Gasoline, Otto fuel, carburetor fuel, Sprit (colloquial)
|short description||fuel etc. for internal combustion engines with spark ignition|
fossil, somewhat biogenic
Gasoline, additives, bio-ethanol admixture
< 0.5 mPa s (40 °C)
40.1-41.8 MJ/kg = 11.1-11.6 kWh/kg = 8.4-8.7 kWh/L
approx. 46.7 MJ/kg = 12.9 kWh/kg = 34.9 MJ/L = 9.7 kWh/L
|melting range||approx. −45 °C|
(30 … 215) °C
< −35 °C
|ignition temperature||approx. 220 °C|
|explosive limit||(0.6 … 8.0) vol.%|
|explosion class||II A|
|Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion||
|Wherever possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply under standard conditions .|
Motor gasoline (abbreviated "gasoline") is a complex mixture of about 150 different hydrocarbons whose boiling range is between those of butane and kerosene / petroleum . It is mainly made from refined components of petroleum refining and used as a fuel . Motor gasoline is one of the “petrol fuels”; there are also other petrol fuels .
Etymological origin, term
The original name comes from the Arabic word for benzoin , luban jawi - " incense from Java ". This expression came to Europe through Arab trade relations with Catalonia . With the dropping of the first syllable and the change of the first a to e , Italian benjuì emerged , and Middle Latin benzoë , from which the German word Benzol developed.
In 1825 Faraday discovered the compound later called benzene in empty gas cylinders, he called it bicarbure d'hydrogène at the time before Eilhard Mitscherlich renamed it gasoline . However, he used it to describe today's benzene. Mitscherlich named the substance after the starting material he used, benzoin resin. The assignment to today's gasoline was done by Justus von Liebig .
The term “petrol” therefore does not go back to the engine builder Carl Benz , as is sometimes erroneously assumed , in contrast to diesel fuel , which is actually named after Rudolf Diesel . The discovery of the gasoline-air mixture as a suitable fuel source for automobiles goes back to Siegfried Marcus .
Varieties of motor gasoline
There are different types of gasoline, which differ in their anti- knock properties and in the composition of the hydrocarbon mixture to achieve this.
- Regular petrol ( RON 91) (Normally no longer available in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Sweden and other countries)
- RON 95 under the following designations:
- Super (Germany, Austria)
- Unleaded 95 (Switzerland)
- Sans Plomb 95 (France, Switzerland, Belgium)
- Euro 95 (Belgium, Netherlands)
- Natural 95 (Czech Republic)
- RON 98 under the following designations:
- Super plus (Germany, Austria, partly Switzerland)
- Unleaded 98 (Switzerland)
- Sans Plomb 98 (France, Switzerland, Belgium)
- Euro 98 (Belgium, Netherlands)
- BP Ultimate unleaded 98 (Switzerland, at least RON 98), BP Ultimate Super 95 (Austria, RON 98.4)
- Natural 98 (Czech Republic)
- Types of 100-octane petrol that have not yet been standardized include the following brand names:
Car manufacturers prescribe a minimum octane number for their engines ; Detonation damage can occur on grades with lower octane numbers unless the engine is able to adjust to this with the help of a knock sensor by adjusting the ignition timing within certain limits and with a slight loss of performance. With grades with a higher octane number, on the other hand, slight increases in performance or efficiency are also possible. However, since the adjustment limit is usually designed by the manufacturer for a specific octane number specified in the operating instructions, many engines cannot take advantage of the new 100-octane petrol.
In Germany, since November 2007, the price of normal petrol has been adjusted to that of premium petrol. Representatives of automobile clubs expressed the assumption that the petroleum companies wanted to get rid of normal petrol in the medium term in order to have more revenue and lower costs, which the petroleum companies rejected as unfounded in 2007. In mid-September 2008, Shell was the first major mineral oil company to completely remove normal petrol from its range because it was hardly ever bought. Regular petrol disappeared from German petrol stations in 2010 and the pumps were switched to Super E10.
In addition to the distinction between knock resistance, there is also a distinction between summer gasoline, winter gasoline and transitional goods (see below, production).
The main components of gasoline are mainly alkanes , alkenes , cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons with 5 to 11 carbon atoms per molecule and a boiling range between 25 °C and ≈210 °C. In addition, various ethers (such as MTBE , ETBE ) and alcohols ( ethanol , very rarely methanol ) are also added to the crude petrol . The ethers or ethanol increase the anti-knock properties of the finished gasoline.
In the first step, the hydrocarbons are obtained from crude oil by fractional distillation . After possibly several refining steps, the following (mostly desulfurized ) components (selection) are obtained:
- Butane (RON ≈90)
- Isopentane (RON ≈91)
- Isohexane mixtures (RON ≈90)
- Petroleum ether (C 5 –C 6 , no ether according to chemical nomenclature, but a mixture of various saturated hydrocarbons such as pentane and hexane , boiling range 25–65 °C, C 5 –C 6 , RON ≈72)
- Isomerate (boiling range 25–65 °C, C 5 –C 6 , mixture of branched-chain pentanes and hexanes, RON ≈80)
- Light petrol (mixture of various hydrocarbons with five to seven carbon atoms , boiling range 25–80 °C, C 5 –C 7 , RON ≈70)
- Reformate components (highly aromatic cuts ≈100–220 °C, C 7 –C 11 , RON ≈115)
- Alkylate (C 7 –C 8 , mixture of different isoheptanes and isooctanes, RON ≈95)
- Polymer gasoline (C 8 , mixture of different alkenes , i.e. olefinic i.e. unsaturated hydrocarbons, RON ≈100)
- Heavy components (C 7 -C 11 ) of pyrolysis gasoline (highly aromatic cuts ≈100–220 °C, C 7 -C 11 , RON ≈115)
- CC (light) gasoline from the Cat Cracker (FCC, see: cracking , RON ≈93)
The following components do not come from the above-mentioned refinery production, but are added to the gasoline when the individual components are mixed:
- Ethanol (organic, RON ≈104)
- MTBE (produced from isobutene and methanol, RON ≈119)
- ETBE (made from isobutene and ethanol, RON ≈120)
The components are i. i.e. R. stored separately in tanks and mixed from there via a blending station to the finished product. The mixing ratios differ depending on the variety (see apertures ). For example, more high-octane components are added to high-octane grades. Some specifications ( DVPE , E70 ) vary depending on the season. A distinction is made between summer, transitional and winter goods. In order to prevent the formation of vapor bubbles in summer, fewer low-boiling components (butane, isopentane) are used in the blend. A proportion of more low-boiling components in winter gasoline, on the other hand, makes cold starts easier.
- DVPE (Dry Vapor Pressure Equivalent: vapor pressure at 38 °C)
- E70 (vol% evaporated at 70°C)
- E100 (% by volume evaporated at 100 °C)
- E150 (vol% evaporated at 150°C)
- Vapor Lock Index (index function, only in the transition period)
- Olefin content (vol%)
- Aromatic content (vol%)
- Oxygen fraction (mass %)
The blend must be designed as economically as possible, i. H. RON or MON, DVPE and aromatic content should be "approached" as far as possible. Of course, such criteria differ from refinery to refinery. The price structure of the product environment ( jet price , MTBE price , naphtha price ) also influences the blending strategy.
In the desulfurization of petroleum products, sulfide groups are cleaved from the carbon chains by hydrodesulfurization . This produces hydrogen sulfide , which is removed by amine scrubbing and then converted to elemental sulfur using the Claus process , among other things. Desulfurization is a prerequisite for usability in engines with catalytic converters .
The basic fuel does not differ between the various mineral oil companies , it often even comes from the same refinery . An additive package that is specific to the group supplied is added to it, usually by means of a so-called "end point dosing" directly before loading into the tanker truck . These additives include antioxidants, anti-corrosion agents, detergents (protection against deposits in the injection system) and carburetor anti-icing agents.
Around 19.5 million tons of motor gasoline were produced in Germany in 2014.
Leaded petrol has been banned in the EU since 2000 (see development of petrol ) . Only aviation fuel may still be leaded. However, the addition "lead-free" is still included in the variety designations. September 1, 2021 was the last time leaded gasoline was sold in Algeria .
Synthetic petrol was obtained in Germany from the 1920s until the end of the Second World War due to a lack of oil, among other things by liquefying coal (e.g. Leuna-Benzin ). Today, various fuels are referred to as synthetic gasoline , which differ from conventional fuels in the manufacturing process and changes in the chemical structure.
CO 2 balance well-to-tank
With the complete combustion of one liter of gasoline, 2.32 kg of carbon dioxide are released directly in addition to water. 15-20% additional CO 2 emissions have already been generated by the time it is made available at the filling station, so a total of approx. 2.7 kg of CO 2 per liter of petrol must be assumed.
The most important types of petrol are specified in the EN 228 standard.
|Area||fuels for motor vehicles|
|title||Unleaded petrol - Requirements and test methods|
|Brief description:||Definitions of minimum requirements and tests on petrol|
|Latest edition||EN 228:2012 + A1:2017|
|National standards||DIN EN 228:2017-10+B1:2020-08
ÖNORM EN 228
SN EN 228
In addition to the (minimum) octane number , the following important specifications must also be met:
- Density : 0.720-0.775 kg/L (15°C)
- DVPE : 45–60 (summer), 45–90 (transitional), 60–90 kPa (winter)
- Aromatics : max. 35% by volume
- Olefins : max. 18% by volume for Super(Plus), regular petrol; max. 21% by volume
- Benzene : max. 1% by volume
- Sulfur : max. 10 mg/kg
- Lead : max. 5 mg/l
- Manganese : max. 2 mg/l
- Oxygen : max. 2.7% by mass, max. 3.7% by mass (E10)
- E70 : 20-48 (summer), 20-50 (transitional), 22-50 (winter) vol%
- E100 : 46-71% by volume
- E150 : min. 75% by volume
- Vapor Lock Index : max. 1150 (only in the transition period)
- C5 + - ether content : max. 15% by volume, max. 22% by volume (E10)
- Ethanol content : max. 5% by volume, max. 10% by volume (E10)
Gas pump sticker (Germany)
According to § 13 of the Ordinance on the Quality and Labeling of Fuels (10th BImSchV), the guaranteed qualities at the pumps and at the filling station must be “made clearly visible” in commercial transactions. In Germany, therefore, the round stickers required by the 10th BImSchV (Appendices 1a-b and 2a-b) can be found on all petrol pumps with the text:
- Super sulphur-free RON 95 (according to Appendix 1a) New: E5 with the remaining information.
- Super Plus sulphur-free RON 98 (according to Appendix 1b) New: E5 with the remaining information.
- Super E10 sulphur-free RON 95 (according to Appendix 2a) New: E10 with the remaining information.
- Super Plus E10 sulphur-free RON 98 (according to Appendix 2b) New: E10 with the remaining information.
Due to EU regulations, Super E10 with an addition of up to 10% bioethanol has been coming onto the German market since January 1, 2011. For this fuel, the 10th BImSchV prescribes additional warnings on the E10 compatibility of the vehicles. See also: 10. BImSchV: Markings on petrol pumps .
Around 18.5 million tons of motor gasoline were consumed in Germany in 2014 (of which around 2,000 tons were normal gasoline). Since a disproportionately large amount of diesel fuel is consumed in Germany, some of this has to be imported and some made available through increased crude oil imports. The resulting production surplus of gasoline (see production ) is exported (mainly to Switzerland and the USA).
The prices for motor gasoline (trade name: Regular = RON 91, Premium = RON 95, Premium Plus = RON 98) in Europe are based on the Rotterdam market. Gasoline is traded in US dollars per 1,000 kg (US$/t). Various publications such as Platts , ICIS and OMR report (sometimes daily) on current trading prices and volumes. The reference density used commercially (to put the price of a current batch of a given density in relation to the listing) is 0.745 kg/dm³ for regular and 0.755 kg/dm³ for all premium grades. Furthermore, transport costs and the margin of fuel trading must also be taken into account.
In addition to the above price amounts, which are reflected in the product price and contribution margin, there are also taxes and duties.
German-speaking area and surrounding countries
Gasoline prices according to Touring Club Switzerland :
|country||Dec 2004||May 2005||July 2007||April 2008||Jan 2009||Mar 2010||Feb 2011||Mar 2012||Feb 2013||Feb 2014||Feb 2015||Feb 2016||March 2017||April 2018||March 2019||Feb 2020||March 2021|
1 Unleaded 98 octane
On February 1, 2022, according to ADAC , petrol prices reached a record level of EUR 1.712 for a liter of E10 type E10 on a daily average nationwide, thereby exceeding the previous high of EUR 1.709 from 2012.
In order to uncover any violations of antitrust law, a market transparency office for fuels was set up at the Federal Cartel Office, which is intended to create market transparency as far as possible at petrol stations . On December 1, 2013, it started regular operation.
taxes and expenses
In Germany, this includes (each for Super or Diesel) the levy for the oil storage network at 0.27 or 0.30 ct/l, the mineral oil tax/ energy tax at 65.45 or 47.04 ct/l and the value added tax of 19 %. Since 2021 also the CO 2 tax .
With the product price and the contribution margin (which includes the oil storage amount) as well as the energy tax (petroleum tax), a “new” net price is determined on which VAT of 19% is then charged.
|product price||30.64||23.0%||30.25||27.0%||Quotation Rotterdam and refinery costs|
|contribution margin||+||14.38||10.9%||15.00||13.0%||Transport, warehousing, sales, administration, admixture, ... contains crude oil stocks of 0.27 (super) or 0.30 ct/L (diesel)|
|wholesale price||=||45.00||34.3%||45.25||41.0%||Net price of the petroleum company|
|energy tax||+||65.45||50.0%||47.04||43.0%||formerly mineral oil tax, constant; contains 15.4 ct/L eco tax for super or diesel|
|net price||=||110.74||84.0%||92.29||84.0%||Net price according to the Energy Tax Act|
|value added tax||+||20.90||16.0%||17.50||16.0%||19% based on the net price|
|of which taxes||81.95||63.8%||64.54||59.0%|
- alkylate petrol
- diesel fuel
- E10 and E85 petrol- ethanol blends
- Synthetic Gasoline
- white spirit
- two-stroke mixture
- Standard DIN EN 228 Fuels for motor vehicles - Unleaded petrol - Requirements and test methods ( online ).
- Konrad Reif: Gasoline engine management: control, regulation and monitoring . 4th, completely revised. edition. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-8348-2102-7 , p. 69 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Richard van Basshuysen (ed.): Gasoline engine with direct injection - process systems development potential , 3rd edition, Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2013, ISBN 978-3-658-01408-7 , p. 191
- Peter Kurzweil: Chemistry: Fundamentals, structural knowledge, applications and experiments . 10th edition. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-658-08660-2 , p. 127 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Rolf Isermann : Electronic management of motorized vehicle drives . Wiesbaden 2010, p. 1.
- Entry on Gasoline in the Classification and Labeling Inventory of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), retrieved on May 21, 2018. Manufacturers or distributors can extend the harmonized classification and labeling .
- Fuel: ADAC testers disappointed by Shell's V-Power. In: Mirror Online . July 24, 2003 ( mirror.de ).
- n-tv.de: "Outrageous cashing in" - normal petrol before the end? Aug 13, 2007.
- Super and Normal cost the same. In: The Star. November 30, 2007 ( stern.de ).
- autobild.de Shell deletes regular gasoline. In: car picture. September 18, 2008 ( autobild.de ).
- TU Delft: Modern Oil Refinery ( Memento of 23 February 2014 at the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 559 kB).
- Specifications of various petrol fuels ( memento from August 19, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Energy for the future. (PDF; 1.2 MB) Annual report 2015 including tables. Mineral Oil Industry Association , July 2015, retrieved 17 June 2016 .
- Era of led petrol over, eliminating a major threat to human and planetary health ( UNEP ) accessed September 20, 2021
- Shell car scenarios up to 2040 Facts, trends and prospects for auto mobility Publisher: Shell Deutschland Oil GmbH, 22284 Hamburg; p. 68; online ( Memento of 6 September 2015 at Internet Archive ).
- DIN EN - Characteristics of petrol and their importance (excerpt, retrieved March 21, 2013; PDF; 41 kB).
- BMU: Warning: Does your car tolerate E10? .
- Current petrol prices in Europe: TCS Suisse (PDF), 19 March 2021, accessed on April 7, 2021.
- Historic high: refueling is more expensive than ever . FAZ.net, February 2, 2022.
- Market Transparency Unit for Fuels starts regular operations on December 1, 2013. Bundeskartellamt , November 29, 2013, retrieved on August 9, 2019 .
- Composition of the consumer price for premium petrol, diesel and light heating oil
- Percentages in relation to the retail price
- Petroleum stockpiling amount as of April 1, 2012
- Fuel market and prices. (PDF; 1.3 MB) TCS , accessed 17 June 2016 .