Motor gasoline


from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Motor gasoline
other names

Gasoline, petrol, carburetor fuel  , petrol (colloquial)

Brief description Fuel and a. for combustion engines with positive ignition
origin

fossil, somewhat biogenic

Characteristic components

Gasoline, additives, bio-ethanol admixture

CAS number

8006-61-9

properties
Physical state liquid
viscosity

<0.5 mPas (40 ° C)

density

0.720-0.775 kg / L (15 ° C)

calorific value

40.1–41.8 MJ / kg = 11.1–11.6 kWh / kg, therefore around 30.5 MJ / L = 8.5 kWh / L

super
petrol 95 RON : ~ 42 MJ / kg = 11⅔ kWh / kg
≈ 31.7 MJ / dm 3 = 8.8 kWh / dm 3

Calorific value

approx. 46.7 MJ / kg = 12.9 kWh / kg, therefore about 34.9 MJ / L = 9.7 kWh / L

Octane number
  • 91 RON, 82.5 MON (normal)
  • 95 RON, 85 MOZ (Super / Eurosuper / Unleaded 95 (Switzerland))
  • 98 RON, 88 MOZ (Super plus / Super (Switzerland) / Unleaded 98 (Switzerland))
  • 100 RON, 88 MOZ (V-Power Racing)
  • 102 RON, 90 MOZ (Ultimate 102)
Melting range approx. −45 ° C
Boiling range

(30 ... 215) ° C

Flash point

<−35 ° C

Ignition temperature approx. 220 ° C
Explosive limit (0.6 ... 8.0) vol .-%
Temperature class T3
Explosion class II A
Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion

2.32 kg / L

safety instructions
GHS hazard labeling from  Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP) , expanded if necessary
02 - Highly / extremely flammable 07 - Warning 08 - Dangerous to health 09 - Dangerous for the environment

danger

H and P phrases H: 224-304-315-336-340-350-361-411
P: 201-210-273-280-301 + 310-331-403 + 233
UN number 1203
Hazard number 33
As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .

Motor gasoline ("gasoline" for short) is a complex mixture of around 150 different hydrocarbons with a boiling range between that of butane and kerosene / petroleum . It is mainly made from refined components from petroleum refining and used as fuel . Motor gasoline is one of the "petrol"; there are also other gasoline fuels .

Motor gasoline is also used as a fuel for gasoline stoves .

Etymological origin, term

The original name comes from the Arabic word for benzoin , luban dschawi - " incense from Java ". This expression came to Europe through Arab trade relations with Catalonia . With the omission of the first syllable and the change of the first a to e , benjuì in Italian, benzoë in Middle Latin , from which the German word benzol developed.

1825 discovered Faraday later benzene -mentioned compound in depleted gas cylinders, he called them back then bicarbure d'hydrogène before of Eilhard Mitscherlich in gasoline has been renamed. However, he used it to refer to today's benzene. Mitscherlich named the substance after the raw material he used, benzoin. The assignment to today's petrol was done by Justus von Liebig .

The term “petrol” therefore does not, as is sometimes mistakenly assumed, go back to the engine builder Carl Benz , in contrast to diesel fuel , which is actually named after Rudolf Diesel .

Varieties of motor gasoline

There are different types of gasoline that differ in their knock resistance and, to achieve this, also in the composition of the hydrocarbon mixture.

  • Regular petrol ( RON 91) (no longer available in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Sweden and other countries)
  • 95 ROZ under the following names:
    • Super (Germany, Austria)
    • Unleaded 95 (Switzerland)
    • Sans Plomb 95 (France, Switzerland, Belgium)
    • Euro 95 (Belgium, Netherlands)
    • Eurosuper
  • 98 ROZ under the following names:
    • Super plus (Germany, Austria, partly Switzerland)
    • Unleaded 98 (Switzerland)
    • Sans Plomb 98 (France, Switzerland, Belgium)
    • Euro 98 (Belgium, Netherlands)
    • BP Ultimate unleaded 98 (Switzerland, at least 98 RON), BP Ultimate Super 95 (Austria, 98.4 RON)
  • As a type of previously non-standardized 100-octane gasoline under the following brand names, among others:
    • Shell V-Power Racing  (100)
    • Aral Ultimate 102 (formerly Ultimate 100 )
    • OMV MaxxMotion Super 100 plus
      and beyond
    • Aviation fuel AvGas 100 LL

The car manufacturers prescribe a minimum octane number for their engines ; In the case of grades with a lower octane rating, knocking can cause damage, unless the engine is able to adjust to this with the aid of a knock sensor by adjusting the ignition point within certain limits and with a slight loss of power. In the case of grades with a higher octane number, on the other hand, slight increases in performance or efficiency are possible. However, since the adjustment limit is usually designed by the manufacturer for a specific octane number specified in the operating instructions, many engines cannot use the new 100-octane petrol.

In Germany, since November 2007, the price of regular gasoline has been brought into line with that of premium gasoline. Representatives of automobile clubs expressed the assumption that the mineral oil companies wanted to abolish normal gasoline in the medium term in order to have more revenues and lower costs, which in 2007 was rejected by mineral oil companies as unfounded. In mid-September 2008, Shell was the first major mineral oil company to completely remove regular gasoline from its range, as it was rarely bought. In 2010 regular petrol disappeared from German petrol stations and the pumps were switched to Super E10.

In addition to the distinction between knock resistance, there is also a distinction between summer gasoline, winter gasoline and transition goods (see below, production).

Manufacturing

Boiling curves in comparison to other fuels

The main constituents of gasoline are predominantly alkanes , alkenes , cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons with 5 to 11 carbon atoms per molecule and a boiling range between 25 ° C and ≈210 ° C. In addition, various ethers (such as MTBE , ETBE ) and alcohols ( ethanol , very rarely also methanol ) are added to the raw gasoline . The ethers or the ethanol increase the knock resistance of the finished gasoline.

In the first step, the hydrocarbons are obtained from crude oil by fractional distillation . After several refinement steps, if necessary, the following (mostly desulphurized ) components are obtained (selection):

  • Butane (RON ≈90)
  • Isopentane (RON ≈91)
  • Isohexangemische (RON ≈90)
  • Petroleum ether (C 5 –C 6 , not an ether according to chemical nomenclature, but a mixture of various saturated hydrocarbons such as pentane and hexane , boiling range 25–65 ° C, C 5 –C 6 , RON ≈72)
  • Isomerate (boiling range 25–65 ° C, C 5 –C 6 , mixture of branched-chain pentanes and hexanes, RON ≈80)
  • Light petrol (mixture of different hydrocarbons with five to seven carbon atoms , boiling range 25–80 ° C, C 5 –C 7 , RON ≈70)
  • Reformat components (highly aromatic cuts ≈100–220 ° C, C 7 –C 11 , RON ≈115)
  • Alkylate (C 7 –C 8 , mixture of different isoheptanes and isooctanes, RON ≈95)
  • Polymer gasoline (C 8 , mixture of different alkenes , i.e. olefinic i.e. unsaturated hydrocarbons, RON ≈100)
  • Heavy components (C 7 -C 11 ) of pyrolysis gasoline (highly aromatic cuts ≈100–220 ° C, C 7 –C 11 , RON ≈115)
  • CC (light) petrol from the Cat Cracker (FCC, see: cracking , RON ≈93)

The following components do not come from the above-mentioned refinery production, but are added to the gasoline when the individual components are mixed:

  • Ethanol (bio, RON ≈104)
  • MTBE (made from isobutene and methanol, RON ≈119)
  • ETBE (made from isobutene and ethanol, RON ≈120)

Typically only a selection of these components is produced in a single refinery . Ether and ethanol are mostly bought in.

The components are i. d. Usually stored separately in tanks and mixed from there to the finished product via a blending station. The mixing ratios differ depending on the variety (see covers ). For example, high-octane components are increasingly mixed in with high-octane grades. Some specifications ( DVPE , E70 ) vary depending on the season. A distinction is made between summer, transitional and winter goods. In order to prevent the formation of vapor bubbles in summer, less low-boiling components (butane, isopentane) are used in the blend. In contrast, a proportion of more low-boiling components in the winter gasoline facilitates a cold start.

In addition to the most important quality octane number (RON and MON), the following specifications (see below) have a significant influence on the blend :

The blend must be designed as economically as possible, i.e. H. ROZ or MOZ, DVPE and aromatic content should be "approached" if possible. Of course, such criteria differ from refinery to refinery. The price structure of the product environment ( jet price , MTBE price , naphtha price ) also influences the blending strategy .

Desulfurization

During the desulfurization of petroleum products, sulfide groups are split off from the carbon chains by hydrodesulfurization . This creates hydrogen sulfide , which is removed by amine scrubbing and then converted into elemental sulfur using the Claus process, among other things . Desulfurization is a prerequisite for usability in engines with catalytic converters .

Additives

The base fuel does not differ between the various mineral oil companies ; it often even comes from the same refinery . An additive package is added to it, usually through so-called “end point dosing ” directly before the tanker is loaded , which is specific to the group being supplied. These additives include oxidation inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, detergents (protection against deposits in the injection system) and carburetor icing inhibitors.

In 2014, around 19.5 million tons of petrol were produced in Germany.

Leaded gasoline

Since 2000, leaded petrol has been banned in the EU (see Development of petrol ) . Only aviation fuel may still be leaded. The addition “lead-free” is still included in the brand names.

Synthetic gasoline

In Germany, from the 1920s until the end of the Second World War, petrol was also obtained by liquefying coal from coal ( synthetic petrol ) due to a lack of petroleum . The high energy consumption and high CO 2 emissions make the process mostly uneconomical these days when cheaper natural gas or oil is available. However, such plants are still operated in South Africa today and others are planned in the world ( see coal liquefaction - meaning ).

CO 2 balance well-to-tank

According to a Shell study, 15–20% of CO 2 emissions occur in the production and supply ( well-to-tank ) of fuels.

Specifications

The most important types of petrol are specified in the EN 228 standard.

Logo of the German Institute for Standardization DIN EN 228
Area Fuels for automobiles
title Unleaded petrol requirements and test methods
Brief description: Specifications for minimum requirements and tests for petrol
Latest edition 2014-10
ISO -

In addition to the (minimum) octane number , the following important specifications must also be met:

  • Density : 0.720-0.775 kg / L (15 ° C)
  • DVPE : 45–60 (summer), 45–90 (transition period), 60–90 kPa (winter)
  • Aromatics : max. 35 vol%
  • Olefins : max. 18 vol .-% for Super (Plus), regular petrol; Max. 21 vol%
  • Benzene : max. 1 vol%
  • Sulfur : max. 10 mg / kg
  • Lead : max. 5 mg / l
  • Manganese : max. 2 mg / l
  • Oxygen : max. 2.7 mass%, max. 3.7% by mass (E10)
  • E70 : 20–48 (summer), 20–50 (transition period), 22–50 (winter) vol .-%
  • E100 : 46-71% by volume
  • E150 : min. 75 vol%
  • Vapor Lock Index : max. 1150 (only in the transition period)
  • C5 + - ether content : max. 15% by volume, max. 22% by volume (E10)
  • Ethanol content : max. 5% by volume, max. 10% by volume (E10)

Gas pump sticker (Germany)

Super sulfur-free fuel dispenser
sticker (95 RON) in accordance with DIN EN 228

According to § 13 of the ordinance on the quality and labeling of the qualities of fuels and fuels (10th BImSchV), the guaranteed qualities at the petrol pumps and at the petrol station must be "clearly visible". In Germany you will therefore find the round stickers with the text required by the 10th BImSchV (Annexes 1a-b and 2a-b) on all petrol pumps:

  • Super sulfur-free RON 95 (according to Appendix 1a)
  • Super Plus sulfur-free RON 98 (according to Appendix 1b)
  • Super E10 sulfur-free RON 95 (according to Appendix 2a)
  • Super Plus E10 sulfur-free RON 98 (according to Appendix 2b)

Due to EU regulations, Super E10 with an addition of up to 10% bioethanol has been increasingly coming onto the German market since January 1, 2011 . For this fuel, the 10th BImSchV prescribes additional warnings on the E10 compatibility of the vehicles. See also: 10. BImSchV: Labeling on petrol pumps .

consumption

In Germany, around 18.5 million tonnes of motor gasoline were used in 2014 (including around 2000 tonnes of regular gasoline). The production surplus (see production ) is exported (mainly Switzerland and USA).

Prices

The prices for motor gasoline (trade name: Regular = RON 91, Premium = RON 95, Premium Plus = RON 98) are based on the Rotterdam market in Europe. Gasoline is traded in US dollars per 1,000 kg (US $ / t). Various publications such as Platts , ICIS and OMR report (sometimes daily) on current trading prices and volumes. The reference density used in trade (to set the price of a current batch with a given density in relation to the quotation) is 0.745 kg / dm³ for regular and 0.755 kg / dm³ for all premium varieties. Furthermore, transport costs and the fuel trading margin must be taken into account.

In addition to the price amounts mentioned above, which are reflected in the product price and contribution margin, there are also taxes and duties.

Price development

German-speaking area and surrounding countries

Petrol prices according to the survey by the Touring Club Switzerland :

Price comparison for German-speaking and surrounding countries from 2004 to 2020 for fuel prices, unleaded 95 octane, in euros per liter
country Dec 2004 May 2005 July 2007 April 2008 Jan 2009 Mar 2010 Feb 2011 Mar 2012 Feb 2013 Feb 2014 Feb 2015 Feb 2016 March 2017 April 2018 March 2019 Feb 2020
BelgiumBelgium Belgium 1.10 1.24 1.41 1.50 1.11 1.35 1.56 1.74 1.67 1.60 1.42 1.24 1.38 1.46 1.43 1.50
DenmarkDenmark Denmark 1.26 1.23 1.38 1.40 1.00 1.45 1.60 1.80 1.66 1.58 1.43 1.38 1.55 1.61 1.63 1.65
GermanyGermany Germany 1.19 1.18 1.37 1.43 1.09 1.35 1.50 1.73 1.65 1.52 1 1.28 1.21 1.36 1.47 1.40 1.45
FranceFrance France 1.05 1.15 1.31 1.38 1.07 1.35 1.53 1.63 1.60 1.51 1.37 1.24 1.39 1.49 1.49 1.50
ItalyItaly Italy 1.10 1.23 1.35 1.39 1.10 1.34 1.46 1.81 1.77 1.76 1.53 1.45 1.55 1.57 1.55 1.60
LuxembourgLuxembourg Luxembourg 0.92 0.99 1.18 1.19 0.91 1.13 1.25 1.42 1.37 1.29 1.16 1.01 1.14 1.19 1.18 1.20
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands 1.26 1.33 1.51 1.56 1.25 1.54 1.66 1.83 1.83 1.77 1.65 1.46 1.65 1.72 1.72 1.77
AustriaAustria Austria 0.94 1.00 1.13 1.22 0.91 1.11 1.29 1.45 1.41 1.34 1.18 1.04 1.18 1.21 1.19 1.20
PolandPoland Poland 0.80 0.92 1.15 1.23 0.82 1.12 1.26 1.38 1.29 1.26 1.08 0.91 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.15
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 0.92 0.98 1.06 1.14 0.88 1.12 1.29 1.51 1.47 1.39 1.38 1.21 1.41 1.36 1.36 1.47
SlovakiaSlovakia Slovakia 0.90 1.11 1.21 1.05 1.18 1.38 1.54 1.50 1.44 1.22 1.12 1.31 1.31 1.30 1.34
SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia 0.90 1.11 1.07 0.83 1.15 1.28 1.46 1.52 1.44 1.31 1.12 1.28 1.31 1.27 1.26
Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic 0.87 0.92 1.03 1.21 0.92 1.19 1.38 1.49 1.43 1.31 1.11 1.00 1.15 1.19 1.16 1.24
HungaryHungary Hungary 1.00 1.01 1.13 1.13 0.86 1.22 1.32 1.49 1.46 1.30 1.15 0.96 1.16 1.18 1.15 1.12

1 lead free 98 octane

Europe (2008 and 2010)

The annual average values ​​at the pump are given for the most common gasoline fuel. The values ​​have been converted from national currency to US dollars. This indicator is included in the World Development Indicators and is based on data from the World Bank.

country Price in USD / ℓ 2008 2010
AlbaniaAlbania Albania 1.36 1.46
AndorraAndorra Andorra 1.24 1.49
BelgiumBelgium Belgium 1.50 1.87
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.13 1.42
BulgariaBulgaria Bulgaria 1.28 1.51
DenmarkDenmark Denmark 1.54 2.00
GermanyGermany Germany 1.56 1.90
EstoniaEstonia Estonia 1.18 1.54
FinlandFinland Finland 1.57 1.94
FranceFrance France 1.52 1.98
GreeceGreece Greece 1.23 2.05
IrelandIreland Ireland 1.56 1.78
IcelandIceland Iceland 1.15 1.71
ItalyItaly Italy 1.57 1.87
CroatiaCroatia Croatia 1.27 1.59
LatviaLatvia Latvia 1.12 1.48
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein Liechtenstein 1.30 1.66
LithuaniaLithuania Lithuania 1.13 1.59
LuxembourgLuxembourg Luxembourg 1.40 1.55
MaltaMalta Malta 1.66 1.63
North MacedoniaNorth Macedonia North Macedonia 1.15 1.52
Moldova RepublicRepublic of Moldova Moldova 1.20 1.21
MonacoMonaco Monaco 1.64 1.92
MontenegroMontenegro Montenegro 1.27 1.62
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands 1.68 2.13
NorwayNorway Norway 1.63 2.12
AustriaAustria Austria 1.37 1.63
PolandPoland Poland 1.43 1.57
PortugalPortugal Portugal 1.61 1.85
RomaniaRomania Romania 1.11 1.46
RussiaRussia Russia 0.89 0.84
SwedenSweden Sweden 1.38 1.87
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 1.30 1.66
SerbiaSerbia Serbia 1.29 1.50
SlovakiaSlovakia Slovakia 1.57 1.70
SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia 1.18 1.67
SpainSpain Spain 1.23 1.56
Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic 1.37 1.75
TurkeyTurkey Turkey 1.87 2.52
UkraineUkraine Ukraine 0.88 1.01
HungaryHungary Hungary 1.27 1.67
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 1.44 1.92
BelarusBelarus Belarus 1.33 1.08

Germany

Development of fuel prices in Germany since 1950 with reference year 1995 adjusted for the consumer price index (in euro cents)
Average weekly price fluctuations for Super 95 petrol in Germany in the period Nov. 2014 - Jun. 2015. During the day, the price decreases continuously, only to jump again after the closure of some petrol stations from 8:00 p.m.

Pricing

In order to uncover any violations of antitrust law, a market transparency office for fuels was set up at the Federal Cartel Office, which is supposed to create market transparency as far as possible at petrol stations . On December 1, 2013, it started regular operations.

taxes and expenses

In Germany, this includes (in each case super or diesel) the surcharge for the petroleum storage network with 0.27 or 0.30 ct / l, the mineral oil tax / energy tax with 65.45 or 47.04 ct / l and the VAT of 19 %.

With the product price and the contribution margin (which includes the oil stock amount) as well as the energy tax (mineral oil tax), a “new” net price is determined on which the 19% VAT is then charged.

Composition of the fuel price in July 2016
Super
ct / L
% Diesel
ct / L
%
Product price 030.64 23.0% 030.25 27.0% Listing Rotterdam and refinery costs
contribution margin + 014.38 10.9% 015.00 13.0% Transport, storage, distribution, administration, admixture, ... contains oil storage amount of 0.27 (super) or 0.30 ct / L (diesel)
Wholesale price = 045.00 34.3% 045.25 41.0% Net price of the mineral oil company
Energy tax + 065.45 50.0% 047.04 43.0% previously mineral oil tax, constant; contains 15.4 ct / L eco tax for super or diesel
Net price = 110.74 84.0% 092.29 84.0% Net price in accordance with the Energy Tax Act
value added tax + 020.90 16.0% 017.50 16.0% 19% based on the net price
Consumer price = 131.46 100% 109.82 100%
of which taxes 086.35 66.0% 064.54 59.0%

Switzerland

Nominal annual average petrol price in Switzerland 1970–2014 (not adjusted for inflation)

In Switzerland, the cost of the mineral oil tax , the climate cent , the import fee for compulsory stock and the value added tax are added to the import price .

Similar fabrics

Related topics

Web links

Commons : Gasoline  album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: gasoline  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i Entry on petrol in the GESTIS substance database of the IFA , accessed on July 1, 2017(JavaScript required) .
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Standard DIN EN 228 Fuels for motor vehicles - Unleaded petrol - Requirements and test methods ( online ).
  3. Konrad Reif: Otto engine management: control, regulation and monitoring . 4., completely reworked. Edition. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-8348-2102-7 , pp. 69 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  4. Richard van Basshuysen (Ed.): Otto engine with direct injection - process systems development potential , 3rd edition, Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2013, ISBN 978-3-658-01408-7 , p. 191
  5. Peter Kurzweil: Chemistry: Basics, structural knowledge, applications and experiments . 10th edition. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-658-08660-2 , p. 127 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  6. ^ Rolf Isermann: Electronic management of motor vehicle drives . Wiesbaden 2010, p. 1.
  7. Entry on Gasoline in the Classification and Labeling Inventory of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), accessed on May 21, 2018. Manufacturers or distributors can expand the harmonized classification and labeling .
  8. Fuel: ADAC tester from Shells V-Power disappointed. In: Spiegel Online . July 24, 2003 ( spiegel.de ).
  9. n-tv.de: “Outrageous cashing in” - regular gasoline before the end? August 13, 2007.
  10. Super and normal cost the same. In: The star. November 30, 2007 ( stern.de ).
  11. autobild.de Shell cancels regular gasoline. In: Autobild. September 18, 2008 ( autobild.de ).
  12. TU Delft: Modern Oil Refinery ( Memento from February 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 559 kB).
  13. a b Specifications of various gasoline fuels ( memento from August 19, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  14. a b Energy for the future. (PDF; 1.2 MB) 2015 annual report including table. Mineralölwirtschaftsverband , July 2015, accessed on June 17, 2016 .
  15. Shell car scenarios up to 2040 Facts, trends and perspectives for car mobility Publisher: Shell Deutschland Oil GmbH, 22284 Hamburg; P. 68; online ( Memento from September 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ).
  16. DIN EN - Characteristic values ​​of petrol and their meaning (extract, accessed March 21, 2013; PDF; 41 kB).
  17. BMU: Warning: Can your car handle E10? .
  18. Text of the ordinance on the composition and labeling of the qualities of fuels and fuels .
  19. Current gasoline prices in Europe: TCS Suisse (PDF), February 14, 2020, accessed on March 9, 2020.
  20. destatis.de: Basic data on gasoline prices at the pump ( memento from January 2, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), as of 2008.
  21. destatis.de: Basic data on gasoline prices at the pump , as of 2010.
  22. Market transparency agency for fuels starts regular operations on December 1, 2013. Bundeskartellamt , November 29, 2013, accessed on August 9, 2019 .
  23. Composition of the consumer price for premium gasoline, diesel and light heating oil
  24. Percentages in relation to the retail price
  25. Oil reserve amount from April 1, 2012
  26. Fuel market and prices. (PDF; 1.3 MB) TCS , accessed on June 17, 2016 .