the third part Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban in 1999. From this point onwards, the books occupied the top positions of the bestseller lists in numerous countries , for example in The New York Times or The mirror . With the first edition of the fourth part Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire in 2000, the series set a record. Volumes five to seven also broke pre-order records and a. in the UK and USA .
Between 2001 and 2011 the books were filmed in eight parts ; the film series is considered one of the most commercially successful in film history . The books and films sparked worldwide enthusiasm for fantasy books and films in the late 1990s and early 2000s , along with (new) film adaptations of The Lord of the Rings or The Chronicles of Narnia as well as numerous other fantasy book series like Eragon , Bartimaeus or Percy Jackson .
The Harry Potter heptalogy can be assigned to several literary genres . It has the characteristics of a detective novel , a development novel and an educational novel , but can also be seen as a modern fairy tale or art fairy tale . Along with the continuing enthusiasm for Harry Potter books and films, numerous merchandising products were marketed with great success and a dedicated theme park was opened.
At the beginning of the story, the one-year-old Harry Potter is deposited as a foundling on the doorstep of his last living relatives, the Dursleys . His parents James and Lily Potter had recently been killed by the most powerful black magician, Lord Voldemort . While trying to kill Harry too, the killing curse fell back on Voldemort and destroyed his body. The boy has a lightning bolt-shaped scar on his forehead. Since Harry is the only known person to survive this curse and is also blamed for the disappearance of the greatest dark wizard, he is a celebrity from an early age in the entire magical world and is known as "the boy who survived." ".
Harry grows up until his eleventh birthday with Petunia , his mother's sister, her husband Vernon and their son Dudley. The Dursleys are hostile to the magical world, treat Harry very badly and try to prevent his magical abilities from developing. They don't tell him how his parents died and the fact that Harry is a wizard. On Harry's eleventh birthday, Rubeus Hagrid , the gamekeeper and key keeper at Hogwarts Wizarding School , brings him the invitation to boarding school. Only now does he learn something about his origin and the existence of the secret magical parallel world.
The plot of volumes 1 to 6 takes place primarily in Hogwarts boarding school, which is Harry's center of life. Every year Harry gets to know, and with him the reader, new places and people outside of Hogwarts, the horizon of the story widens, the storylines become more complex and many are interwoven.
The reader follows Harry's development from the age of eleven to the almost adult teenager from Harry's perspective. Harry experiences a conscious family-like security for the first time in his Gryffindor house , to which he is assigned on his first day at Hogwarts. He finds close friends in fellow students of the same age, Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger - the trio endures almost all adventures together - and a mentor in school principal Albus Dumbledore . The fugitive prisoner Sirius Black turns out to be Harry's godfather and becomes his most important caregiver outside of Hogwarts. Harry also has a friendly relationship with his former teacher Remus Lupine . With the teacher Severus Snape, however, as well as with his classmate Draco Malfoy from the traditionally rival House of Slytherin , he has mutual hatred.
The central theme of the story crystallizes more and more Harry's argument with Lord Voldemort, who continues to exist as a spirit-like being after the attack on Harry and tries to regain his body. Harry can prevent this twice: In the first volume he thwarts Voldemort's plan to steal the " Philosopher's Stone "; in the second volume he destroys a magical image of 16-year-old Voldemort that he had hidden in a diary.
In the fourth volume, Harry has to watch helplessly as Voldemort receives a new body and begins to rally his followers around himself. After Harry has escaped Voldemort's two further murder attempts, he learns of a prophecy about his downfall in the fifth volume. She is the reason Voldemort wanted to kill him as a baby and keeps trying, because according to her, Harry is the only one who can break his power.
In the sixth volume it turns out that Voldemort hid parts of his soul in horcruxes in order to achieve immortality in this way. Several conflicts escalate and prepare for the finale in the final book. In the key scene, Draco Malfoy fails in his attempt to kill Albus Dumbledore - Severus Snape takes over the task and then escapes with Draco.
In the seventh and final volume, Harry, Hermione and Ron set out to find and destroy the remaining Horcruxes. Because Voldemort has meanwhile brought the Ministry of Magic under his influence and controls the whole country, they barely escape death several times during their sometimes aimless search.
During the final battle at Hogwarts, Harry learns that he must die to make Lord Voldemort mortal because he has part of Voldemort's soul within him. He surrenders to this fate and faces the dark lord unarmed, but survives the killing curse again while Voldemort's soul fragment is destroyed inside him. When Voldemort presented the body of Harry, believed dead, to Hogwarts' defenders, his serpent Nagini , who was the seventh and final Horcrux , dies when Neville Longbottom , a school friend of Harry's, chops off its head with the sword of Godric Gryffindor. Harry emerges victorious from the decisive duel that follows, as Voldemort dies from his own reflected killing curse and so the prophecy finds its fulfillment.
The last volume is concluded with a chapter that looks 19 years into the future: Harry and Ginny (Ron's younger sister) as well as Ron and Hermione have married and their children are going to Hogwarts together.
The Harry Potter world
The plot of the Harry Potter novels takes place in two worlds that coexist. One is the world known to the reader, more precisely the United Kingdom towards the end of the 20th century. The other is a magical parallel society that is largely hidden from non-magical people - called " Muggles " - and is populated by wizards, witches and non-human magical beings. This wizarding society has its own government and administration, the Ministry of Magic , and its own economic system in Great Britain .
The magical world decided on this separation centuries ago and enforces it with appropriate secrecy laws and controls, but also with magic. Only the current Prime Minister of the Muggles is informed of the existence of the wizarding world by the current Minister of Magic. The transitions between the two worlds are invisible to Muggles, such as the entrance to Diagon Alley , a shopping street for wizards and witches in the middle of London . Conversely, wizards and witches can move freely in the non-magical world, but many of them avoid the company of Muggles. Due to the separation over many generations and a widespread disdain for Muggles, most wizards and witches are insufficiently informed about the non-magical world and often attract attention because of their completely unsuitable clothing and their ignorance of technical devices.
Compared to British society around 2000, the way of life of wizards and witches seems backward. They dress in ancient clothes and are not familiar with electrical devices or modern information technology. There are, however, numerous magical tools that perform similar functions. For example, people can move around in photographs and painted pictures and sometimes communicate independently. Technical means of transport are being replaced by flying brooms or apparating within seconds , a nationwide network of chimneys allows travel and communication over long distances. On the other hand, the witches and wizards also own vehicles of the 20th century, but all of them are antiquated: The Hogwarts Express is pulled by a steam locomotive, an outdated three-decker omnibus picks up stranded witches and wizards and the Weasleys use a historic car that comes with is occupied by a flying spell.
Both worlds are not completely separate from each other. Again and again magicians violate the separation rules. In these cases, the Ministry of Magic tries to repair any damage and to change the memory of the Muggles concerned. In some cases, however, the effects of magical activities are too serious to hide them. In particular, the criminal activities of Lord Voldemort force the Minister of Magic repeatedly to contact the British Prime Minister , who in this way finds out the real cause of mass accidents, alleged natural disasters and weather phenomena.
The following four articles describe important characters, locations, terms as well as animals and animal species from the Harry Potter novels and thus an essential part of the Harry Potter universe:
- Characters from the Harry Potter novels
- Locations of the Harry Potter novels
- Terms of the Harry Potter novels
- Animals from the Harry Potter novels
Novels and accompanying works
The first six volumes of the cycle correspond to Harry Potter's six years at Hogwarts; the seventh book is about the search for the Horcruxes and the battle at Hogwarts. Harry, Ron and Hermione are no longer attending Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry at this point.
Harry Potter and ...
|Sales figures (
|1||... the philosopher's stone||Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone||1997 (United Kingdom)
| 1981 (Prolog)
|2||... the Chamber of Secrets||Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets||1998 (United Kingdom)
|3||... the prisoner of Azkaban||Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban||1999 (United Kingdom)
|4th||... the goblet of fire||Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire||2000 (United Kingdom)
|5||... the Order of the Phoenix||Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix||2003 (United Kingdom)
|6th||... the half-blood prince||Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince||2005 (United Kingdom)
|7th||... the deathly hallows||Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows||2007 (United Kingdom)
The German translation of the novels comes from Klaus Fritz , the bindings were designed by Sabine Wilharm . Due to the popularity of the series beyond the classic children's and young adult book market, special editions for adults were launched in the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany. These have the same text as the children's book edition, but have a different cover design.
In 2001, Joanne K. Rowling published two accompanying books for the benefit of the Comic Relief aid organization , which correspond to fictional school books appearing in the novels:
- Fantastic Beasts and where to find them (Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them)
- Quidditch Through the Ages
2007 Joanne K. Rowling seven handwritten copies of produced The Tales of Beedle the Bard (Engl. The Tales of Beedle the Bard) at, one for charity at amazon.com was auctioned. The fairy tales play a central role in the 7th volume of the Harry Potter series and are considered literary classics in the fictional world of novels. On December 4, 2008, the stories were published worldwide in two editions in English.
On July 30, 2016, the play Harry Potter and the Cursed Child by Jack Thorne premiered. The script, which is based on a story by Joanne K. Rowling and John Tiffany , was also published in book form under the German title Harry Potter and the Cursed Child . The play, in which Harry Potter is now a family man and a ministry employee, is an official sequel to the novel heptalogy. It's about Harry's son Albus Severus Potter and Scorpius Malfoy, the son of Draco Malfoy, who together try to change the past.
Literary genre and style
The Harry Potter novels can be classified as children's and youth literature , but they have found an unusually wide distribution for this genre (see the chapter on commercial success ). The novels also make use of some stylistic elements from fantasy literature and the crime novel .
The main character Harry Potter initially feels very strange in her world; This motif of strangeness in one's own world and flight into another world is widespread in children's and youth literature (e.g. in the Neverending Story by Michael Ende ). As in the classic fantastic children's and youth literature , but unlike in the fantasy novel , this world is - often morally and satirically exaggerated - and essentially only slightly changed as a parallel world to reality. The topic of growing up is also typical of the genre of young people's books (in this case one also speaks of the development novel ). In the individual volumes, the plot is told in the style of a detective novel in which Harry and a few friends have to solve a mystery (see the table of contents for the individual volumes). Last but not least, the Harry Potter series (except for the last volume) belongs to the genre of boarding school literature that is widespread in England .
This mix of styles has probably contributed to the spread of the books, as they can be read by people of all ages.
The author has chosen a narrative perspective for the Harry Potter novels, which is referred to as a personal narrative situation . With a few exceptions, all actions are described from the perspective of the protagonist. Since the main character is a growing teenager who is only gradually getting to know his own wizarding world, the reader can slowly enter this world as well.
Influence of other books
Joanne K. Rowling has proved by its own account when writing their books of no other work The Little White Horse by Elizabeth Goudge be influenced. In her opinion, however, "everything that one has ever read" flows into a novel.
Parallels between life and work
Many attempts have been made to draw parallels between Joanne K. Rowling's life and her books. Not all of them are true.
The parallels listed below come mainly from Rowling's own statements:
- Joanne K. Rowling's birthday is on the same day as her creation Harry Potter (July 31st).
- In Rowling's neighborhood in Winterbourne, where she lived in the 1970s, there was a boy named Ian Potter who would later claim that he was one of Joanne Rowling's closest friends as a child and that sparked her imagination by always acting as witches and wizards would have disguised. This makes him the real role model for Harry Potter. Rowling writes on her website that this is not true and that she has few memories of this boy. In an interview for the Today Show in 2007, however, she admitted that she had used the last name for the title character.
- King's Cross station in London plays an important role in the books - this is where the train departs from the secret platform nine and three quarters that takes Harry and his friends to school. Rowling's parents had met on a train that had departed from King's Cross, and the train ride that Rowling had the idea for Harry Potter on ended there too. In reality, platforms 9 and 10 - between which according to the novels there is a wall with the secret passage to platform nine and three quarters - are in an adjoining building and there is no wall between them, even if there is later a sign with the inscription "9 dort" there was attached. In a 2001 interview, Rowling admitted that she had mistaken King's Cross for Euston Station .
- The chapter Der Spiegel Nerhegeb (a reverse of the word "Desire", in the English original The Mirror of Erised "Desire") in the first volume wrote Rowling in 1991 during her first time in Portugal. Harry sees his deepest heart's desire in this mirror - he sees himself together with his parents, whom he never met. Rowling deals with the early death of her mother a few months earlier. When asked what she herself would see in this mirror, she once replied that she saw herself how she could speak to her mother for another five minutes.
- As Joanne K. Rowling writes on her website, Gilderoy Lockhart , the self-loving teacher from the second volume, is the only character she has ever completely modeled on a person she knows in real life. At the same time, she made it clear that of course she would not reveal who exactly it was. What is certain, however, is that that person is just as unspeakably arrogant and convinced of himself in real life. This is also the reason why she decided to include him in her books and make ridiculous in this way.
- The Dementors from the third band invented Rowling during her first time in Edinburgh . Often these beings, sucking all good memories out of people and forcing them to relive the worst moments of their lives, are interpreted as an allegory for depression . In fact, Rowling once said that during that time, when she was forced to live on welfare, she suffered from depression. She called this time her "dark period of life" (grim period) .
- In the third volume there is the following passage (p. 110 or 111): "Oh, by the way, this event that you are afraid of - it will happen on Friday, October sixteenth." They got married on Friday, October 16, 1992 Joanne Rowling and Jorge Arantes - the marriage lasted less than a year.
- Among the numerous place and person names that appear in the novels are those of people and places that Joanne K. Rowling knows - for example, the members of the Irish Quidditch national team from volume four. The fifth volume also mentions the Tutshill Tornados Quidditch team - Rowling spent much of her youth in Tutshill.
The first and second volumes in the series in particular received excellent reviews both in the English-speaking world and in Germany. The English newspapers Mail on Sunday and Sunday Times compared Rowling with the classics by Roald Dahl and CS Lewis . Stephen King called the series an "invention of a great imagination" and placed Harry Potter in a row with Huckleberry Finn , Alice in Wonderland and Frodo Baggins .
At the same time, with the publication of the other volumes, critical tones at the literary level also became loud. Fay Weldon states that the series “is not what a poet expects”, but attests that it represents “legible, useful everyday prose”. The prominent American literary critic Harold Bloom said: "Rowling's mind is dominated by clichés and dead metaphors." The critic for the New York Times , Antonia S. Byatt called Rowling's universe as a "second-rate patchwork poker world, intelligent cobbled together all possible children's literature from motives , written for people whose imagination from cartoons , soap operas , reality TV and VIP fed -Schwachsinn. "
Allegations of plagiarism
The US author John Buechler claims to have invented an earlier version of the Harry Potter character: the main character in his little-known film Troll (1986) is a magical boy named Harry Potter junior.
The American children's book author Nancy Stouffer takes the view that Joanne K. Rowling took names, terms and basic storylines for her works from Stouffer's books The Legend of Rah and the Muggles and Larry Potter and His Best Friend Lily . Following a letter to the effect, Scholastic and Warner Bros. filed a lawsuit against Nancy Stouffer to determine that there were no copyright infringements. Stouffer then filed a counterclaim to determine the same violation. The trial in September 2002 was won by the plaintiff in the main suit. The judge saw "clear evidence" of Stouffer fraud. The reason for this was the discovery that the evidence presented by Stouffer was in part forged or manipulated. In fact, Stouffer couldn't prove that even one copy of her books was sold before 2001. Stouffer was sentenced to pay $ 50,000 in compensation to the plaintiff, and its counterclaim was dismissed. She then announced (so far without implementation) that she would strive for a new one because of what she saw as an unfair process.
The Harry Potter books were occasionally criticized by Christians who see them as a trivialization and spread of occultism . The German publicist Gabriele Kuby wrote : “Harry Potter is a global long-term project to change culture. With the belittling of magic, the forces that Christianity once overcame penetrate society. ”Christian criticism of Harry Potter was also one of the themes of the US documentary Jesus Camp . Matthias Pöhlmann from the Evangelical Central Office for Weltanschauung questions considers such criticism of Harry Potter to be unjustified: "There is nothing occult to be secreted into it, Harry Potter is a story about friendship and the conflict between good and bad."
The Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and later Pope Benedict XVI. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, nevertheless, felt compelled to reply to Gabriele Kuby on the book sent to him and attested that it was good that she clarified “in matters of Harry Potter”, “because these are subtle seductions that have an imperceptible effect and precisely because of that deep and decompose Christianity in the soul before it could really grow ”. This statement, published on Gabriele Kuby's homepage, again called the fundamental theologian Magnus Striet onto the scene, who declared in a broadcast on Deutschlandradios Kultur: "Unfortunately, there is once again a fear of contact with the modern world and its diversity".
According to Peter Schellenbaum , Harry suffers from a basic mistrust , which his step parents conveyed to him. With the wound of being unloved, Schellenbaum draws a parallel to the Grimm fairy tale Hans my hedgehog , with the spiked dress he protects himself from a threatening world.
Harry is a traumatized child as he is unable to develop a sustainable relationship for the first 10 years. Only when the father figure Hagrid appears does Harry become a child again (size difference). Hagrid forms the good father archetype and the cicerone in the world of wizards. Harry's great father becomes Dumbledore, who in turn places him at his side with Lupine, who himself knows the depths of depression. Dementors represent the depression itself, they suck out any joie de vivre. Harry learns the counter-spell through Lupine - expecto patronum (I expect a patron) - which only works if Harry can evoke a happy memory. This is also the medicine of depression. You have to face the fear as often as possible, just as Lupin's bogey turns into a dementor in front of Harry and Harry looks him in the eye.
Dudley experiences “ overprotection ” from Aunt Petunia . Pathological narcissism , no realistic self-esteem and a lack of frustration tolerance are the consequences. Dudley has become an eating disorder, contact neurotic and unfit for life. Mrs. Dursley gives up on herself, and when she feels angry about her own unlived life, she only clings to her son even more. Petunia was treated as a shadow child by her parents because Lily, the red-haired witch, was probably more beautiful and possessed magical powers. This led to jealousy and envy of her own sister as she was always preferred.
According to Mathias Jung , the imagination of the ideal father and mother archetype ( Freud's theory ) can be applied to the parents Lily and James Potter. What is important here is an “expression of the child's longing for the lost happy time in which his father is his the noblest and strongest, his mother appeared as the dearest and most beautiful woman ”. In order to acquire basic trust despite the great loss, it is necessary to form the good introject . Lily and James must be formed as archetypal parent figures and powerful guardian spirits within. However, Harry does not come into the world very poor either. In Gringotts, deep in the tunnels, under the tunnel system of the London Underground, lie the parents' true treasures. “The bank is deep underground. How often are treasures hidden in us that we got from our parents ”.
The platform nine and three quarters is the gateway to know yourself, to the inner child . Mathias Jung makes comparisons with Alice in Wonderland , who disappears into a hole in the ground due to her curiosity after she has seen a white rabbit with pink eyes. In both the alienation effect is used, which requires courage to change perspective. The instrumental reason used by Max Horkheimer to denote , which demystifies our world through science, makes it controllable and usable, drives out epidemics, but the clarity, practicability and reason also rationalize it strongly.
Hogwarts (translated pig warts ) with its Gothic towers and battlements, its 142 swinging, wobbly stairs is probably inspired by MC Escher and his perspective and perception experiments. Almost Headless Nick is arguably inspired by Oscar Wilde's Canterville spirit.
The Harry Potter novels were published unabridged as audio books in several languages .
In German, Der Hörverlag has produced two versions:
- The audio books presented by Rufus Beck have been published since 1999 with sales results that are unique in the radio play segment: the first four volumes were each sold more than 300,000 times and were awarded the platinum record . The Harry Potter audiobooks spoken by Rufus Beck were the first to be sold in an MP3 version.
- In March 2009, all seven Harry Potter novels were also published in an audio book version spoken by Felix von Manteuffel since 2003 .
The audio books received the following awards:
- 2000: Audiobooks for volumes 1–3 - Audiobook of the year ( hr2 best list)
- 2001: Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone - Winner of the Hörkules
- 2008: Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince - winner of the Hörkulino
Warner Bros. secured the film rights to the book series early on and produced a new film about every year and a half from 2001 to 2011. Overall, the entire series was filmed, with the first six volumes in one film each, but the seventh volume in two parts:
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (2001)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (2007)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (2010)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (2011)
In the list of the most successful films , all parts were in the top 50 until 2015. Together they grossed over $ 7.7 billion.
It was planned to film all the volumes with the same actors, but had the 2002 deceased performer of Albus Dumbledore , Richard Harris , from the third film by Michael Gambon be replaced. In addition, the Kobold Griphook was played by Verne Troyer in the first part , but by Warwick Davis in the seventh . The role of Vincent Crabbe actor Jamie Waylett was removed from the film after a police check found marijuana in his car and several cannabis plants in his mother's apartment. So it is not Crabbe who kindles the big fire in the room of wishes and dies in the process, but Goyle ( Joshua Herdman ).
- The first game, entitled Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone , was released in 2001 for PC, Mac and PSX. It was a commercially available 3D action adventure with magical battles and some flying brooms. The versions for PC and console show significant differences from one another. In addition, a role-playing version for Game Boy Color and an action adventure for Game Boy Advance were released at the same time under the same title . The handheld offshoots are based on two-dimensional graphics.
- The second game deals with the story of the second volume Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and builds on the system of the first part, but is much more difficult and has better sound effects. For the first time the game is available for the PlayStation 2 and the GameCube .
- In 2003 the games Quidditch Worldcup and a remake of the first part for the Xbox and other next-generation consoles (e.g. PlayStation 2) were released.
- The third part appeared in 2004 and brought some innovations.
- The fourth part was released on November 10, 2005 for PC and the then current game consoles and is the first part that can be played with other players. Furthermore, the player was denied the opportunity to walk through the castle and the grounds.
- The fifth part of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix was released in July 2007 for PC and all current consoles such as B. PlayStation 3 , Xbox 360 and Nintendo Wii . In contrast to the fourth part, the possibility of playing together has been discontinued and the damage model has been completely omitted, after it was actually already superfluous in the third and fourth parts. Above all, the magic model has been revised, so that the player now has to trace the magic spells with the mouse, the Wii remote control or a corresponding control device.
- The sixth part Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was released in July 2009 for PC, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, Wii and Xbox 360. In this part, the player has to face some Quidditch games in which they fly through different stars, potions in the cauldron shuffle and end duels in which the damage model was reintroduced.
- The seventh part Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows 1 was released in November 2010 for PC, PlayStation 3, Wii, Xbox 360 and Nintendo DS.
- The eighth part Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows 2 was released in July 2011 for PC, PlayStation 3, Wii, Xbox 360 and Nintendo DS. GBase magazine gave the game a rating of 4.5 out of 10 points.
- On August 10, 2018, an anonymous user leaked a video on Reddit that showed a new Harry Potter game in development. It is the as yet unpublished open world game Harry Potter Magic Awakened .
- In June 2019, Warner Bros. and Niantic launched the augmented reality game Harry Potter: Wizards Unite , which, like Pokémon Go, combines virtual game content with the real environment. The game context is about a future in which the player supports the Ministry of Magic in the fight against dark forces and encounters numerous characters and objects from the books and films of the Harry Potter franchise.
The soundtrack for parts one to four as well as for the Quidditch World Cup was written by Jeremy Soule , while James Hannigan was responsible for parts five and six.
Board and card games
In addition to the various computer games on the theme of "Harry Potter", there are also numerous analog games that build on the book series. These are mainly adaptations of well-known games and merchandising games. There are adaptations of classic board games for Cluedo , Das verrückte Labyrinth , Uno , Scene it? as well as various classic quartet games. There are also quiz games like Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone - Quiz or Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone - The Secret of Hogwarts .
In 2001, the Danish toy company Lego brought a Harry Potter series of products onto the market when the film version of the first volume was released. This includes scenes of action modeled with Lego bricks based on the films, for example Hagrid's hut, the Hogwarts Express , the Chamber of Secrets, Gringotts (wizard's bench ), the Durmstrangs ship, individual rooms from Hogwarts and the entire castle in miniature, including the Main characters as minifigs . Since then, Lego has brought out new models with every film adaptation. In addition, special Harry Potter versions of the LEGO Creator PC program were released in 2001 and 2002 , with which Lego worlds can be built virtually on the computer. An action adventure called Lego Harry Potter: Years 1-4 has also been available since June 2010 . This was released for PC, Nintendo DS, Wii, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Portable, Xbox 360 and as an IOS app. In the meantime, Lego brought out the next version of this game: Lego Harry Potter: Years 5–7 . This is also available for PC, Nintendo DS, Wii, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Portable, Xbox 360 and as an IOS app. In addition, a Lego Harry Potter Collection of parts 1–7 was released for the PlayStation 4 on October 20, 2016 .
Based on the fictional Quidditch of the Harry Potter novels, two students at Middlebury College in Vermont developed a real-life adaptation in 2005 : Muggle Quidditch . Also in this version, which has meanwhile been played around the world and especially in a university environment, there are three hunters, one guardian, two drivers and one seeker; Likewise, all players must "ride" on brooms clamped between their legs. Instead of being self-flying balls, the Bludgers are thrown at opposing players by the drivers; the snitch is a tennis ball tucked into a yellow sock, which from the 19th minute of the game is carried by a snitch runner in his waistband and has to be pulled out by the seekers.
World championships have been held since 2008 and have been organized and carried out since 2010 by the international umbrella organization founded at the time, the International Quidditch Association . So far, all of these have been won by US teams or a national selection.
In June 2015 Rowling announced that there would be a play about Harry Potter in London. In October 2015, she revealed via Twitter that the play Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (German: Harry Potter and the cursed child) should be a regular sequel to the Potter adventure, set 19 years after the end of the seventh Harry Potter novel starts where Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows ends. The play, directed by John Tiffany , premiered on July 30, 2016 at London's Palace Theater . In the lead role, Jamie Parker should be seen as Harry Potter. Noma Dumezweni was to play as Hermione Granger and Paul Thornley as Ron Weasley.
In 2020 the piece will be performed in German for the first time. The piece should be more! Theater am Großmarkt in Hamburg . The premiere should be on March 15, 2020 and has since been postponed to April 11, 2021 due to the corona pandemic.
The play was published in book form on July 31, 2016; the German translation followed on September 24, 2016.
On May 31, 2007, Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. and Universal Orlando Resort announced the establishment of a Harry Potter theme park The Wizarding World of Harry Potter (in German about " The Wizarding World of Harry Potter") opened. As part of Universal's Islands of Adventure in Orlando , Florida, the park is home to Hogwarts, Hogsmeade, and the Forbidden Forest . Joanne K. Rowling and Stuart Craig , the set designers for the Harry Potter films, were involved; from the latter come the designs for the park. In July 2014 was in the Universal Studios Florida with the Diagon Alley (: Diagon Alley German) opened an extension of the park with a new Harry Potter area. The main attraction is Escape from Gringotts , a roller coaster with video screens and 3-D effects. You can also buy wands, which then trigger interactive actions in various areas of Diagon Alley and take the Hogwarts Express from London to the magic boarding school.
Pottermore is a website by Joanne K. Rowling in association with Sony that opened in October 2011. Between July 31st and August 6th, one million fans had the opportunity to register early by finding the magic quill that writes the magical children in a book. On August 15th, the first got an email giving them access to Pottermore. Sony's e-book reader, which appeared in late 2011, was sold in a "limited edition" with a voucher that could be used to download the first Harry Potter book from the Pottermore website.
Influence of the Harry Potter novels
More fantasy series
The surprising success of Harry Potter led to a boom in fantasy novel series for children and young people in the early 2000s, which are often compared and judged by Harry Potter. Examples include Percy Jackson by Rick Riordan , Artemis Fowl by Eoin Colfer , Eragon by Christopher Paolini , the first three volumes of the Bartimaeus series by Jonathan Stroud , Molly Moon by Georgia Byng and Charlie Bone by Jenny Nimmo ; in the German-speaking area, for example, Laura Leander by Peter Freund , the Merle Trilogy by Kai Meyer or the Ink World Trilogy by Cornelia Funke . In terms of content, most of these books have nothing more in common with Harry Potter than that they show the development of young people in a fantastic world. Such books also existed before the Harry Potter novels, such as the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman , which was also relatively successful at the same time and whose first volume The Golden Compass was published in 1996, a year before Harry Potter. The same goes for The Chronicles of Narnia by CS Lewis , which were published back in the 1950s.
A parody of the Harry Potter novels was published by Michael Gerber under the title Barry Trotter and the Shameless Parody (Barry Trotter and the Unauthorized Parody) . It was also published in Germany in autumn 2003. 2004 appeared the second volume Barry Trotter and the superfluous sequel (Barry Trotter and the Unnecessary Sequel) . In 2006 the third volume Barry Trotter and the Impossible Beginning (Barry Trotter and the Dead Horse), a prequel to the previous parodies, was released.
A cinematic Harry Potter parody is the TV special Berndi Broter and the box of catastrophes with Bernd dem Bread , which KI.KA showed at the end of 2003 as a five-part series in the children's program Chili TV and again in one piece in May 2004. Harry Potter is also parodied in several episodes of the animated series The Simpsons and in a scene from the movie The Simpsons .
Further parodies of the film are the YouTube films Harry Potter and a Stone , Harry Potter and the Secret Porn Cellar and Harry Potter and the Plastic Cup from Coldmirror , for the footage of the films Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone , Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire has been re-set.
In the 2003 comedy I'll lend you my husband , passages from the Harry Potter plot are retold. In the 2006 film The Devil Wears Prada , a publishing assistant, played by actress Anne Hathaway , is supposed to procure the manuscript of an as yet unpublished Harry Potter novel for the imperious editor-in-chief of a fashion magazine, played by actress Meryl Streep . In the almost eight-minute documentary Harry Potter Parking Lot , filmmaker Jeff Krulik, whose 1986 documentary Heavy Metal Parking Lot about fans of the metal band Judas Priest enjoys cult status in the heavy metal scene with John Heyn, accompanies a book signing with the camera Author Joanne K. Rowling at the Politics and Prose bookstore in Washington, DC, USA in October 1999 to interview children and adults about their enthusiasm for the Harry Potter books.
The unauthorized book Harry Potter and Leopard-Walk-Up-to-Dragon was published in Chinese, and Harry Potter in Calcutta in India . Joanne K. Rowling obtained legal bans against both plants. Especially after the publication of the seventh volume, large numbers of unauthorized pirated prints came onto the market in China . After the black copies of the 6th volume, 16 million copies were sold.
Tanja Grotter is a magical girl who is active in Russia. Joanne K. Rowling and Warner Bros. also initiated legal action against this work. In addition to these commercially oriented and now banned plagiarisms, there are a large number of non-commercial stories written by fans, so-called fan fictions .
Warner Bros. hit the headlines in late 2000 through letters to fansite operators who were accused of infringing trademark rights. For consumers, domain names like harrypotterguide.co.uk are confusing, which is why the owners have been asked to transfer their domains to Warner Bros. These letters, some of which were also addressed to children and young people, caused outrage and triggered the Potterwar campaign . According to Warner Bros., the addressees of the letters were mainly domain owners who had tried to exploit Harry Potter commercially. Some of the cases ended with Warner Bros. withdrawing from the claims and not taking any further action against the operators. There are no known cases in which legal proceedings have taken place.
In the meantime, Joanne K. Rowling awards a Fan-Site Award on her website at irregular intervals .
By the time the first volume was made into a film in 2001, the first four Harry Potter books had sold 135 million copies worldwide in 48 languages. In 2003, worldwide sales were already 250 million books in 60 languages. By 2018, more than 500 million copies of the Harry Potter books had been sold, including over 30 million copies in German. According to a study by the market research institute teleResearch , one in four Germans aged 14 and over has read at least one Harry Potter volume.
To date, around 180 million copies of the seven volumes have been sold in the United States. The initial circulation of the fourth volume was 3.8 million copies, that of the fifth volume 6.8 million and that of the sixth 10.8 million; the initial circulation of the seventh and last volume was 12 million copies.
The books have so far been translated into 80 languages. Since the translations always appeared with a time lag compared to the original version, many English-language editions were also sold in other countries. For example, the fifth volume was the first English-language book to hit the bestseller lists in France . Fans also published their own translations before the official language editions appeared. The German community Harry in German has translated several books, but for legal reasons the finished translation is only available to its own members who have contributed to it.
Harry Potter novels were consistently on the New York Times bestseller lists for almost nine and a half years - from December 1998 to May 2008 . Due to the sustained high sales figures and the associated "blocking" of the top positions, the bestseller lists were reformed twice during this period: After one and a half years, when the first three volumes occupied the first three positions, children's literature was outsourced to a new list and in 2004 a new one New list created for children's book series, which does not take into account the sales figures for the individual volumes.
According to several reports, Joanne K. Rowling earned more than 570 million British pounds (around 728 million euros) as an author's fee, although she denied the amount in a 2007 interview. From 2004 to 2007, she was, according to Forbes Magazine as the dollar - billionaire .
Effect on the reader
Recently, scientists found some effects between reading Harry Potter novels and being open to minorities.
Among other things, it was found that the ability to empathize with the characters involved was related to the ability to appear without prejudice. The identification with the main characters, or the aversion to the villains, played a role.
- Mark Achilles: Fantasy Fiction - the search for the true human being in "Harry Potter" and "The Lord of the Rings" . In: Thomas Bohrmann, Werner Veith, Stephan Zöller (Hrsg.): Handbuch Theologie und popular Film . tape 1 . Schöningh, Paderborn 2007, ISBN 978-3-506-78444-5 , p. 95-113 .
- Melissa Anelli: The Harry Potter phenomenon: all about a young wizard, his fans and a magical success story . edelkids, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-89855-989-8 .
- Melanie Babenhauserheide: Harry Potter and the contradictions of the culture industry. An analysis that is critical of ideology. Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-8376-4109-7 .
- Ursula Bergenthal: The sorcerer's apprentice arts: "Harry Potter" as an example of literary mass communication in modern media society . Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-8353-0319-5 .
- Michael Böhles: Knowledge creates power? - Biblical-theological reflections on Joanne K. Rowling's 'Harry Potter' saga from a pastoral psychological perspective . Adlerstein, Wiesmoor 2015, ISBN 978-3-945462-27-0 .
- Michael Böhles: King's Cross and Fishing Net - Biblical-theological speculations on JK Rowling's 'Harry Potter' saga from a pastoral psychological perspective . Adlerstein, Wiesmoor 2018, ISBN 978-3-945462-27-0 .
- Paul Bürvenich: The magic of Harry Potter: Analysis of a literary world success . Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-631-38743-1 .
- Peter Ciaccio : Harry Potter Meets God - The Gospel of Hogwarts . Neunkirchener Verlagsgesellschaft, Neunkirchen-Vluyn 2012, ISBN 978-3-7615-5914-7 .
- Elisabeth Gräf, Roman Kelner: Goals and Spells To learn from Harry Potter and his world . ÖkoSysteme, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-8442-0655-5 .
- Markwart Herzog : Death at Hogwarts? Thanatological remarks on the Harry Potter universe . In: Rheinisches Jahrbuch für Volkskunde . No. 34 , 2001, p. 213-245 .
- Jörg Knobloch (Ed.): "Harry Potter" at school: didactic approaches to a phenomenon . Verlag an der Ruhr, Mülheim an der Ruhr 2001, ISBN 3-86072-657-9 .
- Tobias Kurwinkel, Philipp Schmerheim, Annika Kurwinkel (eds.): Harry Potter intermedial: Investigations into the (film) worlds of Joanne K. Rowling . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-8260-4809-8 .
- Olaf Kutzmutz (Ed.): Harry, get the broom! a sweep after ten Potter years . documented the conference Harry, Get the broom already! A sweep after ten Potter years, which took place from October 5th to 6th, 2008 at the Federal Academy for Cultural Education in Wolfenbüttel. Federal Academy. for cultural education, Wolfenbüttel 2009, ISBN 978-3-929622-42-3 .
- Michael Maar : Why Nabokov would have liked Harry Potter . Berlin-Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-8270-0454-3 .
- Michael Maar: Help for the Hufflepuffs: Little Guide to Harry Potter . 1st edition. Hanser, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-446-23020-0 .
- Lorenzo Ravagli: The Secret Message of Joanne K. Rowling: A Key to Harry Potter . Urachhaus publishing house, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-8251-7509-2 .
- Friedhelm Schneidewind: The ABC of Harry Potter: everything you need to know about the first four books by Joanne K. Rowling, the characters and their myths, the places and the terms, stories and backgrounds . a lexicon for Harry Potter fans of all ages. 1st edition Lexikon-Imprint-Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-89602-280-6 .
- Monique Peterson: Harry Potter, The Book of Wands. Panini Verlag, 2017, ISBN 978-3-8332-3580-1
- Julian Harrison: Harry Potter A Story Full of Magic. Carlsen Verlag, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-551-55699-8
- Raoul Goff: The Dark Arts, The Guide to the Movies. Panini Verlag, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3-8332-3493-4
- Raoul Goff: Harry Potter, Diagon Alley, The Guide to the Movies. Panini Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-8332-3653-2
- Homepage of Joanne K. Rowling
- Harry Potter Wiki
- Harry Potter Lexicon
- Information about Harry Potter on KinderundJugendmedien.de
- Cornelia Rémi: Harry Potter Bibliography
- Knightbus - Harry Potter Link Archive
- Link catalog on Harry Potter at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- The Pottermore News Team: 500 million Harry Potter books have now been sold worldwide Article dated February 1, 2018, accessed on October 8, 2018
- JK Rowling: Harry Potter. In: press kit. Carlsen-Verlag, accessed March 22, 2019 .
- A Potted History of Harry Potter on Bloomsbury.com , accessed May 8, 2020
- Jack W. Perry: Harry Potter and the Changing of the New York Times Bestseller List April 19, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2020
- in Japan, near Los Angeles and at Universal Studio Orlando
- The 21 Best-Selling Books of All Time. In: howstuffworks.com. HowStuffWorks, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- cursed-child-script-book. In: co.uk. Little, Brown Book Group, accessed February 11, 2016 .
- Jessica Contrera: JK Rowling announces an eighth Harry Potter book . In: The Washington Post . February 10, 2016, ISSN 0190-8286 ( washingtonpost.com ).
- Oprah.com. In: oprah.com. Oprah.com, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- 1998: Accio Quote !, the Largest Archive of JK Rowling quotes on the web. In: accio-quote.org. www.accio-quote.org, accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- Wild About Harry , New York Times, July 23, 2000.
- Login. In: co.uk. entertainment.timesonline.co.uk, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- Boston.com / News / Boston Globe / Editorial / Opinion / Op-ed / Dumbing down American readers. In: boston.com. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- cit. after AS Byatt and the goblet of bile ( Memento from August 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Harry Potter - everything just stolen? . Hamburger Abendblatt . April 14, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- Sorcerer's Apprentice in the Cinema: Christians and Harry Potter. Retrieved March 2, 2016 .
- Harry Potter breaks all records - what do the churches say? | domradio.de. In: www.domradio.de. Retrieved July 7, 2016 .
- Religious scholars do not see Harry Potter books as a threat. Retrieved July 7, 2016 .
- Jung, Mathias : The magic of change: Harry Potter or the adventure of the self, Lahnstein, 2004, p. 31.
- InsideKino: The world's top-selling films of all time
- TV Movie issue 21/07, p. 216, "Kinonews - Potter beats Bond"
- Drug possession: "Harry Potter" actor arrested. In: Spiegel Online. SPIEGEL ONLINE, accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- GBase: Harry Potter & the Deathly Hallows - Part 2 Review / Test: The Boy with the Scar, Rambo Potter: PC, PS3,360, WII, NDS: (1/2) - on GBase.ch. In: gbase.ch. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- Hemmelig optagelse lækket på YouTube: Nyt Harry Potter-spil på vej? In: DR . ( dr.dk [accessed October 9, 2018]).
- Lego Harry Potter Collection - Test, Action-Adventure. Retrieved January 12, 2020 .
- About. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 4, 2014 ; Retrieved November 26, 2015 .
- Joanne K. Rowling Announces Harry Potter Sequel - Culture | STERN.de. In: stern.de. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- Baz Bamigboye: Still magic in middle age ... It's Harry Potter and a new-look Hermione. In: co.uk. Mail Online, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- Announcement on Little Brown publisher's website , accessed February 10, 2016.
- Opening of Harry Potter Park: Muggles welcome! In: Spiegel Online. SPIEGEL ONLINE, accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- Universal Orlando Resort: Universal Studios Orlando - Your Orlando Vacation Destination. In: universalorlando.com. Retrieved January 29, 2016 (American English).
- JK Rowling announces Pottermore. Sony, June 23, 2011; archived from the original on November 2, 2012 ; accessed on March 2, 2016 .
- Project "Pottermore": Fans can expand Harry Potter's adventures online. In: Spiegel Online. SPIEGEL ONLINE, accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- Pottermore - Home. (No longer available online.) In: pottermore.com. Pottermore, archived from the original on August 16, 2012 ; accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- Pottermore - Home. (No longer available online.) In: pottermore.com. Pottermore, archived from the original on March 31, 2015 ; accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- IFA / New Sony Reader only comes with a Potter voucher / boersenblatt.net. In: buchjournal.de. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- Comic - Harald and the magic portal. In: highlightzone.de. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- Bernd das Brot - episode guide: Special. In: mehlsuppe.de. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- Gabi Kubach: I'll lend you my husband (Germany 2003). Retrieved December 13, 2012 .
- Johnny Erling: China steals the new Harry Potter. In: Welt Online. July 24, 2007, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- Harry Potter Xperts reproduction of the documentary Harry Potter and I (BBC, 2001) on Westdeutscher Rundfunk, accessed on April 8, 2016
- Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger 250 million Harry Potter books sold. Article dated November 17, 2003, accessed April 29, 2016
- Carlsen Verlag - The Story | CARLSEN publishing house. In: carlsen.de. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- Reading the Harry Potter books | Survey. In: statista.org. Statista, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- Highlights and Facts About the Harry Potter Series on Scholastic.com , accessed April 8, 2020
- Harry Potter Milestones on Scholastic.com , accessed April 8, 2020
- Scholastic Inc .: Scholastic Makes Largest Ever Commitment to Forest Stewardship Council Certified Paper in a Single Book for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. (No longer available online.) At: prnewswire.com. Archived from the original on May 8, 2008 ; accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- OOTP is best seller in France - in English! In: BBC . July 1, 2003 ( co.uk ).
- New York Times ( Memento from February 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 270 kB) June 2007
- Harry in German :: Project overview of the Harry Potter translation (s). In: had-community.de. www.had-community.de, accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- Dwight Garner: Ten Years Later, Harry Potter Vanishes From the Best-Seller List. In: nytimes.com. ArtsBeat, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- JK Rowling - A Year in Life (German: Ein Jahr im Leben by Joanne K. Rowling , 2009), James Runcie, 2007, see also James Runcie: JK Rowling: A Year in the Life. In: imdb.com. December 30, 2007, accessed January 29, 2016 .
- Julie Watson and Tomas Kellner: Forbes.com: JK Rowling And The Billion-Dollar Empire. In: forbes.com. Retrieved January 29, 2016 .
- JK Rowling: Billionaire to millionaire . In: New Zealand Herald . March 12, 2012, ISSN 1170-0777 ( co.nz ).
- Vezzali, L., Stathi, S., Giovannini, D., Capozza, D., & Trifiletti, E. (2014). The greatest magic of Harry Potter: Reducing prejudice. Journal of Applied Social Psychology .
- Olaf Kutzmutz, Sabine Wilharm, Ulrike Draesner, Klaus Humann, Katrin Manz, Jürgen Bräunlein: Harry, get the broom !: A sweep after ten years at Potter . Federal Academy f. cultural education Wolfenbüttel, ISBN 978-3-929622-42-3 .