Elizabeth Cady Stanton

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Elizabeth Cady Stanton in old age, photograph by Aaron Veeder, Library of Congress collection
Stanton and Anthony - Working together for women's rights and women's suffrage
Petition to the Senate from Elizabeth Cady Stanton (December 1874)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (born November 12, 1815 in Johnstown , New York, died October 26, 1902 in New York City) was an American suffragist, social reformer, abolitionist, and a leading figure in the early women's rights movement . Her Declaration of Sentiments , presented at the Seneca Falls Convention , held in Seneca Falls (a small town in New York State) in 1848, is often credited with sparking the first organized women's and women's suffrage movement in the United States was.

Before Stanton focused her political activity almost exclusively on women's rights, she was an active opponent of slavery, along with her husband Henry Brewster Stanton (co-founder of the Republican Party) and her cousin Gerrit Smith . Unlike many who were involved in the women's rights movement, Stanton dealt with various issues affecting women in addition to the right to vote. She dealt with women's parental and custody rights, their property rights, employment and income rights, divorce law, family economic health and birth control. She was also an outspoken supporter of the Temperenzler movement of the 19th century.

After the Civil War , Stanton's advocacy of women's suffrage caused a split in the women's rights movement when she and Susan B. Anthony refused to support the passage of the 14th and 15th amendments to the United States Constitution . She opposed giving African American men both legal protection and the right to vote, while denying the same rights to women, black and white. Her stance on the issue, along with her thoughts on organized Christianity and the issues beyond suffrage, led to the formation of two separate women's rights organizations, which eventually - some twenty years after the split - were brought back together with Stanton as president of the united association. She was the president of this National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) from 1892 to 1900 .

Stanton wrote, among other things, " The Woman's Bible " and her autobiography Eighty Years and More , as well as many other articles and pamphlets on women's suffrage and rights. She died in 1902 at the age of 86, 18 years before the ratification of the 19th Amendment that enshrined women's suffrage in the United States' Constitution.

Childhood and family background

Elizabeth Cady was the eighth of the eleven children of Daniel Cady and Margaret Livingston Cady; she was born in Johnstown , New York. Only Elizabeth and four sisters survived childhood and adolescence, grew up, and reached old age. Later in life, she gave two daughters the names of sisters, Margaret and Harriot.

Daniel Cady, Stanton's father, was a prominent Federalist attorney who served a term in the United States Congress (1814-1817) and then both a Circuit Court Judge and, in 1847, Chief Justice (Title: Justice) of the New York Supreme Court was. Judge Cady introduced his daughter to the legal profession and, along with her brother-in-law Edward Bayard, laid the early roots for her legal and social activism. Even as a young girl she loved reading her father's law books and having legal debates with his assistants. It was this early preoccupation with law that made her see, at least in part, how disproportionately the law favored men over women, especially the married. Her realization that married women, in fact, had no property, no income, no paid job, and not even custody of their own children helped her set herself on a path to changing these inequalities.

Stanton's mother, Margaret Livingston Cady, was the daughter of Colonel James Livingston, a Continental Army officer during the American Revolutionary War . She was an unusually tall woman with an authoritarian demeanor. Her emotional world was disturbed by the loss of the many children, she was often depressed and could not take care of the living children growing up. Stanton's childhood was negatively influenced by the lack of attention from her mother.

The mother was depressed and Stanton's father also had to overcome the loss of these children, including his eldest son Eleazar, by throwing himself into his job as a judge. Stanton's eleven-year older sister Tryphena and her husband Edward Bayard had to take on a lot of responsibility in raising their little siblings. Bayard was a learning assistant at Daniel Cadys law firm and became instrumental in Stanton's growing understanding of the outspoken and hidden relationship between men and women within the legal system.

Slavery did not end in New York State until July 4, 1827. Like many men of his day, Stanton's father was a slave owner. Peter Teabout, a slave in the Cadys household who was later released in Johnstown, looked after Stanton and her sister Margaret. She does not otherwise mention him in the family household, but remembers with particular pride in her memoirs of Eighty Years & More that she happily sat at the back of the "Episcopal Church" with Teabout instead of alone with the white families of the congregation at the front to sit. It was not this slave's family property, but the involvement in the anti-slavery movement that she experienced as a young woman in Peterboro, New York when visiting her cousin Gerrit Smith, that led to her decidedly abolitionist attitude.

Education and intellectual development

Unlike many women of her day, Stanton had been educated. She attended the Johnstown Academy in her hometown until she was 16 years old. She was the only girl in the advanced mathematics and languages ​​courses. She won second prize in the school's Greek competition and became a skilled debater. She enjoyed school and said she had not experienced any gender restrictions.

In her memoirs, Stanton pays thanks to the Cadys' neighbor, Pastor Simon Hosack, for giving them strong support in their spiritual development and study skills; and that at a time when they were despised by their father. After the death of her brother Eleazar in 1826, she tried to comfort her father by saying she would become just like her brother had been. And her father's answer struck her deeply: "Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy!" (German: “Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy!”) Neighbor Hosack, however, continued to support her, she regained her self-confidence and her self-respect.

After graduating from Johnstown Academy, Stanton experienced her first taste of sexual discrimination. Her male classmates could enroll in Union College, just as her brother Eleazar had previously done. Since this college only accepted men, Stanton enrolled at Troy Female Seminary (now: Emma Willard School) in Troy , founded and directed by Emma Willard . In her early years at Troy, Stanton was heavily influenced by Charles Grandison Finney , an evangelical revival minister. She later recovered from the fears he had caused and stressed that logic and the human sense of humanity are the best guides in both thought and action.

Marriage and family

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her daughter Harriot

The young woman Elizabeth Cady met Henry Brewster Stanton because of her early involvement in the temperance and abolitionist movements. Stanton was a journalist, an anti-slavery speaker, and a lawyer after his marriage to Elizabeth Cady. Despite the reservations of the father Daniel Cady, the couple got married in 1840. Elizabeth asked the clergyman to remove the phrase "promise to obey" from the promise of marriage. She later wrote: "I obstinately refused to obey one with whom I supposed I was entering into an equal relation." (German: "I stubbornly refused to obey someone with whom I should enter into a relationship between equals.") The couple had six children between 1842 and 1856. Four years later, they had an "unplanned" seventh child. One daughter was the publicist Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch , who continued her mother's work as a women's rights activist.

Soon after returning to Europe from their honeymoon, the Stantons moved into the Cady household in Johnstown. Henry Stanton studied law under the tutelage of his father-in-law until 1843 when the Stantons moved to Chelsea, now part of Boston , Massachusetts , where Henry worked in a law firm. In Boston, Elizabeth was deeply delighted with the social, political, and intellectual stimuli that arose from the continuous series of abolitionist gatherings and gatherings. She was known and influenced by the likes of Frederick Douglass , William Lloyd Garrison , Louisa May Alcott, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, among others . Throughout her marriage and eventual widowhood, Stanton adopted her husband's surname as part of her own, but she refused to be addressed or addressed as Mrs. Henry B. Stanton.

In 1847, because of Henry's health, the Stantons moved to Seneca Falls , New York, and moved into a house bought by Daniel Cady just outside of town. Her last four children were born here, deliberately wanted and planned by Elizabeth. She called it "voluntary motherhood". Though she enjoyed being a mother and saw the primary responsibility for raising the children with herself, she was dissatisfied and depressed about the lack of intellectual stimulation in Seneca Falls. During this period of detachment from the women's movement, however, Stanton remained in contact with Susan B. Anthony in the 1850s. And writing speeches for Anthony has, from afar, become a major means of meddling in the women's movement. In addition, Stanton often wrote letters to Anthony about the difficulties of balancing domestic and public life, especially in a prejudiced society. Stanton became increasingly involved in the city's society - also a remedy for boredom and loneliness - and by 1848 had established contacts with like-minded women in the region. By this time she was firmly attached to the burgeoning women's rights movement and ready to get involved in activities.

Early activity in the women's rights movement

Seneca Falls Convention

Even before living in Seneca Falls, Stanton had been an admirer and friend of Lucretia Mott , the Quaker preacher, feminist, and abolitionist she met in the spring of 1840 on her honeymoon at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London , England would have. The two women grew closer when male meeting delegates voted to prohibit women from attending the meeting, even if, like Mott, they were official delegates from their native abolitionist groups. After a lengthy debate, the women were allowed to participate in a separate section, hidden from the eyes of the participating men. The prominent abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison soon joined them , who had arrived late and, in protest of the result, waived his seat in the room to sit with the women.

Mott's example and the decision not to allow women to attend the gathering increased Stanton's advocacy for women's rights. By 1848 she was startled by her previous life experiences, along with her experience in London and her initially frustrating experiences as a housewife in Seneca Falls. She later wrote: "[...] the wearied, anxious look of the majority of women, impressed me with a strong feeling that some active measures should be taken to remedy the wrongs of society in general, and of women in particular." (German: “[...] the tired, fearful look of the majority of women gave me the strong feeling that some real measures should be taken to remedy the injustice in society in general, and especially among women. ")

In 1848, Stanton put these feelings and ideas into practice by joining forces with Mott, her sister Martha Coffin Wright , Jane Hunt, and a handful of other women in Seneca Falls and organizing the Seneca Falls Convention on July 19th and 20th . Stanton drafted a Declaration of Sentiments , which she read out at this meeting. Modeled on the American Declaration of Independence , Stanton's "Declaration" proclaimed that men and women were created equal. Among other things, she proposed a resolution, which was still controversial at the time, which called for women to vote. The final resolutions, including women's suffrage, were approved. The present Frederick Douglass had also spoken out in favor.

Susan B. Anthony

Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony

Soon after the convention, Stanton was invited to speak at the Rochester Convention of 1848 , in Rochester , underpinning her role as an activist and reformer. Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis invited her to speak at the first National Women's Rights Convention in 1850 , but the pregnant Stanton only signed up as a sponsor and sent a speech to be read.

In 1851, Stanton met Susan B. Anthony through their mutual acquaintance Amelia Bloomer on the street in Seneca Falls. While Stanton and Anthony are best known for working together on women's suffrage, they were initially part of the Temperenzler movement. The connection between the women's suffrage matter and the Temperenzler movement was not accidental. They had common interests because the suffrage movement took on the role of "cause" and prohibition became its effect. Later on, when women got the right to vote in state after state, pressure could be put in place and various policies could be obtained to reduce drunkenness, which was seen as a major problem when it came to men. Therefore, these two movements were often allied with each other.

Soon, however, Stantons and Anthony's emphasis shifted towards women's suffrage and women's rights. Anthony, single with no children, had the time and energy to do the traveling and speaking that Stanton couldn't handle. Her skills complemented each other: Stanton, the better speaker and writer, drafted many of Anthony's speeches; Anthony, on the other hand, was the organizer and tactician of the movement. Stanton once wrote to Anthony: “No power in heaven, hell or earth can separate us, for our hearts are eternally wedded together.” (German: “No power in heaven, in hell or on earth can separate us, because our hearts are forever connected. ”) When Stanton died, Anthony described their collaboration as follows: Stanton forged the lightning bolts that they then fired.

Anthony's direction was rather narrow, especially for women's suffrage, but Stanton wanted to push for a broader base for women's rights in general. These opposing views led to some discussion and conflict, but no disagreement threatened their friendship or cooperation; the two women remained close friends and colleagues until Stanton's death, some 50 years after they first met. Stantons and Anthonys have always been recognized as leaders of the movement whose support was sought. But other voices were soon heard in the movement, including those of Matilda Joslyn Gage , who were beginning to occupy leadership positions.

Abolitionism and the women's rights movement

Ideological differences towards abolitionists

The petition from Stanton and other suffragists

After the Civil War, Stanton and Anthony broke their abolitionist history and tried to use their influence strongly against the ratification of the 15th and 16th Amendments , which guaranteed African-Americans (the former slaves) the right to vote. Both Stanton and Anthony were upset that the abolitionists, their former partners in the fight for African American and women's rights, refused to request that the text of the amendment be changed to include women. They believed that the 13th Amendment would already give the former slaves legal protection like whites. Expanding the male electorate would only increase the number of opponents of women's suffrage.

Stanton's position caused a major rift between her and many civil rights activists, particularly Frederick Douglass, who believed that white women already had the right to vote at least “vicariously” because their interests were vigorously represented by fathers, husbands and brothers. In his view, universal suffrage for women was less important than achieving the right to vote for blacks. Stanton disagreed with Douglass; Despite the racist language she sometimes used to escape into, she firmly believed in universal suffrage, which gave black and white, men and women more power. With regard to black women, she stated that denying the right to vote would condemn African American women to a threefold bondage that no man has experienced: slavery, gender, and race. In this view, they supported Anthony, Olympia Brown, and especially Frances Gage , who was the first suffragist to advocate freedom for women to vote. In her work The Slave's Appeal , written in 1860 , Stanton turned attention not only to feminism, but also to the problems and struggles of slavery. She wrote from the perspective of an African American in order to better convey her message.

Thaddeus Stevens , a Pennsylvania Republican Congressman and ardent abolitionist, also believed that the right to vote should be universal. In 1866, Stanton, Anthony, and several other suffragists drafted a suffrage petition demanding that suffrage should be granted regardless of gender or race. The petition was presented to the United States Congress through Stevens. Despite these efforts, Amendment 14 was passed in 1868 without modification.

Split in the women's rights movement

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (before 1869)

By the time the 15th Amendment made its way through Congress, Stanton's stance had created a huge split within the women's rights movement itself. Many leaders in the movement, including Lucy Stone , Elizabeth Blackwell, and Julia Ward Howe , argued strongly against Stanton's "all-or-nothing" attitude. In 1869, disagreement over ratification of the 15th Amendment gave birth to two separate women's suffrage organizations.

The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) was founded by Anthony and Stanton in May 1869 and served as its president for 21 years. The NWSA opposed the adoption of the 15th Amendment without the changes to include women's suffrage, and, largely because of Stanton's particular influence, it highlighted a number of women's issues that the more conservative members of the suffrage movement found too radical.

The better-funded, larger, and more representative women's suffrage association, the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), which was founded the following November and led by Stone, Blackwell, and Howe, supported the 15th Amendment as it was. In response to the passage of the amendment, the AWSA preferred to focus only on women's suffrage rather than advocating for the broader women's rights that Stanton supported: gender-neutral divorce laws, women's right to refuse sex with husband, increased economic opportunities for women and the right of women to participate in juries.

Sojourner Truth , a former slave and feminist, joined Stanton's and Anthony's organization because she, too, believed that men should not be allowed to vote without the participation of women. To Stanton, Anthony and Truth came Matilda Joslyn Gage, who later worked with Stanton on The Woman's Bible . Despite their best efforts, the 1870 Amendment went through as it was originally written.

In her later years, Stanton became interested in efforts to establish cooperative communities and workhouses. She was also drawn to various forms of political radicalism. She applauded the "populist movement" and identified with socialism, especially "Fabian socialism" . In the 21st century, Stanton is considered an early American Democratic Socialist .

Later years

Elizabeth Cady Stanton about 1880

In the decade that followed the adoption of the 15th Amendment, both Stanton and Anthony increasingly took the position, first advocated by Victoria Woodhull, that the 14th and 15th amendments practically gave women the right to vote. They argued that the 14th Amendment defined “citizens” as follows: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof”. (German: "All persons who were born or naturalized in the United States and are therefore subject to its jurisdiction") This term includes women and accordingly the 15th Amendment gives all citizens the right to vote. If one followed this logic, they assured us, women would now have the constitutional right to vote and it was only a matter of claiming this right. This constitution-based argument was called “The new Departure” among women's rights activists. It differed from previous attempts to change voting rights using a "state-by-state method" and resulted in first Anthony (1872) and later Stanton (1880) going to polling stations and asking to vote. Despite this and similar attempts by hundreds of other women, it would be nearly 50 years before women were allowed to vote throughout the United States.

During this time, Stanton generally kept her broad view of women's rights issues and did not narrow it down to women's suffrage alone. After the 15th Amendment was passed in 1870 and supported by the Equal Rights Association and prominent suffragists such as Stone, Blackwell and Howe, the rift between Stanton and other women's movement leaders deepened because Stanton contradicted fundamental religious views several leaders of the movement. Unlike many of his colleagues, Stanton believed that organized Christianity placed women in an unacceptable position in society. In the 1890s she set this out in The Woman's Bible , which explained her feminist understanding of the biblical scriptures and sought to correct the basic sexism that Stanton believed was an integral part of any organized Christian community . Likewise, Stanton supported divorce law, labor law, and property rights for women. These were problems the American Women's Suffrage Association (AWSA) preferred not to be involved in.

Her more radical attitudes also included accepting interracial marriage. After all, she had been against giving African-Americans the right to vote without including all women and had used degrading language when expressing her opposition. She had no objection to interracial marriage and wrote a congratulatory letter to Frederick Douglass when he married a white woman, Helen Pitts, in 1884. Anthony, who feared public condemnation of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and wanted to see the demand for women's suffrage maintained, pleaded with Stanton not to let this letter and support for the marriage become public.

Stanton began writing some very influential books, documents, and speeches on the women's suffrage movement. Starting in 1876, Stanton, Anthony and Gage worked together to write the first volume of the History of Woman Suffrage ; it is a groundbreaking six-volume work that contains the full history, documents and letters of the women's suffrage movement. The first two volumes were published in 1881 and the third in 1886; the entire work was finally completed by Ida Husted Harper in 1922. Stanton's other main writings were the two-part "Women 's Bible " ( The Woman's Bible ), which appeared in 1895 and 1898, her autobiography Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815–1897 (published 1898) and The Solitude of Self (or "Self- Sovereignty ”), which she first gave as a speech at the“ Convention of the National American Woman's Suffrage Association ”in Washington DC.

From 1868 Stanton began, along with Susan B. Anthony and Parker Pillsbury, a leading feminist of his day, to publish a weekly newspaper called Revolution , which contained editorials by Stanton, which dealt with a wide range of women's issues. Stanton had a different view of contraception than many modern feminists, which she herself supported and presumably used: She believed that both killing children and abortion could be viewed as child murder , an attitude she had in the revolution discussed.

At this time Stanton also joined the "New York Lyceum Bureau" and then completed a 12-year career as a participant in the "Lyceum Circuit". Traveling and giving lectures for the eight months of each year provided her with both the income to get her two youngest sons through college and a way to get her ideas out there because she was right as a lecturer popular. She also gained wide public notoriety and cemented her reputation as an outstanding leader of the women's rights movement. Her most popular speeches included: "Our Girls", "Our Boys", "Co-education", "Marriage and Divorce", "Prison Life" and "The Bible and Woman's Rights". Her lecture tours were so busy that, despite her presidency, she was only able to preside over four of the 15 meetings of the National Woman's Suffrage Association.

In addition to writing and speaking, Stanton was also an important tool in promoting women's suffrage in various states, particularly New York, Missouri, Kansas, where it was introduced in 1867, and Michigan, where a vote was held on it in 1874. She ran in New York in 1866 to no avail for a seat in Congress, and she was the main factor behind the passage of the Woman's Property Bill, which was eventually passed by New York State legislature. She worked for women's suffrage in Wyoming, Utah, and California, and in 1878 she persuaded California Senator Aaron A. Sargent to propose a women's suffrage amendment using wording similar to the 15th Amendment, which had been passed about eight years earlier.

Anna Elizabeth Klumpke (1856–1942) / National Portrait Gallery: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, (1889)

Stanton was also internationally active and spent long periods of time in Europe, where her daughter and fellow feminist Harriot Stanton Blatch lived. In 1888 she helped found the International Council of Women . In 1890 Stanton was against the union of the "National Woman's Suffrage Association" with the more conservative and religiously based "American Woman Suffrage Association". Despite their objections, the two organizations merged to become the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). And despite her opposition to the merger, she became its first president, largely because Susan B. Anthony intervened. But she was never popular among religious and conservative members of the National American because of her views.

On January 18, 1892, about ten years before her death, Stanton joined forces with Anthony, Stone and Isabella Beecher Hooker to represent the matter of suffrage before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary. After nearly five decades of fighting for women's suffrage and rights, this was Stanton's last appearance before members of the US Congress. Referring to the text that became The Solitude of Self , she spoke of the central value of the individual, emphasizing that value is not based on gender. As she wrote in the Declaration of Sentiments , Stanton's statement expressed not only the specific need for women's suffrage, but the need for a renewed understanding of the position of women in society and of women in general.

"The isolation of every human soul and the necessity of self-dependence must give each individual the right to choose his own surroundings. The strongest reason for giving woman all the opportunities for higher education, for the full development of her faculties, her forces of mind and body; for giving her the most enlarged freedom of thought and action; a complete emancipation from all forms of bondage, of custom, dependence, superstition; from all the crippling influences of fear — is the solitude and personal responsibility of her own individual life. The strongest reason why we ask for woman a voice in the government under which she lives; in the religion she is asked to believe; equality in social life, where she is the chief factor; a place in the trades and professions, where she may earn her bread, is because of her birthright to self-sovereignty; because, as an individual, she must rely on herself ... "

"(German: The isolation of every human soul and the need to trust oneself must give every individual the right to determine their own environment. The loneliness and personal responsibility for one's own individual life is the strongest reason why you should be a woman gives all the opportunities for higher education, for the full development of their abilities, their mental and physical powers, and allows them the greatest freedom of thought and action, a complete liberation from all fetters, from origin, dependency, superstition, from everything the crippling influences of fear. The strongest reason why we ask for a voice from women in the government under which she lives, in the religion she is kindly requested to believe, for equality in social life where she is the main factor, for a place in trade and professional life where they can earn their living is their birthright to their own sovereignty and self-determination , because as an individual she must be able to trust herself ...) "

Lucy Stone was so impressed with the brilliance of Stanton's speech that she printed The Solitude of Self in full in Woman's Journal and decided not to print her own speech to the committee.

Death and burial

The monument to Henry Brewster Stanton and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York City

Stanton died of heart failure in her New York City home on October 26, 1902, 18 years before women in the United States were guaranteed the right to vote. She was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx , New York City; on her grave is a tomb for her husband and she.

Writings by Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Elizabeth Cady Stanton's writings as author or co-author:


  • History of Woman Suffrage ; Volumes 1–3 (written with Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage; vol 4–6 completed by other authors, including Anthony, Gage, and Ida Harper) (1881–1922)
  • Solitude of Self (originally delivered as a speech in 1892; later published in a hard bound edition by Paris Press)
  • The Woman's Bible (1895, 1898)
  • Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815–1897 (1898)

Selection of "periodicals and journals"

  • Revolution (Stanton, co-editor) (1868–1870)
  • Lily (published by Amelia Bloomer; Stanton as contributor)
  • Una (published by Paulina Wright Davis; Stanton as contributor)
  • New York Tribune (published by Horace Greeley; Stanton as contributor)

Selected "papers, essays, and speeches"

  • Declaration of Sentiments And Resolutions. 1848.
  • A Petition for Universal Suffrage (1866)
  • Self-government the Best Means of Self-development (1884)
  • Solitude of Self. 1892.
  • The Degradation of Disenfranchisement. 1892.
  • Lyceum speeches: "Our Girls," "Our Boys," "Co-education," "Marriage and Divorce," "Prison Life," and "The Bible and Woman's Rights," "Temperance and Women's Rights" and many others

Stanton's writings are archived at Rutgers University (see especially entries for Ann D. Gordon, ed., In the bibliography below).

Honors and commemorations (selection)

US postage stamp in memory of the Seneca Falls Convention , titled 100 Years of Progress of Women: 1848–1948 (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, left, Carrie Chapman Catt, center Lucretia Mott , right)

After Stanton's death, many women suffragists focused on Anthony rather than Stanton, the founder of the women's suffrage movement, because she had these unorthodox ideas about religion and so emphasized women's work and other women's issues. Stanton's The Woman's Bible from 1895 had also deterred many of the traditionally religious suffragists. This cemented Anthony's place as the recognized leader of the women's suffrage movement. Anthony continued to work in NAWSA and became more familiar with the many young members of the movement. At the celebration of the 75th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1923, only Harriot Stanton Blatch extolled the role her mother played in founding the women's rights movement. Even as late as 1977, Anthony received the most attention as the movement's founder, while Stanton was not mentioned. Over time, however, Stanton got the attention it deserved.

Group memorial for the pioneers of the women's suffrage movement, created by Adelaide Johnson (1859–1955). It depicts Elizabeth Cady Stanton (left), Susan B. Anthony (right) and Lucretia Mott. The heads are copies of the individual busts that Johnson created for the courtyard of the "Woman's Building" in the "World's Columbian Exhibition" of 1893.

Along with Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony, Stanton was commemorated in a sculpture by Adelaide Johnson in the Capitol, unveiled in 1921. In 1997, it was moved to its current location in the Rotunda and thus shown far more publicly than before in the Capitol's crypt.

The "Elizabeth Cady Stanton House" in Seneca Falls

The "Elizabeth Cady Stanton House" in Seneca Falls was raised to a protected monument, a "National Historic Landmark", and thus honored.

In 1973 she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.

The Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Papers project was an academic undertaking to collect and document all available materials written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; it began in 1982 and has already been completed.

Interest in Stanton was popularly rekindled in 1999 when Ken Burns and others produced the documentary Not for Ourselves Alone: ​​The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. Attention was once again drawn to their central and fundamental role in shaping the women's suffrage movement, but also to their importance in the broader women's rights movement in the United States, which encompassed suffrage, women's rights reform, and the role of women in society as a whole.

The United States Department of the Treasury announced on April 20, 2016 that a picture of Stanton would be on the back of the newly designed ten-dollar bill along with Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony, Alice Paul, and Woman Suffrage Procession of 1913 would appear. Drafts for the five-dollar, ten-dollar and twenty-dollar bills will be presented in 2020 in connection with the 100th anniversary of the 1920s when American women won the right to vote through the 19th Amendment.


  • Jean H. Baker: Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. Hill and Wang, New York 2005, ISBN 0-8090-9528-9 .
  • Ken Burns, Geoffrey C. Ward: Not for Ourselves Alone: ​​The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1999, ISBN 0-375-40560-7 .
  • Frederick Douglass: Autobiographies: Narrative of the Life, My Bondage and Freedom, Life and Times . Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Penguin Putnam, New York 1994, ISBN 0-940450-79-8 .
  • Ellen Carol Dubois (Eds.): The Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Susan B. Anthony Reader: Correspondence, Writings, Speeches. Northeastern University Press, 1994, ISBN 1-55553-149-0 .
  • Ellen Carol Dubois: Feminism & Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848–1869. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 1999, ISBN 0-8014-8641-6 .
  • Ellen Carol Dubois, Richard Candida-Smith (Eds.): Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Feminist as Thinker . New York University Press, New York 2007, ISBN 978-0-8147-1982-4 .
  • Philip S. Foner (Ed.): Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings . Lawrence Hill Books (The Library of Black America), Chicago, IL 1999, ISBN 1-55652-352-1 .
  • Lori D. Ginzberg: Elizabeth Cady Stanton: An American Life . Hill and Wang, New York 2009, ISBN 978-0-8090-9493-6 .
  • Elisabeth Griffith: In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Oxford University Press, New York 1985, ISBN 0-19-503729-4 .
  • GAGE, Matilda Joslyn. and HOWE, Julia Ward. In: Edward T. James (Ed.): Notable American Women a Biographical Dictionary (1607-1950). Volume II: G – O. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1971, ISBN 0-674-62734-2 , pp. 4-6 and pp. 225-229.
  • STANTON, Elizabeth Cady. and STONE, Lucy. In: Edward T. James (Ed.): Notable American Women a Biographical Dictionary (1607-1950). Volume III: P-Z. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1971, ISBN 0-674-62734-2 , pp. 342-347 and pp. 342-347.
  • Kathi Kern: Mrs. Stanton's Bible. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8288-7 .
  • Milton M. Klein (Ed.): The Empire State: a History of New York. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 2001, ISBN 0-8014-3866-7 .
  • Alpheus Thomas Mason: Free Government in the Making: Readings in American Political Thought. 3. Edition. Oxford University Press, New York 1975.
  • Edward J. Renehan: The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men Who Conspired with John Brown . Crown Publishers, New York 1995, ISBN 0-517-59028-X .
  • Harriot Stanton Blatch, Alma Lutz: Challenging Years: the Memoirs of Harriot Stanton Blatch. GP Putnam's Sons, New York 1940.
  • Ann D. Gordon (Eds.): The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. Volume I: In the School of Anti-Slavery 1840-1866. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ 2001, ISBN 0-8135-2317-6 .
  • Ann D. Gordon (Eds.): The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. Volume II: Against an Aristocracy of Sex 1866–1873. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ 2000, ISBN 0-8135-2318-4 .
  • Ann D. Gordon (Eds.): The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. Volume III: National Protection for National Citizens 1873-1880. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ 2003, ISBN 0-8135-2319-2 .
  • Ann D. Gordon (Eds.): The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. Volume IV: When Clowns Make Laws for Queens 1880–1887. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ 2006, ISBN 0-8135-2320-6 .
  • Ann D. Gordon (Eds.): The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. Volume V: Their Place Inside the Body-Politic, 1887 to 1895. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ 2009, ISBN 978-0-8135-2321-7 .
  • Ann D. Gordon (Eds.): The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. Volume VI: An Awful Hush, 1895 to 1906. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ 2013, ISBN 978-0-8135-5345-0 .
  • Winston E. Langley, Vivian C. Fox (Eds.): Women's Rights in the United States: A Documentary History. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT 1994, ISBN 0-275-96527-9 .
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815-1897. Northeastern University Press, Boston 1993, ISBN 1-55553-137-7 .
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Solitude of Self. Paris Press, Ashfield, MA 2001, ISBN 1-930464-01-0 .
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton (preface by Maureen Fitzgerald): The Woman's Bible. Northeastern University Press, Boston 1993, ISBN 1-55553-162-8 .
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton: The Woman's Bible. (= Great Minds Series ). Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY 1999, ISBN 0-405-04481-X .
  • Elizabeth Stanton et al. (Ed.): History of Woman Suffrage. vol. 4, 1902.
  • Theodore Stanton, Harriot Stanton Blatch (Eds.): Elizabeth Cady Stanton As Revealed in Her Letters Diary and Reminiscences. 2 volumes. Arno & The New York Times, New York 1969. (Originally published by Harper & Brothers Publishers).
  • Victor Grossman : Rebel Girls: Portraits of 34 American Women . Papyrossa, Cologne 2012, pp. 65–72.

Web links

Commons : Elizabeth Cady Stanton  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. Baker, p. 109.
  2. Griffith, pp. 227-228; Stanton, Eighty Years & More
  3. Griffith, p. 5.
  4. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, pp. 31-32, 48.
  5. Griffith, pp. 10-11.
  6. Griffith, p. 7.
  7. Klein, p. 291.
  8. Kern, p. 22; (see also NY census 1810, 1820 & 1830)
  9. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, pp. 5-6.
  10. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, p. 54.
  11. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, pp. 33, 48.
  12. Griffith, pp. 8-9.
  13. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, p. 23.
  14. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, pp. 21-24.
  15. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, pp. 43-44; Griffith, pp. 21-22.
  16. ^ Whitman, Alden. American reformers: an HW Wilson biographical dictionary . HW Wilson Co., 1985, ISBN 0-8242-0705-X , p. 753.
  17. Baker, p. 108; Stanton, Eighty Years & More. P. 72.
  18. Baker, pp. 107-108.
  19. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, p. 127.
  20. Baker, pp. 110-111.
  21. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, pp. 146-148.
  22. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, Selected Works. In: Ellen Carol DuBois (Ed.): The Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony Reader . (1992), pp. 44-69, 119-130.
  23. Griffith, p. 48.
  24. ^ Women's Rights National Historical Park, The First Women's Rights Convention.Retrieved October 20, 2006.
  25. ^ Stanton: Eighty Years & More. 1993, p. 148.
  26. Foner, p.14; Elizabeth Cady Stanton biography , Women's Rights National Historical Park ( National Park Service ). Retrieved March 9, 2009.
  27. McMillen, Sally Gregory. Seneca Falls and the origins of the women's rights movement. Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-19-518265-1 , p. 108.
  28. Stalcup, Brenda. "Women's Suffrage." In: The feminist Papers: From Addams to Beeauvior. (Ed.): V. Alice S. Rossi, et al. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc), 88.
  29. James, Vol. II, p. 4; James, Vol. III, p. 388.
  30. Dubois: The Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Susan B. Anthony Reader. Pp. 91-92; Griffith, pp. 122-125; Langley, p. 130.
  31. ^ Foner, p. 600.
  32. Dubois: Feminism & Suffrage, p. 69.
  33. Dubois: Feminism & Suffrage pp. 68–69.
  34. ^ Jeanne Stevenson-Moessner: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Reformer to Revolutionary: A Theological Trajectory. In: Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1994. Volume 62, pp. 673-674.
  35. ^ The Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Papers Project . Rutgers University; A Petition for Universal Suffrage, accessed April 24, 2007.
  36. Dubois: The Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Susan B. Anthony Reader. P. 93; James, Vol III, p. 344.
  37. ^ Rosalyn Terborg-Penn: African American women in the struggle for the vote, 1850-1920 . Indiana University Press 1998, Blacks in the diaspora series, ISBN 0-253-21176-X , p. 34.
  38. James, Vol III, pp. 345, 389.
  39. Baker, pp. 126-127.
  40. Dubois: The Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Reader. P. 97; Langley, pp. 131-132; James, Vol III, p. 389.
  41. James, pp. 345-347 & 389
  42. ^ Sue Davis: The Political Thought of Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Women's Rights and the American Political Traditions . New York University Press, 2010, p. 206.
  43. ^ Democratic Socialism Has Deep Roots in American Life.Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  44. Dubois: The Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Susan B. Anthony Reader. Pp. 101-103.
  45. Mason pp. 925-926 (content of actual amendments)
  46. Dubois: The Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Susan B. Anthony Reader. P. 103; Griffith, pp. 154, 171.
  47. Stanton: The Woman's Bible. P. 7.
  48. Gordon, Vol. II, p. 376; James, pp. 345, 389.
  49. ^ Douglass, p. 1073.
  50. ^ Griffith, p. 184.
  51. ^ Griffith, p. 178.
  52. Griffith, pp. 170, 177-184, James, Vol II, pp. 5, 140.
  53. ^ Griffith, p. 203.
  54. James, Vol III, p. 345.
  55. Baker, pp. 106-107, 109.
  56. ^ Gordon, Vol II, p. 159.
  57. Michael Novak: Second Thoughts on Feminism. In: Crisis Volume 7, p. 4. (Ed. By Brownson Institute)
  58. The Revolution , I, No. 5; February 5, 1868.
  59. Griffith, pp. 160-162, 164-165; James, Vol III, p. 345.
  60. ^ Griffith, p. 165.
  61. James, Vol III, p. 345.
  62. James, Vol III, p. 346.
  63. ^ Burns & Ward, p. 179.
  64. Burns & Ward, pp. 179-183.
  65. Griffith, p. 203; Library of Congress. American memory. Votes for Women: Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection, 1848-1921.
  66. ^ "Hearing of the Woman Suffrage Association," January 18, 1892. (Six documents) . Retrieved May 27, 2009.
  67. ^ Griffith, p. 204
  68. ^ Stanton, History of Woman Suffrage & The Solitude of Self
  69. ^ Kerr, Andrea Moore: Lucy Stone: Speaking Out for Equality. Rutgers University Press, New Jersey 1992, ISBN 0-8135-1860-1 , p. 236.
  70. ^ Scott Wilson, Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons. 3rd edition: 2 (Kindle Locations 44700-44701). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  71. ^ The Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Papers Project. Rutgers University, accessed March 26, 2019 .
  72. Murphy, Cullen. The Word According to Eve , First Mariner Books, 1999, ISBN 0-395-70113-9 , pp. 19-23.
  73. ^ Griffith, p. Xv
  74. Portrait Monument of Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony
  75. Stanton, Elizabeth Cady - National Women's Hall of Fame.Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  76. Ann D. Gordon: Making It Happen. In: Project News: Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Fall 2012, p. 5. (ecssba.rutgers.edu accessed on March 17, 2014)
  77. ^ Geoffrey C. Ward: Not for Ourselves Alone: ​​The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony . Alfred Knopf, New York 1999, ISBN 0-375-40560-7 , A Note about Contributors, p. 241 ( google.com ).
  78. Not For Ourselves Alone. Retrieved August 18, 2009 .
  79. Not For Ourselves Alone. Retrieved August 18, 2009 .
  80. Burns: Not for Ourselves Alone (video & book)
  81. Treasury Secretary Lew Announces Front of New $ 20 to Feature Harriet Tubman, Lays Out Plans for New $ 20, $ 10 and $ 5, accessed April 20, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2017.