|Nickname : Forest City|
The Terminal Tower in Cleveland
|Location in Ohio|
|State :||United States|
|County :||Cuyahoga County|
|Time zone :||Eastern ( UTC − 5 / −4 )|
- Metropolitan Area :
|385,809 (as of 2016)
2,077,240 (as of 2010)
|Population density :||1,920.1 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area :||213.47 km 2 (approx. 82 mi 2 ) of
which 200.93 km 2 (approx. 78 mi 2 ) is land
|Height :||199 m|
|Area code :||+1 216|
|GNIS ID :||1066654|
|Mayor :||Frank G. Jackson ( D )|
Location of Cleveland in Cuyahoga County
Cleveland [ ˈkliːvlənd ] (until 1831 Cleaveland ) is a city in the northeast of the US state Ohio . It is located at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in Lake Erie and is 213.47 km². In the 2010 census , it had 396,815 inhabitants, making it the second largest city in Ohio after the capital Columbus . Cleveland is the county seat of Cuyahoga County and the geographical, economic and cultural center of the Cleveland Elyria Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area , the largest metropolitan area in this state with around two million people.
Due to its convenient location, the city quickly grew into an important transport hub and industrial location in the 19th century. In 1930 it was the fifth largest city in the USA with a population of 900,000. As a result of the structural change in the economy , the second half of the 20th century saw a continuous decline and loss of importance, exacerbated by ethnic conflicts and a poor educational system. This contrasts with efforts to locate service companies, to improve school education and to set cultural accents.
Cleveland is home to numerous national corporations, one of the Great Five Symphony Orchestras , the United Church of Christ (UCC), a Catholic bishop , several professional league sports teams, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame . There are three universities, including Case Western Reserve University, a private research university with its university hospitals. The port is the third largest in the Great Lakes area and is connected to the Atlantic by the Saint Lawrence River .
Position and extent
Cleveland is located in northeast Ohio on the south shore of Lake Erie, 150 km as the crow flies from Toledo on the western and 280 km from Buffalo at the eastern end of the lake, as well as 145 km southeast of Detroit and just 100 km west of the Ohio- Pennsylvania border . The urban area is 213.47 km² (200.93 km² of which are land area) and, with a break from the municipality of Bratenahl, extends over 22.5 kilometers along the lake shore and irregularly up to 14.5 kilometers deep inland. The city lies on both sides of the mouth of the Cuyahoga in the lake, with about two thirds of the urban area and the city center to the east of it. The associated district, Cuyahoga County , surrounding the city evenly from all three sides and, together with four of the five neighboring counties, the Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area , colloquially Greater Cleveland (German wholesale Cleveland ) called.
From an economic geographical point of view, Cleveland is located in the middle of the Rust Belt and the former Manufacturing Belt, the first densely populated industrial area in the USA, the former centers of which are today often marked by the decline of heavy industry .
The area around Cleveland forms the intersection of three large landscapes. The city itself is on the southern edge of the Great Lakes Plain . The Central Lowland , the fertile prairie landscape of the Midwest, opens up towards the southwest . In the southeast, the Allegheny Plateau is followed by a moraine hilly landscape formed by Ice Age glaciers , which extends to the Appalachian Mountains .
The shoreline of Lake Erie describes a sharp bend from east-west to north-east in the area of the river mouth. The embankment rises in terraces in a south-easterly direction and falls steeply towards the lake. The city center 750 meters inland is already 25 meters above lake level. The embankment is criss-crossed by some flowing waters that have created deep ravines. By far the largest is the valley of the Cuyahoga, the so-called Flats , with a width of around 800 meters. This valley hindered urban development towards the southwest for a long time and is now spanned by several high bridges.
The city is divided into 36 districts, the so-called neighborhoods, administrative Statistical Planning Areas (SPAs). These each summarize several census tracts of the US census and have between 1,200 and 35,000 inhabitants. Their names and borders are often congruent with the formerly independent administrative units that were incorporated between 1850 and 1925. From an administrative point of view, the neighborhoods are no longer of any importance apart from the police patrol duty. Its former cultural independence has also largely been lost as a result of decades of migration. In contrast, there is still a certain social identity. Among other things, they serve as a designation for the individual residential areas, and various urban renewal programs are also based on these boundaries and names.
In addition, the Cuyahoga largely divides the city into an eastern and a western half, which are referred to as the East Side and West Side (German east side and west side ). The southwestern part of the East Side, which is between Broadway Avenue and the Cuyahoga is, as South Side (German south side called).
The closed development has expanded further and further outward over the course of two centuries and now extends over a radius of around 25 km around the city center. At the beginning of the development, the urban area also grew through corresponding incorporations. Because this, in contrast to the settlement activity, came to an end around 1925, the contiguous development extends far beyond the city limits, almost to the entire Cuyahoga County.
The once important industrial facilities extend mainly along the lake shore in the area of the city center and along the Cuyahoga around 15 kilometers inland. Other locations are in the eastern suburbs and along the star-shaped railway lines. As a result of the decline of heavy industry, these areas are largely fallow . The city endeavors to make these usable for cultural purposes in the inner city area.
The development is densest in the area of the city center as well as in the flats, with the eastern high bank having a clear predominance. On East 55th Street, the closed development breaks off suddenly to the east and merges into a 50-block-wide strip with noticeably thinned-out development. The main square called Public Square on the eastern high bank forms the ideal center of the city.
Suburbs in the surrounding area
The suburbs in the surrounding area are predominantly residential communities . They are between 0.2 and 64 km 2 in size and have between one hundred and several tens of thousands of inhabitants. The largest of these are Parma in the southwest with around 85,700 inhabitants (as of Census 2000), followed by Lakewood in the west (56,700 inhabitants), Euclid in the northeast (52,700 inhabitants) and Cleveland Heights in the east (50,000 inhabitants). Notable industrial areas are located in the Cuyahoga Valley, in Euclid in the northeast, in Brook Park and Parma in the southwest, and in Solon in the far southeast. In some of the suburbs further out, shopping centers and commercial areas have also emerged.
The development flows smoothly into the suburbs at the city limits. As the distance from the city center increases, both the population and the building stock tend to become younger. The population density also decreases noticeably towards the outside, whereas the visible material prosperity and the proportion of owner-occupied residential property increase.
Cleveland's suburbs were created in a total of five stages. Their location in relation to the main traffic routes and the distance from Cleveland's city center are an expression of the prevailing mode of transport in the respective era and the associated speed of travel .
Due to its location, not far from the boreal climatic zone spanning large parts of southeast Canada, Cleveland has a cold-temperate climate ( effective climate classification Dfa). The seasons are typical of the continents, with warm, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. In the first winter months, especially with a westerly wind direction, the Lake Effect Snow occurs, a regional climate that is characterized by heavy snowfalls. The annual average temperature is 10.5 degrees Celsius.
Cleveland has a reputation for being a very cold place. The monthly mean temperatures in the winter months of December, January and February are between −0.5 and −3.5 ° C; Severe frosts down to below −15 ° C are not uncommon at this time of year. Often the temperatures feel even colder due to the wind chill effect. However, thermal drops can cause temperatures to rise temporarily to over 15 ° C in the winter months. The lowest temperature to date was measured on January 19, 1994 at −28.8 ° C.
The summer months of June, July and August are the warmest with average highs of 26.9 to 29.3 ° C. During this time the temperature can temporarily rise to over 30 ° C. The highest temperature was measured on June 25, 1988 at 40 ° C. In addition, the water of Lake Erie acts as a temperature store and delays the warming of the air in spring, while it stays warm longer in autumn.
The precipitation is distributed over the whole year, in the summer as rain and in the winter months as snow. The lowest rainfall is recorded in October, as well as in late winter, when Lake Erie is frozen over and Lake Effect Snow no longer occurs. The average annual rainfall is a moderate 932 mm.
Cleveland is located at the western end of the so-called Snow Belt and is therefore particularly affected by Lake Effect Snow. The causes are the kink in the shoreline to the northeast, the location on the leeward side of the lake and the sharp rise in the area to the southeast. Thus, when the sea wind is in a west-north-westerly wind direction, the moist air masses only hit the area east and northeast of the city center. As a result, these parts of the city can sink under decimeter-high snow masses in winter within a few hours, while only little precipitation is recorded to the south and west of it. This distribution of precipitation can also be observed in a weaker form in the summer months.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Cleveland, Ohio
The oldest traces of human settlement go back to the Paleo-Indians and date from the time between 10500 and 7500 BC. Around 2500 years after the end of the last ice age . The groups, probably large families, lived nomadically at first, from the middle Archaic period after 4500 BC. They became increasingly sedentary. A larger settlement existed in the far west of Cleveland, where Hilliard Boulevard crosses the Rocky River . For the first time, demarcable territories can be identified, within which seasonal migrations of groups that have since grown and become more socially differentiated took place. They practiced simple horticulture, especially with pumpkins, nuts also played an important role.
From the Woodland period (500 BC – 1200 AD), which is characterized by the emerging production of ceramics, burial mounds and remains of fortified small settlements can be found, those of the Adena and above all the can be assigned to the following, highly developed Hopewell culture and are mainly located on the high banks of the Cuyahoga. Large villages dominated, and from around 400 the cultivation of maize, the long-distance trade that existed very early on, expanded.
The Hopewell culture followed around 1200 by the so-called Whittlesey culture , which is characterized by advanced agriculture and settlement construction. It was part of the Mississippi culture that was even more prevalent further south . The population continued to rise until around 1500, and from around 1350 onwards sedentariness increased significantly, and fixed areas of certain families became tangible.
During the Little Ice Age (1500–1640), the population apparently declined sharply, possibly as a result of climatic changes or in the course of the Iroquois Beaver Wars . There was no settlement activity between 1640 and 1740. Even when the Europeans arrived at the end of the 18th century, the area was still almost uninhabited.
Foundation and early years
At the end of the 18th century, the US state Connecticut claimed a stretch of land in the northeast of what is now Ohio, the Connecticut Western Reserve . This land was given to settlers from 1796. In the course of land surveying by General Moses Cleaveland , he founded a port on July 22, 1796 at the mouth of the Cuyahoga in Lake Erie, which was initially named after him "Cleaveland".
In 1818 the first two newspapers were founded; Over the next few years, newspapers in German , Hebrew , Italian and Hungarian were added in addition to other English-language newspapers . The city owes its renaming to one of these newspapers, the Cleveland Advertiser: since the original spelling of the name was one letter too long for the headline, the newspaper removed the first 'a' from "Cleaveland", claimed it was official - and came through with it. On January 6, 1831, the city was officially renamed "Cleveland".
Cleveland has been the geographical, economic and cultural center of the Western Reserve from the start. For example, when Cuyahoga County was founded in 1810, Cleveland was chosen as the county seat, four years before it was spun off as a separate parish. In 1836 Cleveland was the first place in the Western Reserve to be elevated to a city, and in 1847 the Catholic diocese was founded. With a few exceptions, other important institutions such as doctors, schools and banks were also located in Cleveland from the start. Only economic rivalries with the city of Ohio City on the other bank of the Cuyahoga resulted in sometimes violent political conflicts in the first few decades. Cleveland ultimately won this one.
Civil War and Industrialization
At first, Cleveland developed only slowly. But with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 and the Ohio-Erie Canal in 1832, the city was connected to the Atlantic and the Mississippi and thus connected to international shipping lanes. That and the construction of the railway connections into the Appalachian Mountains , which are rich in natural resources, from 1849 onwards led to the city's rapid economic growth. Cleveland became a major center of the raw material processing industry. The first steel mill was inaugurated in 1868, and in 1870 the Standard Oil Company of John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937) founded its first oil refinery here. In the following decades Cleveland developed into an important location for the steel making and the petrochemical industry.
The Civil War (1861–1865) played a major role in the industrialization of the city . Resident companies produced uniforms, tobacco products, steel, steamers, carriages and railroad tracks. In 1864, more than half of all iron ore production from Lake Superior in Cleveland was processed. In addition, shipping companies and numerous trading companies were located, eight railway companies had branches.
After the turn of the century, Cleveland grew to become the second largest location for the US automotive industry after Detroit . The resident companies mainly concentrated on the development and production of assemblies, car accessories and spare parts. Major factories operated White Motor ( steam cars and later heavy trucks), Eaton (gearboxes), Willard / EnerSys (batteries), Fisher Body (bodies), Baker / Otis (electric vehicles), Ford (engines), General Motors (automatic transmissions, diesel engines) and Thompson / TRW . From 1910 the electrotechnical industry was added as the fourth important branch of the economy. During the Second World War, Boeing B-29 bombers and Fisher P-75 fighter planes were also assembled in Cleveland.
Great Depression and Economic Recovery
The first setbacks overtook Cleveland during the Great Depression of the early 1930s. In 1933 almost a third of all residents were unemployed. In addition, the city had to struggle with increasing crime. Cleveland had developed into a center of organized crime and illegal gambling during the time of Prohibition (1919–1933) . In addition, there was a police apparatus that had been corrupt and inefficient for decades .
In 1936/37 the Great Lakes Exposition took place on the lakeshore in front of the city center . The event, similar to a world exhibition , was initiated by local politics and business and attracted a total of 7 million visitors within these two years. At the same time was a job creation scheme in the course of roosevelt rule New Deal Cleveland's first expressway built on the lake shore in front of the downtown area of the Memorial Shoreway. At times 10,000 workers were deployed on the construction site.
At the end of the 1930s, the city's economy recovered again. The population continued to grow and reached its peak in 1950 with around 915,000 people. Cleveland was the fifth largest city in the United States. The local American football and baseball teams , the Browns and the Indians , won the finals of their leagues, sometimes several times in a row. In 1949 Cleveland was one of the first All-American City winners , and in the post-war decades the city was marketed as the best location in the nation .
Decline and structural change
After the boom in the post-war years, however, Cleveland's industry fell behind due to the increasing opening of world markets . Many of the local companies were not competitive compared to international competitors. In the course of the steel crisis at the beginning of the 1970s, the steel industry had to contend with high wage costs and increasing competition from cheap imported steel from overseas. The car manufacturers had built up large excess capacities over time, suffered from mismanagement and came under pressure from the oil crisis and new competitors from Europe and Japan . In addition, there were often outdated production facilities and stricter environmental regulations. The Cuyahoga was now so dirty that its flammable surface caught fire in 1952 and 1969. The burning river caused a stir across the country, forcing politics to act. For decades, industry had polluted the river in particular with untreated wastewater without hesitation, and now expensive renovations were pending, which the owners often could not or would not afford. Many companies had to close. Unemployment rose and a great many people emigrated. Cleveland became impoverished. From this time comes a cynical expression that is often used as a synonym for the city to this day: The mistake on the lake (German: "Der Irrtum am See"). A few years later, the songwriter Randy Newman dedicated the city the song Burn On , in which he sarcastically mocked the place in 1972 as "City of Light, City of Magic" and alluded to the fire of the Cuyahoga: "The Cuyahoga River runs smoking through my dreams ".
In addition to the poor economic situation, race riots began to unsettle citizens. A week-long uprising from July 18 to 24, 1966 led to new mayor elections, which in 1967 produced Carl B. Stokes, the first black mayor of a major American city. But even he and his successors could not end the economic decline of the city: On December 15, 1978 Cleveland was the first city to declare itself insolvent after the Great Depression of the 1930s . It was not until 1987 that this step could be withdrawn.
With the decline of heavy industry, the city's economic focus increasingly shifted to the service industry over the decades. In the meantime, the largest employers can be found in this sector, primarily in banks, insurance companies, in the public sector and in the healthcare sector, there especially in the university hospitals and the renowned Cleveland Clinic .
Tourism has also grown in importance. An important step in this direction was the establishment of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum in 1995, which is dedicated to important and influential personalities in the field of rock 'n' roll . Other tourist buildings and events should help to stop the city from decaying. But the city still faces major problems. Several thousand residents migrate each year; the remaining population often suffers from poverty, poor school education and high, above all structural, unemployment. In addition, thousands of residential buildings are empty.
The decline of Cleveland has been the subject of research several times. The causes are seen not only in the intensified competitive situation, but also in the declining innovative strength of the established industries, a deteriorating social and entrepreneurial climate and the rather harsh local meteorological climate compared to the southern coastal regions such as Silicon Valley . After the automotive and electrical industries, for example, no new branch of industry grew. Cleveland could no longer keep up with aerospace technology , which was important after the Second World War . Apart from that, the negative long-term effects of the Great Depression on the local economy were apparently far greater than initially thought and were merely masked by the boom of the post-war years.
For a possible trend reversal, according to critics, above all the local bureaucracy must be reduced and school education improved. In addition, the city should make targeted efforts to attract qualified immigrants and create a better investment climate. In any case, Cleveland has enough potential. The quality of life has also improved significantly in recent years.
|Ethnic composition of Cleveland's population|
|Ethnic groups according to the 2000 census
also 7.3% Hispanics
and 92.7% non-Hispanics
At the last census in 2010, Cleveland had 396,815 residents. With a 51% African American population, the city is the only major city in Ohio with a predominantly black resident population. The proportion is thus far higher than in Ohio (11.5%) or the US average (12.3%), as is typical for industrial cities in the northern United States. In addition, the approximately 244,000 African Americans make up the largest black community in Ohio.
The second largest population group are whites with a share of 41.5%. There are also around 1,500 Indians and 6,500 Asians as well as 17,200 members of other ethnic groups and 10,700 mixed race. As Hispanics is 7.3% of the population consider; almost three quarters of them come from Puerto Rico .
Among the white population, families with German ancestors have the largest share at 22.25%, followed by Irish (19.65%), Poles (11.58%) and Italians (11.1%). English roots , on the other hand, gave only 6.63%. The high proportion of the population of German origin is typical for Ohio (21.42%), the comparatively low proportion of English is characteristic of the northeast of the state.
The urban area is heavily segregated between the different ethnic groups . While the white population groups live in the western and southern parts of the West Side, on the South Side and on the shores of Lake Erie, the blacks live almost exclusively on the East Side, mainly east of East 55th Street. Hispanics live on the inner West Side and the Asian ethnic groups are concentrated on the inner East Side, just beyond downtown.
Situation of the Indians
Since Cleveland arose in an area that was still relatively young settlement land for the local residents, the number of Indians in the city remained low for a long time. The 1900 census shows only two Indians for Cleveland, in 1910 there were 48 and in 1920 only 34. Only after World War II did the number rise to 109 in 1950, plus 57 Indians in Cuyahoga County. Until the 1970s, the number of Indians rose in line with the need for labor. In 1960 there were already 391 residents in the city, 464 in County. During this time, assimilation attempts began to increase, initiated by the dissolution of the reservations as part of the Urban Indian Relocation Program. In 1952, Cleveland was one of the first eight cities in the United States to participate in this program. Numerous Indians then settled in and around Cleveland, their number soon rose to over 5,000. Most of them came from the west. Around 1980, however, many Indians, having become more aware of their cultural roots, moved back to their families on the reservations.
Russell Means , a Dakota Sioux , became Cleveland's primary Indian leader in the civil rights movement . In 1969 he founded the Cleveland American Indian Center, a cultural and social center that included 1,200 Indians. Initially, social tasks for the benefit of the mostly poor members were in the foreground, but cultural tasks were added in the course of the 1970s. In 1990, the Lake Erie Native American Council (LENAC) was founded, and the 500-Year Committee was set up in 1992 on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus .
In 1980 exactly 1,603 Indians were counted in Greater Cleveland, in 1990 it was already 2,706 again. In 2000 there were 2,529 Indians in the county, 1,458 of them in Cleveland itself.
In the first decades after its founding, Cleveland was an economically insignificant and unattractive place for immigrants. In 1800, four years after it was founded, there were seven residents (and a schnapps distillery), in 1830 there were a good 1,000 residents. It was only after the canals were opened and the railways were built that the population rose rapidly. As early as 1850 Cleveland was among the 50 largest cities in the USA; By 1900 Cleveland was already the seventh largest city in the country with over 380,000 inhabitants. The year 1950 marked the peak of the population with 914,808 inhabitants - as in many other industrial cities in the northeastern United States. Since this peak, the population has fallen by more than half.
¹ 1980–2010: census results; 2016: US Census Bureau estimate
Migration and social problems
The immigrants in the first few decades came mainly from the British Isles and Central Europe . From 1870 onwards, more and more Eastern Europeans and Germans immigrated . The German-Americans formed the largest population group in the city around 1900 with 40,000 people. Around 1930 Cleveland was also the largest Hungarian settlement outside of Europe with 43,000 people . With the First World War , immigration from most European countries ended suddenly due to the changed legal situation.
But after labor continued to be needed for industry, increasing numbers of blacks were recruited from the poor south-east of the USA, who moved to the industrial cities of the north as part of the Great Migration . These immigrated in large numbers until around 1970, but in contrast to the Europeans mostly remained poorly socially integrated, poor and poorly educated. As the industrial base gradually collapsed, tens of thousands of unskilled blacks were left unemployed .
At the same time, due to social and ethnic tensions, there was a massive migration of white population groups to the suburbs ( white flight ). Since the majority of blacks stayed in Cleveland, their proportion rose from 28.5% (1960) to 51% (2000) as the total population fell rapidly. In recent years, however, the growing black middle class has also migrated to the eastern suburbs, so that the city as a whole continues to become increasingly impoverished and depopulated. Some parts of the city on the East Side have lost more than three quarters of their residents since 1950.
The decline of industry and decades of segregation and migration have created significant problems. Cleveland has too few qualified immigrants and too few highly qualified people for the ongoing structural change. Instead, marginalized social groups predominate in large areas . Around a third of the population does not have a school leaving certificate , many residents are single parents or come from problematic family backgrounds and are therefore very difficult to find on the job market.
At the same time, there is a lack of cheap housing, which is reflected in the high number of homeless people . In 2007, the county had an estimated 20,000 out-of-home residents, about 1.5% of the total population. About a fifth of them, 4,300 people, were completely homeless , so they lived permanently on the streets. Around 40% of male homeless people have a job but still cannot afford a rental apartment.
Crime in Cleveland has declined almost steadily over the past few years. In 2009, around 20% fewer crimes were recorded than around ten years earlier. Nevertheless, Cleveland is still one of the comparatively dangerous cities in the USA. In 2008 there were statistically 23.5 murders per 100,000 inhabitants, which was more than in Chicago (18.0), but still significantly fewer than, for example, in the problem cities of St. Louis (46.9) and Detroit (33.8) or in Washington, DC (31.4). For rape and robbery , however, Cleveland has the highest values with 98 and 878 offenses per 100,000 population. When it comes to property crimes, the city is in the upper middle field with 5,784 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.
The focus and the predominant offenses have changed significantly along with the city over time. Before Cleveland became a center of organized crime and illegal gambling during the Prohibition era, drunkenness, brawling, and illegal prostitution were the main problems in the late 19th century . After the Second World War , the mafia remained active, but the lack of trust between the immigrant blacks and the white police forces in the suburbs turned out to be problematic. In addition, broken family relationships have increased juvenile delinquency. The police responded to these problems with more black staff and through violence and drug prevention .
There is no precise information on the religious affiliation of the Cleveland residents themselves. In relation to the entire county, the Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious group with a 35% share. Compared to Ohio (19.7%), it is a considerably higher proportion of the total population. Another 14.4% describe themselves as Protestant , although the proportion of Protestants in Cleveland itself is likely to be considerably higher due to the high proportion of Baptists among the Afro-American population groups. A good 1% of the population professes the Orthodox faith. There are also around 79,000 Jews and around 20,000 Muslims in the county , 35% of whom are converts . Far Eastern religions like the Buddhists form small fringe groups with a few hundred members.
In its early years, Cleveland was almost entirely Protestant. The population belonged almost entirely to the Congregational and Presbyterian Churches. In the second half of the 19th century, especially from Germany and Ireland, more and more Catholics arrived and around 1900 replaced the New England churches as the predominant religious community. As a result of the White Flight, however, the Catholic Church lost its weight again, primarily in favor of the Protestant, black churches. At the same time, the religious spectrum broadened considerably through immigrants from countries outside Europe. The Islamic religious community grew to its present size, especially between 1960 and 1990.
The Christian groups in particular are characterized by their fragmentation; affiliation is not only based on denomination, but also on origin, ethnicity, social status and the degree of assimilation . For example, there are as many Orthodox parishes next to each other as there are immigrant nations with a corresponding religious background. The reason lies in the autocephaly of the Orthodox churches, according to which most parishes do not see themselves as members of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA), but rather their respective home churches. Because of the racial segregation that was initially practiced, blacks were also dependent on their own parishes despite having the same denomination, with the middle class again visiting different churches than the lower class. And among the Europeans, the different generations of immigrants were distributed among different churches of the same denomination, depending on their homeland awareness. Only the Puerto Ricans integrated themselves mostly into established parishes.
The spatial distribution of the followers of the religious communities is based on the population structure. White Protestants and Catholics live side by side on the West Side, predominantly Catholics on the South Side, and Protestants form the largest group in the black neighborhoods on the East Side. The once important Jewish community has moved to the eastern suburbs, with the exception of a small remainder.
While much of Ohio's mainly the Republican support, the Cleveland area has been applicable since the New Deal as a stronghold of the Democrats . The Democrats have almost all the seats on the city council - one councilor moved to the Greens in 2010 - and have provided almost all mayors since the 1930s . Likewise, all competent members of the Ohio Senate and House of Representatives, and both Congressmen, are Democrats. In the 2008 presidential election , Barack Obama won 68.69% of the vote in Cuyahoga County compared to just 51.5% in all of Ohio.
During industrialization , the trade unions also developed into an important social factor. Initially organized in small groups, they helped factory workers to steadily improve their living conditions from the end of the 19th century. In the 1930s, the United Auto Workers (UAW) and the United Steelworkers (USW) formed the two most important unions. After 1980, however, its influence waned with the decline of the industry. Radical, socialist movements like in Europe could not prevail in Cleveland because of the visible material gains among the workers.
In the late phase of industrialization, Cleveland was also strongly influenced by left-liberal, so-called progressivist currents. Leading local politicians from this period were particularly committed to social issues, which primarily benefited the judiciary and the health system. They also waged a long struggle for extended rights of the city in terms of local self-government . This eventually led to a corresponding amendment to the Ohio State Constitution, the Home Rule Amendment, which Cleveland was the first to implement in 1914.
Since the 1920s, the political influence of the immigrant Afro-American population groups grew. In 1927 there were already three blacks on the city council, and they have held around half of the seats since the mid-1960s. In 1967 they appointed Carl Stokes as mayor for the first time. However, for a long time the growing political influence was offset by poverty, discrimination and poor housing. This led to race riots in the 1960s that eventually led to the uprising in 1966.
Cleveland's city council is organized according to the Mayor Council system and governs according to the Strong Mayor principle. In addition to the City Council, the mayor is also directly elected. The city council only forms the legislature , while the mayor, as the sole head of the executive, has extensive powers (Strong Mayor). Both terms of office are four years. This form of city government is typical of major US cities.
The city council consists of 19 members, making it very large by US standards. Each member is elected by majority vote in one of Cleveland's 19 constituencies (Wards) . The number of electoral districts and the electoral mode of the council members has changed several times and in some cases profoundly in the last 200 years. The background to this was the fight against the initial corruption , population development and political disputes over the system issue as a whole. The current division into 19 electoral districts was introduced with the 2010-2013 electoral term. Before that it had been 21 wards.
The mayor has been the Democrat Frank G. Jackson (* 1946) since 2006 . As a long-time member and most recently chairman of the city council, he prevailed with almost 55% against the incumbent Jane L. Campbell . Several of his predecessors later made careers as senators, governors or federal judges.
The mayor has been elected by an absolute majority since 1977 and is not partisan. A wide variety of candidates who belong to the same or no party at all will compete in the primaries. As in the last runoff election, two members of the same party can face each other.
A cohesive and orderly city government has only existed in Cleveland since 1914. This is based on the constitutional amendment of 1912, which created the current legal basis for local self-government . Before that there was a City Commission Government in the city, according to which the individual heads of departments and authorities were directly elected. This procedure had repeatedly proven to be chaotic, inefficient, corrupt and not up to the complex tasks of a big city.
The administration is divided into a total of eight main departments and around two dozen sub-departments. In addition to the departments for law, finance , public safety , building yard, utilities and social affairs required by the Ohio constitution, the area of economics and urban planning is particularly important. For some areas of responsibility, special purpose associations were set up together with the surrounding communities . This includes local transport in the form of the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA), sewage disposal, social housing and regional planning.
The city's 2009 budget provided for revenue of $ 512.1 million and spending of $ 541.5 million. By far the most important source of income was the income tax (Income Tax) with 290 million; the largest expenditure item was the public safety ( police , fire brigade and rescue service) with 317 million. In addition, the municipal utilities reckoned with $ 641.1 million in sales. At the end of 2007, debt was $ 3.32 billion with $ 2.36 billion in equity.
City partnerships exist with the following 20 cities:
- Achill Island , Ireland
- Alexandria , Egypt
- Bahir Dar , Ethiopia
- Bangalore , India
- Brașov , Romania
- Bratislava , Slovakia
- Cleveland , UK
- Conakry , Guinea
- Gdansk , Poland
- Fier , Albania
- Cholon , Israel
- Ibadan , Nigeria
- Klaipėda , Lithuania
- Lima , Peru
- Ljubljana , Slovenia
- Miskolc , Hungary
- Rouen , France
- Segundo Montes , El Salvador
- Taipei , Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Volgograd , Russia
Culture and sights
Art and museums
Cleveland is home to numerous cultural institutions. Many of them date back to between 1910 and 1925, when Cleveland was at the first peak of its development. In the following times of decline, however, classical culture had a hard time. Only when the city's economy had to be restructured and tourist measures moved into the public eye, there were new foundations such as the opera (1976), the ballet (1976) , the chamber orchestra (1980) and the singing choir (1982). In the 1990s, new museums were added to the Lakefront, the lakeshore in front of the city center, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame , which opened in 1995 .
The resident symphony orchestra Cleveland Orchestra under the direction of chief conductor Franz Welser-Möst is one of the Big Five classical symphony orchestras in the United States. It was founded in 1918 and has been based in Severance Hall since 1931 and is one of the most highly regarded ensembles in the world.
The Playhouse Square building complex with its theaters, restaurants and cultural facilities is the seat of numerous ensembles such as the Cleveland Opera and together is one of the largest cultural centers in the USA. With the Karamu House there is also an important Afro-American cultural center. There are also some cabaret and cabaret stages; such as the multicultural Cleveland Play House and the experimental Cleveland Public Theater. The Great Lakes Science Center science and technology museum on the Lakefront features more than 350 interactive science exhibits and an IMAX cinema showing science films. The museum steamship William G. Mather is moored next to it.
Important local classical museums are the Cleveland Museum of Art , the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and the Western Reserve Historical Society , the oldest cultural organization in northeast Ohio with its regional museum and important document archives. The Cleveland Botanical Garden dates from 1930 and is the oldest botanical garden in the United States. The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland (MOCA) shows around ten traveling exhibitions of various international representatives of contemporary art every year .
The city's library , the Cleveland Public Library, has existed since 1869, has 29 branches and holds around 4 million media.
Buildings in the city center
The city center has buildings from different architectural epochs. Many of them were created as part of major urban development projects. Numerous public facilities such as the town hall, the city library and the court are located in monumental buildings in neoclassical style , which are grouped around the Cleveland Mall park north of Public Square. The ensemble from the years 1910–1931 is one of the most important and extensive examples of neoclassical architecture of the City Beautiful movement from the period immediately after the turn of the century.
The city's landmark is the Terminal Tower, completed in 1930, on the south corner of Public Square. The high-rise in the Beaux-Arts / Art-Deco style, built between 1922–1930, and the adjacent office buildings form a building complex similar to the Rockefeller Center in New York City - but was built ten years earlier. The tower, at 708 feet (216 m) tall, was the second tallest building in the United States until 1967 and Cleveland's tallest building until 1991. Since then it has been towered over by the 289 meter high Key Tower. The third large skyscraper in the city center is 200 Public Square (also: BP Building) with 200.6 meters from 1985. In addition, there are two dozen other buildings in the city center with a height of over 80 meters.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the inner city was expanded to the east between East 6th and East 17th Street as part of urban renewal . The contemporary international style predominates in the residential and office buildings in this area .
There are also some striking Victorian-style buildings from around the turn of the century. The most important building from this era is "The Arcade" from 1890, a five-story covered shopping center with a 300-foot (91.4 m) glass roof. A row of former warehouses on the high bank of the Cuyahoga to the west of Public Square, which form the Historic Warehouse District and now houses luxury apartments and shops, dates from the same era . The Historic Warehouse District, along with Playhouse Square, the renovated Terminal Tower and the facilities on the Lakefront, have played an essential role in revitalizing the city center in recent years.
About seven kilometers east of the city center, surrounded by slums, is the University Circle . The approximately 197.5 hectare area, laid out like a park, houses many of the city's culturally, socially and educationally important institutions. The University Circle is home to the Case Western Reserve University campus with affiliated university clinics and research facilities, the Western Reserve Historical Society, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Botanical Gardens and Severance Hall. The Cleveland Clinic buildings are also in the vicinity.
Parks and green spaces
Cleveland has 160 public parks with a total area of almost 700 m 2 . The green spaces mainly extend along smaller rivers and along the lake shore. Particularly noteworthy are the Rockefeller Park on Doan Brook , which connects to University Circle on the East Side, the nature reserve on Big Creek on the West Side and the Cleveland Lakefront State Park on the lakeshore, which includes Edgewater Park and some marinas and beach baths include. The lake is also open to the public in many other places, but is cut off from the city for almost its entire length by expressways and is partially blocked by industrial facilities in the inner city area. Outside the city, the Cleveland Metroparks form a green belt of nature reserves , which runs around almost the entire city within a radius of about 15 kilometers.
There are only smaller green spaces in the residential areas themselves. However, an unintentionally green part of the city has emerged east of East 55th Street in recent decades, which is characterized by open meadows and overgrown hedges. As a result of the ongoing migration, a large number of properties are no longer built on. In some streets there are no longer any houses at all. The city is trying to curb the wasteland by designating building land on a large scale, but due to a lack of investors, the agricultural or horticultural use of these areas is now also being discussed.
A little east of University Circle, right on the city limits, is Lake View Cemetery , where numerous prominent figures from Cleveland and the surrounding area are buried. Among other things, there is the tomb of the Rockefeller family and the mausoleum of James A. Garfield , the 20th President of the United States.
The city is nicknamed "Forest City". The origin of this designation is not fully understood. It probably goes back to the long-time managing director of the local horticultural association and later Cleveland mayor William Case (1818–1862), who had numerous trees planted in the city in 1852 to attract public attention. The name was first used in 1850 for a racetrack; Several other resident companies and institutions followed. The best known is the listed real estate company Forest City Enterprises .
Cleveland has a total of three sports teams from the highest North American professional leagues. After the Cleveland Browns were last able to win the NFL in 1964 , a 52-year dry spell began, while the city of Cleveland could not win a title in a major sport. Only on June 20, 2016, this negative series came to an end with the basketball players of the Cleveland Cavaliers , who were able to turn the best-of-seven series against the Golden State Warriors into a 4-3 victory despite being 3-1 behind.
The Cleveland Cavaliers play in the Eastern Conference of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Cleveland Monsters are an ice hockey team from the American Hockey League (AHL). The Cleveland Gladiators play in the Arena Football League , but after the league went bankrupt in 2009, the game was resumed in autumn 2010. The Cavaliers, Monsters and Gladiators play their home games in the Quicken Loans Arena .
The Cleveland Indians from the American League of Major League Baseball are at home in Progressive Field and are nicknamed “the Tribe” (German: the (Indian) tribe ). After a very successful 2016 season, the Indians narrowly missed victory in the World Series . They lost in the final against the Chicago Cubs in their own stadium. The Cleveland Browns football team from the National Football League has existed since 1999. They are the second team to bear this name after the original team moved to Baltimore in 1996 and renamed themselves the Baltimore Ravens . The Browns are based at Cleveland Browns Stadium .
Cleveland can look back on a long tradition, especially in ice hockey. The Cleveland Barons won the Calder Cup nine times between 1937 and 1973 , making them one of the most successful AHL teams ever. Until it was dissolved in 2003, the Cleveland Rockers, one of the eight founding members of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA), was based in Cleveland. The Cleveland City Stars soccer team from the USL First Division , the second highest US soccer league , was also dissolved in 2009 .
From 1982 to 2007 Cleveland was the venue for the Grand Prix of Cleveland (German: Grand Prix of Cleveland , originally: Budweiser Cleveland 500), a formula car race of the US CART / Champcar racing series. Until the merger of the Champcar with the IndyCar Series, the Grand Prix was held a total of 26 times on the racing circuit of the Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport .
Since 2012, located in the Slavic Village , the Velodrome Cleveland Velodrome , which is owned by a nonprofit organization. In addition to sports offers, the aim of the organization is to help improve the infrastructure in the surrounding district.
A number of nationally known film, music and technology events take place in Cleveland. Most of them have only established themselves in the last few decades.
The largest event in terms of attendance is the Cleveland National Air Show with (1994) 120,000 spectators. The air show has been held every year since 1964 on the Labor Day weekend in early September at the lakefront Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport . Various stunt flights as well as modern and historical aircraft are shown. In addition, the two US aerobatic teams Thunderbirds and Blue Angels appear every year .
The international film festival, the Cleveland International Film Festival, has been held every March since 1977 . Premiere films from over 50 countries will be shown. The festival is the most important such event in Ohio and has steadily grown in importance in recent years. And at the Tri-C Jazz Fest every April since 1980, a number of well-known American jazz musicians have performed in different parts of the city, such as Charlie Haden and George Benson .
The latest major event is the IngenuityFest. Since 2004 it has offered artistic and musical performances on various stages as well as scientific demonstrations and interactive technical installations.
Economy and Infrastructure
The metropolitan area of Cleveland generated a gross domestic product of 129.4 billion US dollars in 2016, making it 30th among the metropolitan areas of the United States.
The most important economic pillar of the city are the medical facilities. The renowned Cleveland Clinic is the largest employer in the region with 10,000 employees; Together with the other institutions, over 30,000 people are employed in this sector. This is followed by banks and insurance companies as well as the public sector, each with over 10,000 employees.
As a result of the decline in heavy industry, Cleveland has lost a lot of its importance as a production location. In 2000, 18% of workers were still employed in this sector. The largest remaining industrial companies are the foundry and the Ford engine plant with around 1,900 employees and the steel group Mittal Steel with a rolled steel mill with 1,460 employees. Furthermore entertain General Motors and Lincoln Electric (welding equipment) larger factories.
The tourism , however, has increased in recent years considerably more important. The accommodation providers located in the region have around 21,300 beds and 4.5 million overnight stays per year. Hotels, restaurants and tourist attractions are marketed by the agency Positively Cleveland (originally: Convention and Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland) under the Cleveland Plus (CLE +) brand. The main tourist destinations are the sports facilities as well as the museums in the city center and the University Circle.
In addition, numerous large corporations have their headquarters in Cleveland, including Parker-Hannifin and Eaton Corporation (mechanical engineering), Forest City Enterprises (real estate), Sherwin-Williams (paints, varnishes and building materials), KeyBank , American Greetings (greeting cards) and MTD (garden tools). Until a few years ago, TRW Automotive (aerospace, automotive technology), OfficeMax (office supplies), Standard Oil of Ohio (petrochemicals) and the US bank National City were also represented with their headquarters. In 1995 Cleveland was statistically the third largest cluster of large corporations in the United States.
The city also has a long tradition as a location for industrial research. The National Carbon and General Electric research centers (Nela Park) date back to the 1910s and were among the oldest of their kind in the United States. The Glenn Research Center of NASA developed since 1941 techniques for the aerospace industry. In the mid-1980s there were over 200 industrial research facilities in operation in the city.
With a poverty rate of around 30%, Cleveland was one of the poorest cities in the US over the past decade. In 2007, the median household income was $ 27,007, only 54% of the US average. In addition, as a result of the structural change in the 1980s and 1990s, the city was hit harder than the average by unemployment for many years . The rate was always between 7.5 and 10% in 2000, around twice the average for Ohio. In June 2009 it rose to 12.2%, but was only slightly above the average of 11.2%. Unemployment is primarily structural and affects mainly the low-skilled. The unemployment rate in the Cleveland metropolitan area fell to 4.9 percent by March 2018, but was above the national average of 3.8 percent.
The subprime crisis also left its mark in Cleveland. In times of low interest rates, members of the poorer population groups bought old, already run-down houses from the local stock on credit and at inflated prices. When they could no longer service the loan installments with rising interest rates, the houses were seized by the banks, vacated and auctioned at bargain prices. Since these houses are practically unsalable given the already high number of vacancies, they are turned into speculative objects and left to decay. At the end of 2007, more than 15,000 units were affected, almost 5,000 of them from Deutsche Bank , which has thus at least temporarily become the city's largest property owner.
The total damage incurred from tax losses, the costs of maintaining or demolishing the houses and the depreciation of the real estate is estimated at several hundred million dollars in Cleveland alone. The city filed a lawsuit in early 2008 to have some of the underlying business practices generally declared unlawful, thus setting a legal precedent .
Cleveland is connected to the Interstate Highways network by several highways . The I-90 Seattle - Boston runs along Lake Erie, the I-80 San Francisco - New York City runs about 14 miles south of the city as the crow flies. From the south, I-71 from Columbus and Cincinnati and I-77 lead into the city. I-480 in the south and I-271 in the east serve as bypass routes . In addition, numerous highways go from Cleveland in radial directions. These are US Highways 6 , 20 , 42 , 422 and 322 and about a dozen Ohio State Routes. Some of these roads have been expanded to form expressways in addition to the highways .
The Greyhound Lines operate a number of long-distance bus to neighboring cities and operate for a bus station in the city center. From the southwestern suburb of Brook Park , the Lakefront Trailways buses run to Columbus, Athens and Charleston in West Virginia .
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport , which opened in 1925, is located on the southwestern edge of the city, around 10 miles from the city center as the crow flies. It is the hub for United Airlines and is the most important airport in Ohio with around eleven million air travelers. In 1968 it was the first airport in the States with a direct rapid transit connection. The Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport in downtown is essential small and only serves the general aviation .
The Port of Cleveland lies on both sides of the mouth of the Cuyahoga and Lake Erie and stretches a few kilometers inland. Measured by the annual turnover of an average of 12.5 million tons, it is the fourth largest port in the Great Lakes area. Over 95% of the freight is made up of bulk goods such as limestone , iron ore and grain ; Steel and machines are particularly important for general cargo.
The Cuyahoga has been widened and dredged from its mouth to the steelworks and is used by cargo ships. Therefore, the railway and road bridges in this area either have a very high clearance or are designed as bascule and lifting bridges .
As an old industrial city within the Rust Belt , Cleveland is also an important rail hub for freight traffic. The entire urban area, including in particular the area around the lower Cuyahoga and the old industrial sites in the south and south-east, is criss-crossed by a multitude of railway lines, industrial siding, freight stations and corresponding wastelands. Once operated by the New York Central Railroad , New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad , Baltimore and Ohio Railroad , Pennsylvania Railroad and Erie Railroad , most of the lines now belong to the Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation, as well as a dozen smaller, more local ones Societies.
The once important local and long-distance passenger transport has no longer played a role since the 1960s. Amtrak operates the Washington – Chicago and New York City – Chicago routes with one pair of trains each day, using a small, inconspicuous stop on the lakeshore. The original central station under the Terminal Tower in the city center is now only served in inner-city traffic.
The Red Line has been running between the airport, the city center and the north-eastern outskirts of the city since 1955 . Two light rail lines also lead to the eastern suburb of Shaker Heights . In contrast to most such systems in the USA, these have been in continuous operation since the 1910s.
The railways are operated by the local transportation authority Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA) together with a comparatively well-developed bus network . It draws around two thirds of the local transport budget from tax revenues. The amount is equal to the tax revenue from 1 percentage point of Cuyahoga County's sales tax .
Gas, water and electricity
The city waterworks provide drinking water for Cleveland and 68 of its surrounding communities . The catchment area is 640 square miles (1658 km²) and includes over 8,000 kilometers of lines with 414,000 connections and 1.5 million residents. The drinking water is pumped from the bottom of Lake Erie via kilometers of suction pipes and then treated . The very good quality of the drinking water has long been questioned by the public because all wastewater - albeit purified by sewage treatment plants - has always been directed into the lake. Supplying the comparatively affluent suburbs was and is an important source of income given the city's difficult financial situation.
There are two competing providers in the local electricity market, one is the privately owned Illumniating Company, a subsidiary of the energy company FirstEnergy , and the other is Cleveland Public Power (CPP). According to its own statements, CPP is Ohio's largest municipal electricity provider. The only local gas supplier is Dominion East Ohio, a subsidiary of the energy supplier Dominion .
The local Cleveland Metropolitan School District school district has 114 public schools with approximately 50,000 students and nearly 3,800 teachers. This makes it the largest school district in Ohio alongside Columbus. There are also a number of privately or church-owned schools.
The administration of the public schools has been under the authority of the mayor since 1998. There is also a local school board in Cleveland that takes care of school policy, finances, quality assurance and public relations. However, the members of this school board are not elected by the population, as is usual in Ohio, but are appointed by the mayor. This is a unique form of school administration in Ohio.
Previously, the schools were organized in direct public self-administration and thus beyond political control. The population elected a five-member school board, which in turn appointed a school superintendent as head of administration. Similar to the initial organization of the city administration, this construction proved to be inefficient and increasingly divided.
In addition, for decades the administration was unable to cope with the problems that had arisen from the immigration of blacks. Between 1950 and 1963 the number of pupils had grown from 100,000 to over 150,000, with more and more children coming from socially disadvantaged families. The emerging shortage of teachers, learning materials and school buildings could only be met slowly because the ongoing white flight made the schools' financial base dwindle. Tax increases to compensate for the growing deficit were rejected by the population.
In addition, the US federal judges saw the uneven distribution of black students, which resulted from the population structure in the city, as discrimination . In a 1978 ruling, they ruled that students of all ethnicities should be evenly distributed across all city schools. As a result, 30,000 schoolchildren had to be driven back and forth between the school districts every day for 22 years at great expense . This so-called desegregation busing or busing has, according to critics, increased the migration of whites to the suburbs and, due to its high costs, further exacerbated the financial problems.
Due to the persistently poor learning conditions, the number of school dropouts increased. In 1998, Cleveland had a 28% high school graduate rate, just under half the US average, ranking last nationwide. Since the administrative reform of 1998 the rate has risen to over 60%, but it is still well below that of other major cities in Ohio.
Universities and colleges
Cleveland is home to several colleges, including three universities. The private research university Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) was established in 1967 from the merger of the Case Institute of Technology, founded in 1880, with the Western Reserve University, founded in 1826. The teaching and research facilities are located in the University Circle and extend over a total of eight departments; some courses are conducted in collaboration with the surrounding cultural centers and the Cleveland Clinic . Case Western has (2000) around 4900 employees and (2001) almost 9500 enrolled students, as well as foundation assets of over one billion US dollars.
The Catholic John Carroll University (JCU) is one of 28 Jesuit colleges in the United States. It was founded in 1886 by emigrated German Jesuits under the name St. Ignatius College. At the JCU there are 3100 Bachelor and 700 Master’s students and 385 scientific staff are employed. According to the US News & World Report , the affiliated Boler School of Business is one of the best management schools in the USA. The campus has been located in the suburb of University Heights about eight miles east of downtown since 1935 .
The state-owned Cleveland State University (CSU) was founded in 1964. It goes back to an initiative of the state of Ohio to provide higher education for broad sections of the population by creating new universities. The CSU grew rapidly to over 15,000 students and 450 academic staff through numerous new institute buildings by around 1980. Although it is actually a fairly average American university, the law faculty has special significance. This goes back to the incorporation of the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in 1969, whose origins date back to 1897. The CSU is located on East 17th Street east of downtown.
There are also three smaller universities, the private management school Chancellor University with (1995) 1,400 students, the Cleveland Institute of Art , an art and design school with around 500 undergraduate students and the conservatory , which has 1,700 laypeople as well as 400 regular music students.
The local Community College Cuyahoga Community College (CCC) teaches 25,000 people in three locations. It goes back to the same federal initiative as Cleveland State University and was instrumental in retraining industrial workers in the course of structural change.
The only newspaper left in Cleveland is the Plain Dealer . It is published by the media group Advance Publications and is the highest-circulation daily newspaper in Ohio with 300,000 copies sold on weekdays and 400,000 on Sundays. From the same publishing house come the Sun Newspapers , a chain of weekly newspapers that are only available in the suburbs and on the West Side. The two editorial offices also provide the reports for the regional news website cleveland.com.
Crain's Cleveland Business, a regional business newspaper from Crain Communications, and the Scene from Times-Shamrock Communications , a free and advertising-supported alternative weekly newspaper with a circulation of 60,000 copies also appear weekly . The largest regional monthly magazine is Cleveland Magazine by Great Lakes Publishing with a circulation of around 45,000 copies. Alternative Press , which has been published since 1985, is dedicated to modern music and is distributed throughout North America and many other countries, including Germany.
The television market offers a number of regional television companies . They belong to the major media companies ( networks ) in the country such as NBC , ABC , FOX or the Spanish-speaking Univision and broadcast their cover programs . In addition, the non-commercial Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is represented by the US-wide channel PBS World, the regional Ohio Channel and the special interest broadcaster Create.
In addition, more than two dozen mostly regional radio stations of various genres can be received, most of them on FM . This also includes an offshoot of National Public Radio (NPR). The three major universities also each have their own radio station.
Cleveland was and is the place of work for numerous personalities from different social areas. Many of them were buried in Lake View Cemetery after their death .
By far the best known is the industrialist John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937). He steered all of his economic activities from Cleveland for over a decade and a half until he moved his company Standard Oil to New York City in 1885. In later years he donated parks and charities. The city's natural gas supply also goes back to his company.
The Van Sweringen brothers (Oris Paxton 1879–1936 and Mantis James 1881–1935) controlled a railway network of almost 50,000 km in length until their empire collapsed during the Great Depression. Furthermore, between 1909 and 1930 they developed the suburb of Shaker Heights in the style of a modern garden city and built the Tower City Center.
Well-known personalities from politics are, besides the black mayor Carl Stokes (1927–1996), above all the left-wing liberal Congressman and two-time candidate for the presidential nomination Dennis Kucinich (* 1946). The office of Cleveland Mayor was also held by the later US Secretary of War Newton Baker (1871-1937), Governor Frank J. Lausche (1895-1990), the native Italian and later US Minister of Health Anthony J. Celebrezze (1910-1998) and the former Governor and US Senator George Voinovich (1936–2016).
The Cleveland-based businessman Mark Hanna (1837-1904), as manager of the Republican presidential candidate William McKinley in 1896, introduced modern campaign methods from today's perspective. The future US Secretary of State John Hay (1838-1905) lived in Cleveland from 1875 to 1886 and wrote down his impressions of local society in his book The Bread Winners .
The founder of the Cleveland Clinic, George Washington Crile (1864–1943), was one of the leading surgeons in the United States at the time. Even after his death, numerous internationally known doctors such as René Favaloro , Maria Siemionow and the physiologist Irvine Page worked at his institution . The physicist and Nobel Prize winner Donald A. Glaser (1926–2013) also comes from Cleveland.
In addition to classical music, there are also a number of representatives of modern music based in Cleveland. These include the experimental industrial rock music project Nine Inch Nails , the crossover metal band Mushroomhead , the art punk group Rocket from the Tombs , the rock, soul and blues band Welshly Arms, and the much-noticed but little commercially successful rock band Pere Ubu . The Cleveland based band Chimaira is considered to be the founder of the metalcore genre.
The representatives of African-American music include the Grammy-winning Dazz Band , the hip-hop group Bone Thugs-N-Harmony , which was very successful, especially in the 1990s, and the number of times with platinum excellent R & B singer Avant . The rapper Kid Cudi (* 1984) also comes from Cleveland and named one of his songs after the city, Cleveland Is the Reason.
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