Gasoline, petrol, carburetor fuel , petrol (colloquial)
|Brief description||Fuel and a. for combustion engines with positive ignition|
fossil, somewhat biogenic
Gasoline, additives, bio-ethanol admixture
<0.5 mPas (40 ° C)
0.720-0.775 kg / L (15 ° C)
40.1–41.8 MJ / kg = 11.1–11.6 kWh / kg, therefore around 30.5 MJ / L = 8.5 kWh / L
approx. 46.7 MJ / kg = 12.9 kWh / kg, therefore about 34.9 MJ / L = 9.7 kWh / L
|Melting range||approx. −45 ° C|
(30 ... 215) ° C
<−35 ° C
|Ignition temperature||approx. 220 ° C|
|Explosive limit||(0.6 ... 8.0) vol .-%|
|Explosion class||II A|
|Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion||
2.32 kg / L
|As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .|
Motor gasoline ("gasoline" for short) is a complex mixture of around 150 different hydrocarbons with a boiling range between that of butane and kerosene / petroleum . It is mainly made from refined components from petroleum refining and used as fuel . Motor gasoline is one of the "petrol"; there are also other gasoline fuels .
Etymological origin, term
The original name comes from the Arabic word for benzoin , luban dschawi - " incense from Java ". This expression came to Europe through Arab trade relations with Catalonia . With the omission of the first syllable and the change of the first a to e , benjuì in Italian, benzoë in Middle Latin , from which the German word benzol developed.
1825 discovered Faraday later benzene -mentioned compound in depleted gas cylinders, he called them back then bicarbure d'hydrogène before of Eilhard Mitscherlich in gasoline has been renamed. However, he used it to refer to today's benzene. Mitscherlich named the substance after the raw material he used, benzoin. The assignment to today's petrol was done by Justus von Liebig .
Varieties of motor gasoline
There are different types of gasoline that differ in their knock resistance and, to achieve this, also in the composition of the hydrocarbon mixture.
- Regular petrol ( RON 91) (no longer available in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Sweden and other countries)
- 95 ROZ under the following names:
- Super (Germany, Austria)
- Unleaded 95 (Switzerland)
- Sans Plomb 95 (France, Switzerland, Belgium)
- Euro 95 (Belgium, Netherlands)
- 98 ROZ under the following names:
- Super plus (Germany, Austria, partly Switzerland)
- Unleaded 98 (Switzerland)
- Sans Plomb 98 (France, Switzerland, Belgium)
- Euro 98 (Belgium, Netherlands)
- BP Ultimate unleaded 98 (Switzerland, at least 98 RON), BP Ultimate Super 95 (Austria, 98.4 RON)
- As a type of previously non-standardized 100-octane gasoline under the following brand names, among others:
The car manufacturers prescribe a minimum octane number for their engines ; In the case of grades with a lower octane rating, knocking can cause damage, unless the engine is able to adjust to this with the aid of a knock sensor by adjusting the ignition point within certain limits and with a slight loss of power. In the case of grades with a higher octane number, on the other hand, slight increases in performance or efficiency are possible. However, since the adjustment limit is usually designed by the manufacturer for a specific octane number specified in the operating instructions, many engines cannot use the new 100-octane petrol.
In Germany, since November 2007, the price of regular gasoline has been brought into line with that of premium gasoline. Representatives of automobile clubs expressed the assumption that the mineral oil companies wanted to abolish normal gasoline in the medium term in order to have more revenues and lower costs, which in 2007 was rejected by mineral oil companies as unfounded. In mid-September 2008, Shell was the first major mineral oil company to completely remove regular gasoline from its range, as it was rarely bought. In 2010 regular petrol disappeared from German petrol stations and the pumps were switched to Super E10.
In addition to the distinction between knock resistance, there is also a distinction between summer gasoline, winter gasoline and transition goods (see below, production).
The main constituents of gasoline are predominantly alkanes , alkenes , cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons with 5 to 11 carbon atoms per molecule and a boiling range between 25 ° C and ≈210 ° C. In addition, various ethers (such as MTBE , ETBE ) and alcohols ( ethanol , very rarely also methanol ) are added to the raw gasoline . The ethers or the ethanol increase the knock resistance of the finished gasoline.
In the first step, the hydrocarbons are obtained from crude oil by fractional distillation . After several refinement steps, if necessary, the following (mostly desulphurized ) components are obtained (selection):
- Butane (RON ≈90)
- Isopentane (RON ≈91)
- Isohexangemische (RON ≈90)
- Petroleum ether (C 5 –C 6 , not an ether according to chemical nomenclature, but a mixture of various saturated hydrocarbons such as pentane and hexane , boiling range 25–65 ° C, C 5 –C 6 , RON ≈72)
- Isomerate (boiling range 25–65 ° C, C 5 –C 6 , mixture of branched-chain pentanes and hexanes, RON ≈80)
- Light petrol (mixture of different hydrocarbons with five to seven carbon atoms , boiling range 25–80 ° C, C 5 –C 7 , RON ≈70)
- Reformat components (highly aromatic cuts ≈100–220 ° C, C 7 –C 11 , RON ≈115)
- Alkylate (C 7 –C 8 , mixture of different isoheptanes and isooctanes, RON ≈95)
- Polymer gasoline (C 8 , mixture of different alkenes , i.e. olefinic i.e. unsaturated hydrocarbons, RON ≈100)
- Heavy components (C 7 -C 11 ) of pyrolysis gasoline (highly aromatic cuts ≈100–220 ° C, C 7 –C 11 , RON ≈115)
- CC (light) petrol from the Cat Cracker (FCC, see: cracking , RON ≈93)
The following components do not come from the above-mentioned refinery production, but are added to the gasoline when the individual components are mixed:
- Ethanol (bio, RON ≈104)
- MTBE (made from isobutene and methanol, RON ≈119)
- ETBE (made from isobutene and ethanol, RON ≈120)
The components are i. d. Usually stored separately in tanks and mixed from there to the finished product via a blending station. The mixing ratios differ depending on the variety (see covers ). For example, high-octane components are increasingly mixed in with high-octane grades. Some specifications ( DVPE , E70 ) vary depending on the season. A distinction is made between summer, transitional and winter goods. In order to prevent the formation of vapor bubbles in summer, less low-boiling components (butane, isopentane) are used in the blend. In contrast, a proportion of more low-boiling components in the winter gasoline facilitates a cold start.
- DVPE (Dry Vapor Pressure Equivalent: vapor pressure at 38 ° C)
- E70 (% by volume that have evaporated at 70 ° C)
- E100 (% by volume that have evaporated at 100 ° C)
- E150 (% by volume that have evaporated at 150 ° C)
- Vapor Lock Index (index function, only in the transition period)
- Olefin content (vol .-%)
- Aromatic content (vol .-%)
- Oxygen content (mass%)
The blend must be designed as economically as possible, i.e. H. ROZ or MOZ, DVPE and aromatic content should be "approached" if possible. Of course, such criteria differ from refinery to refinery. The price structure of the product environment ( jet price , MTBE price , naphtha price ) also influences the blending strategy .
During the desulfurization of petroleum products, sulfide groups are split off from the carbon chains by hydrodesulfurization . This creates hydrogen sulfide , which is removed by amine scrubbing and then converted into elemental sulfur using the Claus process, among other things . Desulfurization is a prerequisite for usability in engines with catalytic converters .
The base fuel does not differ between the various mineral oil companies ; it often even comes from the same refinery . An additive package is added to it, usually through so-called “end point dosing ” directly before the tanker is loaded , which is specific to the group being supplied. These additives include oxidation inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, detergents (protection against deposits in the injection system) and carburetor icing inhibitors.
In 2014, around 19.5 million tons of petrol were produced in Germany.
In Germany, from the 1920s until the end of the Second World War, petrol was also obtained by liquefying coal from coal ( synthetic petrol ) due to a lack of petroleum . The high energy consumption and high CO 2 emissions make the process mostly uneconomical these days when cheaper natural gas or oil is available. However, such plants are still operated in South Africa today and others are planned in the world ( see coal liquefaction - meaning ).
CO 2 balance well-to-tank
According to a Shell study, 15–20% of CO 2 emissions occur in the production and supply ( well-to-tank ) of fuels.
The most important types of petrol are specified in the EN 228 standard.
|DIN EN 228|
|Area||Fuels for automobiles|
|title||Unleaded petrol requirements and test methods|
|Brief description:||Specifications for minimum requirements and tests for petrol|
In addition to the (minimum) octane number , the following important specifications must also be met:
- Density : 0.720-0.775 kg / L (15 ° C)
- DVPE : 45–60 (summer), 45–90 (transition period), 60–90 kPa (winter)
- Aromatics : max. 35 vol%
- Olefins : max. 18 vol .-% for Super (Plus), regular petrol; Max. 21 vol%
- Benzene : max. 1 vol%
- Sulfur : max. 10 mg / kg
- Lead : max. 5 mg / l
- Manganese : max. 2 mg / l
- Oxygen : max. 2.7 mass%, max. 3.7% by mass (E10)
- E70 : 20–48 (summer), 20–50 (transition period), 22–50 (winter) vol .-%
- E100 : 46-71% by volume
- E150 : min. 75 vol%
- Vapor Lock Index : max. 1150 (only in the transition period)
- C5 + - ether content : max. 15% by volume, max. 22% by volume (E10)
- Ethanol content : max. 5% by volume, max. 10% by volume (E10)
Gas pump sticker (Germany)
According to § 13 of the ordinance on the quality and labeling of the qualities of fuels and fuels (10th BImSchV), the guaranteed qualities at the petrol pumps and at the petrol station must be "clearly visible". In Germany you will therefore find the round stickers with the text required by the 10th BImSchV (Annexes 1a-b and 2a-b) on all petrol pumps:
- Super sulfur-free RON 95 (according to Appendix 1a)
- Super Plus sulfur-free RON 98 (according to Appendix 1b)
- Super E10 sulfur-free RON 95 (according to Appendix 2a)
- Super Plus E10 sulfur-free RON 98 (according to Appendix 2b)
Due to EU regulations, Super E10 with an addition of up to 10% bioethanol has been increasingly coming onto the German market since January 1, 2011 . For this fuel, the 10th BImSchV prescribes additional warnings on the E10 compatibility of the vehicles. See also: 10. BImSchV: Labeling on petrol pumps .
In Germany, around 18.5 million tonnes of motor gasoline were used in 2014 (including around 2000 tonnes of regular gasoline). The production surplus (see production ) is exported (mainly Switzerland and USA).
The prices for motor gasoline (trade name: Regular = RON 91, Premium = RON 95, Premium Plus = RON 98) are based on the Rotterdam market in Europe. Gasoline is traded in US dollars per 1,000 kg (US $ / t). Various publications such as Platts , ICIS and OMR report (sometimes daily) on current trading prices and volumes. The reference density used in trade (to set the price of a current batch with a given density in relation to the quotation) is 0.745 kg / dm³ for regular and 0.755 kg / dm³ for all premium varieties. Furthermore, transport costs and the fuel trading margin must be taken into account.
In addition to the price amounts mentioned above, which are reflected in the product price and contribution margin, there are also taxes and duties.
German-speaking area and surrounding countries
Petrol prices according to the survey by the Touring Club Switzerland :
|country||Dec 2004||May 2005||July 2007||April 2008||Jan 2009||Mar 2010||Feb 2011||Mar 2012||Feb 2013||Feb 2014||Feb 2015||Feb 2016||March 2017||April 2018||March 2019||Feb 2020|
1 lead free 98 octane
Europe (2008 and 2010)
The annual average values at the pump are given for the most common gasoline fuel. The values have been converted from national currency to US dollars. This indicator is included in the World Development Indicators and is based on data from the World Bank.
|country||Price in USD / ℓ 2008||2010|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1.13||1.42|
In order to uncover any violations of antitrust law, a market transparency office for fuels was set up at the Federal Cartel Office, which is supposed to create market transparency as far as possible at petrol stations . On December 1, 2013, it started regular operations.
taxes and expenses
In Germany, this includes (in each case super or diesel) the surcharge for the petroleum storage network with 0.27 or 0.30 ct / l, the mineral oil tax / energy tax with 65.45 or 47.04 ct / l and the VAT of 19 %.
With the product price and the contribution margin (which includes the oil stock amount) as well as the energy tax (mineral oil tax), a “new” net price is determined on which the 19% VAT is then charged.
ct / L
ct / L
|Product price||30.64||23.0%||30.25||27.0%||Listing Rotterdam and refinery costs|
|contribution margin||+||14.38||10.9%||15.00||13.0%||Transport, storage, distribution, administration, admixture, ... contains oil storage amount of 0.27 (super) or 0.30 ct / L (diesel)|
|Wholesale price||=||45.00||34.3%||45.25||41.0%||Net price of the mineral oil company|
|Energy tax||+||65.45||50.0%||47.04||43.0%||previously mineral oil tax, constant; contains 15.4 ct / L eco tax for super or diesel|
|Net price||=||110.74||84.0%||92.29||84.0%||Net price in accordance with the Energy Tax Act|
|value added tax||+||20.90||16.0%||17.50||16.0%||19% based on the net price|
|of which taxes||86.35||66.0%||64.54||59.0%|
- Standard DIN EN 228 Fuels for motor vehicles - Unleaded petrol - Requirements and test methods ( online ).
- Konrad Reif: Otto engine management: control, regulation and monitoring . 4., completely reworked. Edition. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-8348-2102-7 , pp. 69 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Richard van Basshuysen (Ed.): Otto engine with direct injection - process systems development potential , 3rd edition, Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2013, ISBN 978-3-658-01408-7 , p. 191
- Peter Kurzweil: Chemistry: Basics, structural knowledge, applications and experiments . 10th edition. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-658-08660-2 , p. 127 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Rolf Isermann: Electronic management of motor vehicle drives . Wiesbaden 2010, p. 1.
- Entry on Gasoline in the Classification and Labeling Inventory of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), accessed on May 21, 2018. Manufacturers or distributors can expand the harmonized classification and labeling .
- Fuel: ADAC tester from Shells V-Power disappointed. In: Spiegel Online . July 24, 2003 ( spiegel.de ).
- n-tv.de: “Outrageous cashing in” - regular gasoline before the end? August 13, 2007.
- Super and normal cost the same. In: The star. November 30, 2007 ( stern.de ).
- autobild.de Shell cancels regular gasoline. In: Autobild. September 18, 2008 ( autobild.de ).
- TU Delft: Modern Oil Refinery ( Memento from February 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 559 kB).
- Specifications of various gasoline fuels ( memento from August 19, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Energy for the future. (PDF; 1.2 MB) 2015 annual report including table. Mineralölwirtschaftsverband , July 2015, accessed on June 17, 2016 .
- Shell car scenarios up to 2040 Facts, trends and perspectives for car mobility Publisher: Shell Deutschland Oil GmbH, 22284 Hamburg; P. 68; online ( Memento from September 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ).
- DIN EN - Characteristic values of petrol and their meaning (extract, accessed March 21, 2013; PDF; 41 kB).
- BMU: Warning: Can your car handle E10? .
- Current gasoline prices in Europe: TCS Suisse (PDF), February 14, 2020, accessed on March 9, 2020.
- destatis.de: Basic data on gasoline prices at the pump ( memento from January 2, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), as of 2008.
- destatis.de: Basic data on gasoline prices at the pump , as of 2010.
- Market transparency agency for fuels starts regular operations on December 1, 2013. Bundeskartellamt , November 29, 2013, accessed on August 9, 2019 .
- Composition of the consumer price for premium gasoline, diesel and light heating oil
- Percentages in relation to the retail price
- Oil reserve amount from April 1, 2012
- Fuel market and prices. (PDF; 1.3 MB) TCS , accessed on June 17, 2016 .