E10 is a petrol that contains between 5 and 10% bioethanol . It has been gradually introduced in Germany since January 2011 in connection with the requirements of Directive 2009/28 / EC (Renewable Energy Directive) . This directive repealed directive 2003/30 / EC (biofuel directive) of May 8, 2003.
Ethanol contains almost 32% less energy than gasoline. In the admixture, the difference in energy content between the E10 and E5 gasoline blends is around 1.9%. The ADAC assumes an average of 3% more consumption compared to "petrol without ethanol admixture" and thus 1.5% more consumption compared to conventional ethanol fuel E5 with only 5% ethanol ("super petrol"). Since most of the engines and emissions regulations have not been optimized for E10 fuel, the additional fuel consumption can be between 1.5% and 3%.
A test by DEKRA on behalf of Stern TV in March 2011 even resulted in lower fuel consumption when using E10, which was attributed to the higher octane number of the ethanol. On the other hand, another study by DEKRA on behalf of the ARD car and traffic adviser based on extensive tests on the roller dynamometer showed that the E10 consumed 1.5% more fuel than conventional E5 premium gasoline.
Compatibility with engines and other vehicle components
Not all vehicles can use E10 without any problems. According to the Association of the Automotive Industry, 99% of all cars from German manufacturers can refuel with E10 without any restrictions. Even a large number of vehicles over ten years old are E10-compatible. The E10 compatibility of vehicles can be requested from the respective vehicle manufacturer or researched online (see web links ). Petrol stations that offer E10 must continue to sell petrol with 5% bioethanol. This ensures that end-of-life vehicles from foreign manufacturers that are not approved for E10 can still be refueled.
For cost reasons, not all end-of-life vehicles have been subjected to the extensive E10 tests, which is why they are not approved. This does not have to mean that these vehicles are inevitably damaged by E10. It is believed that the alcohol contained in the E10, especially at high pressure and high temperatures, causes corrosion in fuel supply components made of aluminum. Such components can be found, for example, in the intake tract between the injection nozzle and intake valve of the engine or in gasoline pumps. Evidence of this suspected damage has not yet been published, nor has it been confirmed, documented or denied by independent experts.
Alcohol can attack plastics contained in hoses and seals, for example. This also applies to the fuel system, which on most vehicles is made of plastic. However, European manufacturers had known since the late 1980s that the proportion of ethanol would increase in the future. This is why most of the suppliers switched their products to ethanol-resistant plastics as early as the 1990s.
The head of mechanical development at BMW, Thomas Brüner, considers the E10 to be “more dangerous than previously known”, as he explained in March 2011. In his opinion, E10, in which conventional gasoline is mixed with 10% ethanol from grain and sugar beet, could ensure that engines wear out faster, according to Brüner: Due to the high proportion of ethanol, the amount of water in the engine increases, it condenses and gets into the oil becomes thinner and ages faster. This in turn means shorter oil change intervals at the expense of the customer.
The discussion refers to experiences with similar fuels in other countries, such as the USA. No problems are known from there.
Situation in Germany
Political and legal foundations
The promotion of biofuels in Germany takes place primarily through a regulatory determination, the so-called biofuel quota . In the Federal Immission Control Act , the calorific value-related minimum proportions of biofuels in the total amount of fuel are specified. The current biofuel quota is 6.25%. H. Biofuels must have a share of 6.25% of the total fuel market. At the same time, under-quotas apply to the replacement of petrol (2.8%) and diesel fuel (4.4%). Failure to meet the specified quotas will result in fines.
The mandatory use of biofuels through a quota serves to implement the requirements of the EU's Renewable Energy Sources Directive (Directive 2009/28 / EC), which stipulates that each member state will cover at least 10% of its final energy consumption in the transport sector from renewable energy sources in 2020 . The so-called decarbonisation strategy of the EU has been implemented in Germany since 2015. The previously applicable total quotas for biofuels were abolished. Instead, blanket reduction targets apply to fuels. Since 2015, 3% greenhouse gases have to be saved every year. This value will increase to 7% by 2020. Most of this reduction is achieved by adding biofuels or selling pure biofuels ( B100 , E85 ).
The introduction of E10 as a way of fulfilling the quota was made possible by the new version of Directive 2009/30 / EC of April 23, 2009 amending the EU Fuel Quality Directive 98/70 / EC. Thus, by the end of 2010, the EU member states were obliged to increase the maximum permitted proportion of ethanol in petrol from the previous 5% by volume (E5) to 10% by volume (E10). However, there is no requirement that E10 has to be offered. For every supplier of E10 fuel, in addition to the labeling and information obligation, there is an express obligation to also offer E5 fuel with the same octane number at the same tapping point.
Bioethanol has to meet strict sustainability criteria. All biofuels must meet the requirements of the Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance in order to be eligible for the quota or to be tax-relieved. Bioethanol sold in Germany currently has to save at least 35% greenhouse gases compared to fossil gasoline. In addition, areas with high biodiversity and large carbon stores, such as rainforests, are not allowed for raw material production. However, the sustainability requirements only apply to the organic component, not to the fossil fuel.
Even after more than a year (as of June 2012), the proportion of E10 sold was still well below 20%. The introduction of the E10 was rated as a "relative failure" by mineral oil companies, as they had expected a share of at least 80%.
In August 2012, in view of the high grain prices, the Federal Minister for Development Aid Dirk Niebel was the first member of the federal government to plead for the abolition of E10. Greenpeace , the Federation for the Environment and Nature Conservation (BUND) and the consumer center agreed with this demand.
The Federal Association of the German Bioethanol Industry e. V. responded with a statement regarding the demands of the Federal Development Minister and made it clear that German bioethanol is only produced from industrial beet and grain with feed quality and therefore no food is processed. The association points out that the introduction of E10 worked much better than the introduction of unleaded petrol in the 1980s.
According to § 13 of the ordinance on the quality and labeling of the qualities of fuels and fuels (10th BImSchV), the guaranteed qualities at the petrol pumps and at the petrol station must be "clearly visible". In Germany you will therefore find the round stickers with the text required by the 10th BImSchV (Annexes 1a-c and 2a) on all petrol pumps for E10:
- Super E10 sulfur-free (95 RON)
Launch and development
|title||Fuels for motor vehicles - Requirements and test methods - Part 1: Petrol E10|
Problems initially arose when the E10 was launched. Various Internet portals such as auto.de called for a boycott of the E10 fuel. An online petition for postponing the introduction of E10 was also started, which was signed by around 2000 citizens. Another petition calls for the repeal of the EU directive on E10 fuel. It was signed by over 1000 citizens.
In addition, there were organizational and communication deficits in the mineral oil industry. The Mineralölwirtschaftsverband (MWV) initially reported that the introduction of E10 would be paused due to massive sales problems and supply bottlenecks for other types of gasoline. The association later relativized its report and made it clear that only the refinery production would be adjusted to demand and the introduction of the fuel would continue “in accordance with the political guidelines of the federal government”. Federal Environment Minister Norbert Röttgen criticized that "the mess that the mineral oil industry is creating here" is not acceptable, but leads "to complete uncertainty among consumers". The mineral oil industry should "finally come up with a sensible strategy instead of sending out contradicting messages every day". Federal Minister of Economics Rainer Brüderle invited all those involved to the first "Petrol Summit" on March 8, 2011, which did not produce any noteworthy results.
Some petrol station chains, such as the market leader Aral , now offered the familiar E5 fuel again in addition to the E10, under the pressure of weak demand.
In April 2011, the ADAC filed a complaint against five oil companies. According to ADAC, Aral, BP, Jet, OMV and Shell are violating the legal regulations for the introduction of the E10. It is stipulated that suppliers of Super E10 must also have a corresponding “classic” E5 super petrol (ie with a lower proportion of ethanol) in stock. The ADAC made random checks at gas stations in Munich. There, under the name Super, a fuel of the quality 'Super Plus' is offered, this costs eight cents more per liter than the E10.
According to the official mineral oil data of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), the E10 market share was 6.1% immediately after its introduction in the first quarter of 2011 and reached a high of 15.2% in 2014.
|Period||total||normal||Super E5||Super E10||Share of E5||Share of E10||Addition of ethanol||E mean|
|2006||22,603,599 t||6,280,418 t||15,680,704 t||-||69.4%||-||63,473 t||0.28%|
|2007||21,292,028 t||5,574,302 t||15,109,392 t||-||71.0%||-||88,478 t||0.42%|
|2008||20,561,379 t||1,842,941 t||18,138,702 t||-||88.2%||-||250,957 t||1.22%|
|2009||20,177,887 t||943,916 t||18,675,761 t||-||92.6%||-||687,416 t||3.41%|
|2010||19,614,794 t||696,048 t||18,372,792 t||-||93.7%||-||1,028,122 t||5.24%|
|2011||19,601,120 t||131,068 t||15,234,174 t||1,826,545 t||77.7%||9.3%||1,054,307 t||5.38%|
|2012||18,486,837 t||36,788 t||14,721,990 t||2,618,505 t||79.6%||14.2%||1,089,724 t||5.89%|
|2013||18,422,273 t||4,240 t||14,593,179 t||2,761,350 t||79.2%||15.0%||1,040,510 t||5.65%|
|2014||18,526,635 t||2,011 t||14,646,518 t||2,816,864 t||79.1%||15.2%||1,082,024 t||5.84%|
|2015||18,226,083 t||1,168 t||14,952,750 t||2,473,731 t||82.0%||13.6%||1,054,157 t||5.78%|
|2016||18,237,749 t||95 t||15,098,530 t||2,302,105 t||82.8%||12.6%||1,046,668 t||5.74%|
|2017||18,296,024 t||-||15,023,928 t||2,441,807 t||82.1%||13.3%||1,045,080 t||5.71%|
After E5 has been in use for a long time, E10 should be introduced on October 1, 2012. This schedule was adhered to until mid-September 2012, despite numerous critics in Germany. The criticism comes not least from the motorist side, since the addition of E10, in contrast to the portion already added to the E5, should no longer be exempt from the mineral oil tax and thus no price advantages would be given. As for the 5% admixture, the supplier of the added alcohol would be Agrana AG with its plant in Pischelsdorf in Lower Austria.
However, on September 17, 2012, Environment and Agriculture Minister Berlakovich announced that the project would be suspended. The reason are meetings with other EU ministers who want to reassess the E10 at European level. The criticism that valuable food was lost in the production of fuel is countered by scientists from the Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences that the alcohol required in Austria could be made purely from domestic corn or wheat straw , as well as from elephant grass.
Lt. Government agreement turquoise-green of January 2, 2020, E10 petrol will now also be introduced in Austria. The exact date is not yet known, but is likely to be between 2020 and 2024.
Other EU countries
The EU's Fuel Quality Directive stipulates that the life cycle - greenhouse gas - emissions in fuels by 2020 total must be reduced by 10% per unit of energy (Directive 2009/30 / EC). Germany has brought E10 onto the market for this. In addition to Germany, the introduction of E10 was also started in Finland and France (2009). In France, the share of sales was 13% at the end of 2010, which is almost double that of 2009 and was offered at almost 20% of all petrol stations. Sweden followed in May 2011. E85 has been standard there for a long time, but specially built vehicles have to be equipped with flexifuel technology developed in Germany . Switzerland, which is not in the EU, is not planning to introduce fuel with ethanol.
E10 has been available in the US for several years. The E15 was last brought onto the market here.
Climate Commissioner Connie Hedegaard and Energy Commissioner Günther Oettinger have drawn up a draft EU regulation that includes a change to the EU's previous plans for biofuel: instead of the previous plans to cover around 10% of the total energy demand for transport by 2020 with biofuel, Biofuel from food should now be limited to 5%, while a further 5% should be made available from "second generation biofuel". The draft should be presented to the public in October 2012. An abolition of E10 should not go hand in hand with the new draft. In fact, Directive 2009/28 / EC (Renewable Energy Directive) was not changed until 2015 by the amending Directive 2015/1513 / EU. In the amended version, the target is stated to cover 10% of the energy demand in the transport sector with renewable energies by 2020. The proportion of biofuels from food should be a maximum of 7%.
For a general discussion, see the evaluation of biofuels
The aim of adding biofuels is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to protect the climate. In principle, bio-ethanol is not considered to be climate-neutral, as the CO 2 emitted during combustion was previously withdrawn from the atmosphere by the growth of plants, but high energy input is required for the production and operation of processing equipment and for the ethanol production itself for cultivation. Replacing petroleum-based fuels with agrofuels also saves fossil fuels. However, if forests are cleared for the production of ethanol and fossil fuels are used for production and transport, the positive effect on the climate balance is reduced and could even turn into a disadvantage. The emission of air pollutants must also be taken into account.
In order to ensure the environmental compatibility of biofuels, the federal government has issued a biofuel sustainability ordinance. According to this, biofuels are only considered to be sustainably produced if - taking into account the entire production and supply chain - they save at least 35% of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuels (from 2017 at least 50%). Furthermore, no areas with a high carbon content or high biological diversity, such as rainforests or peat bogs, may be used to grow plants for biofuel production. Biofuels that do not comply with these sustainability standards can neither be tax-privileged nor offset against the biofuel quota to be met.
The energy policy spokesman for the Greens, the physicist Hans-Josef Fell , spoke out in favor of supporting domestic biofuels such as pure vegetable oils, biodiesel or E85 instead of E10. The beneficiaries of E10 are "only the mineral oil companies that took the biofuels business into their own hands and hardly cared about sustainability criteria".
The life scientist Eckhard Boles spoke out in favor of E85, but at the same time defended the introduction of E10, for which there are good reasons. Bioethanol has a positive climate balance , it is produced in an ecologically acceptable way, it brings independence from the oil multinationals in the Middle East, creates jobs in Germany and protects the oil reserves.
The ADAC welcomed the decision for E10.
The Federal Association for Renewable Energy declared: “Bioenergy is not a scapegoat for a failed agricultural policy” and rejected the “general attacks” on E10 as “irrelevant”. An E10 stop in Germany could neither fight world hunger, nor would bioenergy be the main driver for monocultures.
A literature study by Germanwatch comes to the conclusion that bioethanol has positive effects under the right cultivation conditions and can contribute to generating economic growth and reducing the import dependency of crude oil, especially for developing countries.
Other environmental associations such as BUND , Greenpeace and Rettet den Regenwald do not expect the introduction of E10 to have any positive effects on the environment. By increasing the proportion of ethanol to 10%, BUND expects an increase in the demand for grain, sugar beet and corn to a total of around five million tons. The land required for this would then no longer be available for food production. The BUND therefore speaks of a “sham package” for the climate balance and of “consumer deception”. Greenpeace expects a worsening of the climate balance due to the high use of pesticides and fertilizers as well as large monocultures and demands an immediate end to the biofuel E10 in Germany because of the high grain prices.
The claim that there will be less land available for food production contradicts the fact that in Germany, according to the set-aside program of the EU, large areas have been withdrawn from food production. Renewable raw materials for use in industry and fuels may be grown on such set-aside areas, but the areas may not be used for food production or reactivated.
In critical considerations about E10, E25 (USA) and E85 because of the agro-ethanol component, there is generally no critical examination of the non-sustainability and toxicity of the gasoline component made from crude oil. Nor is it taken into account that the anti- knock agent ETBE has been added to petrol for more than ten years. ETBE is made from ethanol, so it was needed and produced in larger quantities than the admixture even before the introduction of E10. The criticism, on the other hand, mostly focuses on the computational models for proving the sustainability and environmental friendliness of ethanol, but never makes comparative statements about the inadequate environmental friendliness of gasoline and other petroleum products.
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