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Homeless man in Paris
Homeless man in Canada

Homelessness is defined as a condition in which people have no permanent place of residence and spend the night in public spaces , outdoors or in emergency shelters . The majority of the homeless in industrialized countries are male, with men accounting for around 80% of the single homeless.

Long-term homeless people are today in most large cities present . Disparaging terms such as "Penner", "Sandler" or equating them with beggars are widespread in everyday urban life. A romantic, transfiguring view can be found in the French term clochard .

Often the victims of natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods, but also of destruction as a result of civil wars or wars, are homeless for at least some time. Similar events in developing countries tend to have a stronger impact than in more affluent countries due to fewer resources .

Conceptual environment


The term “ shelter ” describes “ accommodation that offers protection from the rigors of the weather, leaves space for the most essential needs and meets all the requirements for decent accommodation”, in other words a “roof over your head”.

Names for the homeless

Homeless people sleep near the Lukoil in Moscow

The people affected by homelessness are optionally referred to as homeless, homeless, non-sedentary ( hardly used because of the Nazi pre-stress of the term), gypsies , bums, clochards , vagabonds , vagrants, tramps, drifters, walkers, Berbers , nomads , beneficiaries . Almost all of these terms are pejorative. The term Sandler is used in Austria . This word is derived from Middle High German 's see what something like "sluggish, slow" means.

"Make record"

“Being homeless” means having to spend the night outside of an apartment, for example in parks, under bridges, on benches, in house entrances, on construction sites and in train stations. A slang term for this way of life is "make a record", "push a record" or "be on a record".


Of homelessness which is homelessness to distinguish. Homeless people cannot (or do not want to) use adequate shelter or they are dependent on pure emergency accommodation or sleeping places. In contrast, homeless people simply do not have their own living space and find accommodation elsewhere. People who temporarily live in hostels, hotels, women's shelters or with relatives are not homeless , but simply homeless . Likewise, so-called sofa hoppers who find shelter with friends for a short time and “shimmy from sofa to sofa” are not homeless.

The status of homeless people is not apparent at first glance. Many of those affected want to hide their homelessness from the public out of shame. That is why we often speak of “hidden” or “hidden homelessness” in this context.


The terms residentless and residentless mean that someone has no permanent address. They are used comparatively rarely and are mainly used in administrative language . Like no residence , they are mainly used in the following contexts:

  • Administration: For authorities, the place of residence or the lack of a place of residence is important. In Germany, you are obliged to register your place of residence with the residents' registration office ( obligation to register ).
  • Judiciary: The place of jurisdiction for natural persons is normally the place of residence. Section 16 of the German Code of Civil Procedure regulates the place of jurisdiction for non-residents.
  • Homelessness: Occasionally, the term residence Loser within the meaning of homeless used as Wohnsitzlosigkeit within the meaning of homelessness . In this context, it is about the precarious living conditions of those affected.

However, lack of residence does not specifically refer to the fact that the person does not have their own apartment, but can still live and sleep in an apartment on a makeshift basis, for example with relatives or friends. In this case one speaks of homelessness ( see above ).

History and Development

Homeless shelter in the Vienna sewer system around 1900
Dormitory of the Berlin homeless asylum, 1930
Homeless people on a park bench in Berlin, 1931

Homelessness has been around for a long time. Almost all known religions address them. In the Middle Ages, beggars roamed about - according to Christian doctrine, legitimate and honorable. The poor should get to heaven faster because of their suffering in this world . Rich people have had the opportunity to be forgiven of sins by giving alms to the needy . In return, those in need should pray for the forgiveness of the giver's sins.

Beginning in the time of the Reformation , a change in society led many people into poverty and lack of property. The Thirty Years' War also left a great many homeless. Even before the end of the German Empire, the first rules for dealing with the poor were in place, such as begging badges handed out after being tested for neediness , or hiking bans that made giving alms to non-local homeless people a punishable offense.

In absolutism is adopted definitively by the medieval way of dealing with homelessness and outlawed them. Protestant ethics of utility and mercantilism as an economic system established a social morality in which human honor was primarily related to achievement , material merit and one's own contribution to the financing of the state. The hierarchical society with different classes saw poor people without employment as a plague and increasingly as anti -social people who had to be re-educated. Prisons were introduced in which vagabonds had to do forced labor to reform. Prisons were a productivity factor that society benefited from. A prison stay usually ended at the arbitrariness of the staff only to make room for successors.

Only with the peasants' liberation in the early 19th century did the social situation of the homeless change again. Only criminals were left in the penal houses. Migrant workplaces supplied and housed migrating homeless people for work. Laws still made vagrancy a criminal offense, thereby severely limiting the opportunities for wanderers. A movement emerged from Protestantism that campaigned for a substantial improvement in the social problems of the impoverished population. Theodor Fliedner founded the Rheinisch-Westfälische Prison Society in 1826 with the aim of rehabilitating those affected. Friedrich von Bodelschwingh , the founder of Bethel near Bielefeld, called the homeless "Brothers of the Landstrasse". With his concept “work instead of alms” he tried to give them back their dignity. In 1882 he founded the first German workers' colony in Wilhelmsdorf . As a member of the Prussian state parliament , he helped enforce the Migrant Workplaces Act in 1907. His last founding Hope Valley , 15 km north of Berlin, documents his dedication to those affected. In the sleeping barracks, each resident received their own cubicle with bed, wardrobe, table and chair, which, in contrast to the city's homeless shelters, created a personal space for them.

The priest Abbé Pierre followed a similar approach in France after the Second World War . The Emmaüs Foundation goes back to him, offering projects for the homeless across France and being networked in numerous initiatives around the world.

There was a scientific discussion of homelessness only in the Weimar Republic (from 1919). Ludwig Mayer published a study on a supposedly psychologically motivated urge to migrate and saw homelessness as a mental illness . In fact, this led to the fact that hardly anyone was convicted of vagrancy because psychologists diagnosed a migratory instinct: A gene that is particularly common in nomadic peoples causes a hereditary disease. Because of the imaginary relic of people's ancestors as flight animals, the homeless service worked with the wrong approach.


In Germany, the number of homeless people is not recorded in any federal statistics, which is repeatedly criticized by charities, politicians and journalists. Nationwide there are estimates that are drawn up by charities . The easily ascertainable number of enforced evictions is also not statistically recorded.

The number of people who live on the street without any living space is given by the Federal Homeless Aid Association (BAG W) for the years 2002 to 2008 as around 20,000. The number of homeless people (excluding resettlers) was 440,000 in 1999 and had fallen continuously to 223,000 by 2008. In 2004 the BAG W estimated the following figures: There were around 20,000 people on the streets, 2,000 of them women; she also estimated 5,000 to 7,000 street children . For the year 2006 the BAG W estimated the distribution of the homeless to 11% children, 25% women, 64% men. For 2009, she estimated 235,000 homeless and 18,000 homeless. For 2014, the BAG W puts the number of homeless people at 335,000 with an upward trend. The proportion of women rose to 28%. 39,000 people were without accommodation. This is an increase of 50% compared to 2012.

Media reported an increase in the number of homeless minors in 2017. Individual projects help homeless young people by offering them a postal address, meals and help with dealing with authorities.

In addition, a large number of people from Eastern Europe live on the streets, without entitlement to social assistance and without accommodation. Some work as day laborers on the " workers' line ".

At the beginning of 2020 it was found in Berlin that the number of homeless people who could be found there in one evening during a homeless count by thousands of volunteers, at 1,976 homeless, was far lower than had previously been assumed. However, this number is not representative. The estimates had previously given 6000 to 10,000 homeless people. Among these homeless people were many EU foreigners who had come to Germany as part of the freedom of movement, but who did not gain a foothold there economically and are not entitled to state support.


Welfare associations such as the Federal Homeless Aid Association (BAGW) point out that homelessness is by no means only personal, but also social. First of all, the increasing poverty in Germany and the housing shortage, especially in metropolitan areas , are mentioned here.

Usually several factors lead to homelessness:

Common factors of homelessness in children and adolescents are:

  • material hardship and homelessness of the entire family
  • Escape from violence or abuse in the parental home
  • too tight living conditions in the parental home
  • Escape from constant conflict with other family members
  • Escape from homes (also homeless shelters )
  • Lack of money in the family.

As a specific reason for homelessness, eviction due to rent debts comes first. Other reasons can be: Unreasonable or unconventional use of the apartment (often due to illness, e.g. as a result of disorganization problems ), release from prisons , homes and institutions , unforeseen emergencies (such as fire or water damage), family rifts.


Homeless man in downtown Hamburg, 1997

The consequences of homelessness are diverse. They affect life and limb as well as the character of those affected. The neglect and impoverishment are most visible . The specific consequences of homelessness are, for example:

  • Elimination of the social security granted by the state such as medical care, regulated work opportunities, etc.
  • Inadequate hygiene , uncleanliness, insufficient washing facilities, dirty clothes, stench
  • Exposure to weather such as heat , cold , rain and snow , lack of physical recovery; Freezing to death - in the winter of the early 1990s, around 20 homeless people died from freezing to death in Germany each year; the number is now 8 to 15
  • Inadequate nutrition , consumption of spoiled food, lack of vitamins and minerals, emaciation
  • Illnesses, in particular due to malnutrition and malnutrition ; Defensive weakness
  • increased risk of becoming a victim of violent or sexual assault, such as rape , theft , robbery , and occasionally physical violence or homicides
  • Changes in character - through "life on the street", through addiction to drugs and through discrimination by the rest of the population, such as "relaxed morals" and lack of self-discipline , loneliness , despair, resistance of the homeless against the rest of the population
  • Procurement crime ” to get money

According to the English study Homelessness: A Silent Killer from the University of Sheffield , the life expectancy of the homeless is 30 years shorter.

Legal treatment

Federal Republic of Germany

In Germany, with regard to the legal consideration of homelessness, a distinction is made between “voluntary” and “involuntary” homelessness.

Voluntarily homeless is someone who lives independently and deliberately without “a roof over their heads”.
According to the prevailing legal opinion, this way of life is a state to be tolerated in adults. The decision of a person to live uninterruptedly outdoors is an expression of the exercise of the fundamental right of every natural person to
general freedom of action, protected under Art. 2 Para. 1 of the Basic Law . However, this right can usually only be exercised to a limited extent, as many municipalities in Germany regulate overnight stays, camping or living in public spaces by means of police ordinances and threaten them with fines for violations. In addition, in this country, any person in accordance with the registration law specify a serviceable address.

Involuntarily homeless , on the other hand, is someone who “does not have accommodation day and night that offers protection from the rigors of the weather, leaves space for the most essential needs and generally meets the requirements for decent accommodation” and does not agree with this situation.
Involuntary homelessness endangers several individual rights of a person. These include u. a. the guarantee of human dignity (Article 1, Paragraph 1 of the Basic Law), the right to life, health and physical integrity (Article 2, Paragraph 2, sentence 1 of the Basic Law) and, if applicable, the fundamental right to property (Article 14 of the Basic Law). According to the police and regulatory law of the federal states , it therefore represents a danger to " public safety ".

The cities and municipalities must therefore involuntarily provide homeless people who are unable to find accommodation themselves financially or due to personal reasons, on request, a temporary and temporary accommodation of a simple type. The accommodation does not have to meet the general requirements for a rental apartment, as it is only an emergency solution from the outset and is intended for a few weeks or at least a few months. There is therefore only a right to a simple type of accommodation without any comfort. The case law defines a homeless shelter as sufficient if it offers temporary protection from the weather and space for the most essential living needs as well as a heated lounge. The household items that are indispensable for daily life should also be available (e.g. table, chair, bed, cupboard, cooking facilities and washing area). However, running hot water and the possibility of television or radio reception are not requirements.

England and Wales

The Housing (Homeless Persons) Act of 1996 and the associated Homelessness (Priority Need for Accommodation) Order of 2000 in England and Wales make municipalities responsible for housing the homeless. However, they have to check in advance whether they are entitled to accommodation. Eligibility only applies to “involuntarily” (see above) homeless British citizens and persons of permanent lawful residence. Furthermore, the need for protection of different groups of people is clearly prioritized. So z. B. Families with children are regularly given priority over the accommodation of adult individuals. In the 2014/2015 period, 72% of the people who were granted a right to homeless accommodation were divided into households with children and 22% into adult individuals.

At the same time, there are legal measures that promote the displacement of homeless people from the public sphere:
The Anti-social Behavior, Crime and Policing Act of 2014 allows the police, at their own discretion, to “harass other people in public or in Excitement or worry or contribute "or" causing fear or contributing to the occurrence of criminal offenses or disturbances of public order in the respective place ", to issue a dismissal.
This very broad general authority also regularly includes the eviction of homeless people from sleeping places in public spaces.


In Hungary (as of September 2013) many of the homeless (according to the UN estimate 30,000 to 35,000) are affected by a new law: it forbids spending the night outdoors. Since then, cities and municipalities have had the right to expel homeless people from certain areas at will. Violations can result in fines and prison sentences. The Orbán government founded the law with concerns "for public order and security, general health and cultural values".

Homeless scene

Homeless man with dog in Bremen, 2014

With reference to Pierre Bourdieu and Donald Winnicott, Lionel Thelen explains not so much the development as the permanent maintenance of the status of homelessness through an extremely violent network of relationships within the homeless scene. In order to maintain a remnant of personal assertion within the scene, homeless people are dependent on cutting their last social connections to the sedentary outside world. Thelen sees this as a vicious circle that leads to emotional dullness and depersonalization. According to Thelen, prolonged homelessness leads to "social nudity" and an "exil de soi", the exile from the self, or a "standing beside oneself", which weakens the personality and makes it difficult to return to society and the work of social institutions. Thelens observed in Portugal and Spain that homeless people with additional protection - a couple or simply a dog - are treated in a hostile manner by other homeless people without such protection.

Media reports indicate that more and more people from Eastern Europe are being homeless in Germany. In this context, it is claimed that the reason for this is not, for example, poverty immigration, but structural political causes such as the “exclusion of the small part of immigrants who are really in need” from the state's aid system.

In this context, the term homeless discrimination arose . The research project group-related enmity measures the devaluation of groups of people in Germany, including the homeless . The head of the project, Wilhelm Heitmeyer, suspects that the increasing devaluation of the homeless as identified in studies of the project is accompanied by an economization of social relationships, according to which people are viewed more according to the criterion of usefulness and long-term unemployed and homeless who are perceived as "useless" are devalued. A group-specific devaluation forms the basis for hate crime , i.e. for acts of violence that are only fed by the victim's membership in a group that is perceived as inferior.

The media reported several times on violence against the homeless, including manslaughter and murder. An evaluation of the reported crimes often indicates small groups of young people with a right-wing extremist background. In 2001 this was the reason for a request from the PDS to the German federal government.

Pilot projects

Housing First

Housing First, also known as rapid re-housing, is a relatively new approach from US social policy to dealing with homelessness and an alternative to the traditional system of emergency shelter and temporary housing. The approach has also been implemented in Germany, Great Britain, Denmark, Finland, France, Portugal and Austria for several years.

Shower mobile

Since August 2019, the shower mobile has been traveling to five different Berlin districts every week.

Ulm nest

The "Ulmer Nest" offer has been tested in Ulm since December 2019 in a pilot project - accompanied by the University of Kassel. A wooden housing that can be locked from the inside should provide shelter for the homeless in winter.

Homelessness as a movie theme

In the 2015 produced German television film A part of us playing Brigitte Hobmeier as daughter Nadja and Jutta Hoffmann as her homeless mother Irene. It appears again and again surprisingly in the life of children. The screenplay for the film was written by Esther Bernstorff and directed by Nicole Weegmann . Most of the outdoor photos were taken in Munich . The television play from 2016 with a length of 86 minutes received these prizes: 2016 at the FernsehFilmFestival Baden-Baden - audience award for best film, both leading actresses for their achievements and best screenplay. In 2017, a Grimme Prize went to production.

Der Stadtstreicher is the second short film by German director Rainer Werner Fassbinder . It was shot in black and white in Munich in November 1966. This film is strongly influenced by the French film The Sign of the Lion of Eric Rohmer influenced by a tramp (1959).


  • Eugen Ehmann: Homelessness in municipalities. Guide with samples, examples and legal advice. Richard Boorberg Verlag, Stuttgart / Munich, 3rd edition, 2019, ISBN 978-3-415-06412-6 .
  • Katrin Holinski / Kathrin Krahl (eds.): For me, home actually means having a home, very simply. Experiences of homelessness and migration. Heinrich Böll Foundation Saxony, Dresden 2019.
  • Melanie Loehwing: Homeless Advocacy and the Rhetorical Construction of the Civic Home. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 2018, ISBN 978-0-271-08215-8 .
  • Hans Ostwald : Vagabonds. An autobiographical novel , Comino-Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-945831-15-1 . (New edition of the book published in 1900)
  • Richard Brox : No Roof Over Life: Biography of a Homeless Man. Rowohlt Verlag, 256 pages. 2017. ISBN 978-3-499-63294-5 . (Non-fiction book, operator of a consulting website)
  • Matthias Unterwegs: Without shelter. Life on the street , Engelsdorfer Verlag, Leipzig 2016, ISBN 978-3-96008-433-4 .
  • Robert Lukas Sanatanas: Homeless. Portraits of life on the street , Herder Verlag GmbH 2016, ISBN 978-3-451-31327-1 .
  • Prevention of homelessness in North Rhine-Westphalia . Commissioned by the Ministry of Labor, Integration and Social Affairs of North Rhine-Westphalia, Bremen, May 2014 ( PDF ).
  • Brigitte Anna Holly: homeless and sick. About the links between homelessness and mental illness. AV Akademieverlag 2015, ISBN 978-3-639-84126-8 .
  • Claus Paegelow: Bibliography Housing Shortage and Homelessness / Bibliography Homelessness and Housing Shortage. Self-published by Claus Paegelow, Bremen 2008, ISBN 978-3-00-025307-2 (German / English).
  • Ronald Lutz, Titus Simon: Textbook of the homeless help. An introduction to practice, positions and perspectives. Juventa Verlag (Weinheim) 2007. 220 pages. ISBN 978-3-7799-2200-1 .
  • Georg Huttner: The accommodation of the homeless by the police and regulatory authorities. Kommunal- und Schul-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-8293-1048-2 .
  • Wolfgang Ayaß : Homeless people under National Socialism. Booklet accompanying the traveling exhibition of the Federal Homeless Aid Association , Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-922526-64-3 .
  • Claus Paegelow: Handbook of housing shortages and homelessness. Paegelow, Bremen 2006, ISBN 978-3-00-017872-6 .
  • Katrin Panier: The third skin. Stories of homelessness in Germany. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-89602-711-5 .
  • Klaus Nouvertné, Theo Wessel, Christian Zechert (eds.): Homeless and mentally ill. Psychiatrie-Verlag, Bonn 2002, ISBN 3-88414-268-2 .
  • Manfred M. Fichter: Psychiatry of the homelessness. In: Hanfried Helmchen (ed.): Psychiatry of the present. Volume 3: Psychiatry of special life situations. Springer, Berlin 2000, ISBN 978-3-540-65800-9 .
  • Rüdiger Heins: About Berbers and city rats. Lamuv, Göttingen 1998, ISBN 3-88977-506-3 .
  • Rüdiger Heins: At home on the street. Lamuv, Göttingen 1996, ISBN 3-88977-434-2 .
  • Rüdiger Heins: homeless report. Zebulon, Düsseldorf 1993, ISBN 3-928679-11-2 .
  • Frank-Walter Steinmeier : Tradition and Perspectives of State Intervention to Prevent and Eliminate Homelessness . Dissertation , 1991; Citizens without a home. Between the obligation to housing and the right to housing . VSH-Verlag Soziale Hilfe, Bielefeld 1992, ISBN 3-923074-32-8 .
  • Ekke Ulf Ruhstrat (Ed.): Without work no apartment, without apartment no work! Origin and course of homelessness. VSH, Bielefeld 1991, ISBN 3-923074-25-5 .
  • Franz Koch: Housing Shortage and Homelessness: Consequential Social Problems and Development Trends. Expertise of the Paritätisches Bildungswerk Nordrhein-Westfalen, 1993
  • Norbert Preusser: ObDach, an introduction to the politics and practice of social segregation. Beltz, Weinheim / Basel 1993, ISBN 3-407-55720-5 .
  • Manfred E. Neumann, Willi Schraffenberger: Make a plate. About life and death on the street. Quell, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-7918-2702-2 .
  • Ralf Könen: Housing shortage and homelessness in the welfare state. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1990, ISBN 3-593-34312-6 .
  • Jürgen Scheffler (Ed.): Citizens & Beggars. Materials and documents on the history of non-sedentary help in der Diakonie , Vol. 1, 1854 to 1954, Bielefeld 1987
  • Eckhard Rohrmann (Ed.): Without work - without an apartment. How the poor become "sedentary". Edition Schindele, Heidelberg 1987, ISBN 3-89149-133-6 .

Web links

Commons : Homelessness  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Homelessness  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ OVG Greifswald, decision of July 21, 2009 - Az .: 3 M 92/09 in NJW 2010 , p. 1096 f.
  2. See Duden online: shelter with the explanation "[temporary] accommodation, apartment".
  3. Cf. Wolfgang Ayaß : "Vagabonds, hikers, homeless and non-sedentary": a short conceptual history of help for the homeless . In: Archive for Science and Practice of Social Work 44 (2013), pp. 90-102
  4. ^ Roman Sandgruber : The Origin of Sandler OÖ Nachrichten, February 21, 2015, accessed on March 6, 2018.
  5. Robert Sedlaczek : Dismissed or totally on the sand? Wiener Zeitung, August 27, 2013, accessed on March 6, 2018.
  6. Sandler, der , Duden accessed on March 6, 2018.
  7. ^ Ammon, Bickel, Ebner, Gasser, Esterhammer, German dictionary of variants , 2004, ISBN 9783110165753 , p. 578
  8. Definition of terms of homelessness, homelessness and precarious housing. Federal Association for Homeless Aid, accessed on October 26, 2018 .
  9. Daniel Godeck: All young people have a smartphone - but not necessarily a permanent place of residence. In: SZ.de (Süddeutsche Zeitung). February 10, 2018, accessed October 26, 2018 .
  10. See for example Susanne Gerull: Homelessness in Germany. In: bpb.de (Federal Agency for Civic Education). May 5, 2014, accessed October 24, 2018 .
  11. See Duden online: homeless and homeless with the note “especially official language”.
  12. § 16 ZPO
  13. See Duden online: synonyms for residentless and synonyms for homeless . To a large extent, the same synonyms are given.
  14. Example: Homeless in Hessen: Looking for warmth . In the introduction of this article, homelessness and lack of residence are used interchangeably.
  15. There were also movements in the bourgeois camp that campaigned for the rights of the homeless. For example, in 1864 a Times reader wrote a letter to the editorial staff dealing with "the poor people who crawl into the parks in the morning to get a little sleep". "To drive out these half-starved, half-naked poor swallowers would be a highly despicable and dissolute undertaking, and incidentally an illegal one." The author used the term: "The homeless and horseless" to describe the standard of living of the homeless. (Translated from English from The Times, August 10, 1864, p. 9)
  16. Eckhard Rohrmann: Without Work - Without Apartment: How the Poor Become “Sedentary” , Edition Schindele. 1987, pp. 12–13 (PDF; 6.7 MB)
  17. Timo Reuter: Homeless without statistics . In: The time . July 27, 2015, ISSN  0044-2070 ( zeit.de [accessed April 3, 2017]).
  18. Laura Berner, Andrej Holm, Inga Jensen: Forced evictions and the crisis of the aid system: a case study in Berlin , Humboldt University Berlin / Institute for Social Sciences, p. 3 (PDF; 2.6 MB), accessed on January 8, 2017.
  19. a b BAG W-Information: Estimate of the number of homeless people and those at risk of homelessness 2007/2008 (PDF), for 1999–2008 see table on page 2.
  20. Current lexicon homelessness. In: sueddeutsche.de. December 22, 2004, accessed January 12, 2011 .
  21. Federal Association for Homeless Aid (Ed.): Statistics Report 2004–2006 . BAG W Verlag, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-922526-70-4 .
  22. 18,000 people have no roof over their heads. In: t-online.de. January 12, 2009, accessed January 12, 2011 .
  23. Number of homeless people. Website of the Federal Homeless Aid Association. March 1, 2017, accessed March 1, 2017 .
  24. Beate Posch: Homeless young people: Growing up under the bridge. In: Deutschlandfunk Kultur. July 19, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2018 .
  25. ^ Manfred Götzke: Migration from Eastern Europe: Homeless in a foreign country. In: Deutschlandfunk. December 23, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2018 .
  26. ^ Justus Bender: Counting the homeless: Berlin will have to justify itself. In: faz.net. February 9, 2020, accessed February 9, 2020 .
  27. ^ Federal Association for Homeless Aid eV - Sudbrackstraße 17 - 33611 Bielefeld: Number of homeless. Retrieved April 3, 2017 .
  28. Der Standard (November 2013): Homelessness is often the result of mental illness
  29. ^ Adrian J. Connolly et al .: Personality Disorders in Homeless Drop-In Center Clients . In: Journal of Personality Disorders . tape 22 , no. 6 , 2008, p. 573-588 , doi : 10.1521 / pedi.2008.22.6.573 ( ncsinc.org [PDF]): "Cluster A personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal) were found in almost all participants (92% had at least one diagnosis), and Cluster B (83% had at least one of antisocial, borderline, histrionic, or narcissistic) and C (68% had at least one of avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive) disorders also were highly prevalent. " Personality Disorders in Homeless Drop -In Center Clients ( Memento of the original from June 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.ncsinc.org
  30. Spiegel (April 2014): Homelessness - Neurological Problems and Brain Traumas as Reasons?
  31. Randeep Ramesh, Rebecca Ratcliffe: Homeless people in the UK revealed to have life expectancy of just 47 The Guardian , December 21, 2011
  32. Kahlert / Sander, Police Act for Baden-Württemberg , 8th edition, Stuttgart, 2015, § 1, Rn. 38
  33. u. a. OVG Greifswald, decision of July 21, 2009 - Az .: 3 M 92/09 in NJW 2010 , p. 1096 f .; VGH BW, decision of 05.03.1996 - Az .: 1 S 470/96 in VBlBW 1996 , p. 233.
  34. Ruder, Karl-Heinz: Principles of the police and regulatory accommodation of (involuntarily) homeless people with special consideration of homeless Union citizens , materials on helping the homeless, issue No. 64, 2015, p. 14.
  35. OVG Bremen, decision of 7.2.2013 - 1 B 1/13, juris, Rn. 16; see. also:
    VG Saarland, decision of 3 March 2015 - 6 L 79/15, juris, Rn. 5;
    VG Munich, decision of May 20, 2014 - M 22 E 14.1977, juris: “The lack of accommodation results in a specific risk to the health, even to the life of the person concerned” (Rn. 18);
    VG Würzburg, decision of 7.4.2014, - W 5 E 14.306, juris: “As security authorities according to Art. 6 and Art. 7 Para. 2 No. 3 LStVG, the disruption of the to eliminate public order and impairment of public security with regard to the health risks that threaten the homeless after themselves ”(Rn. 4);
    VG Oldenburg, decision of August 12, 2013 - 7 B 5615/13, juris: “In the administrative court case law it is clarified that the homelessness of a person who is not based on a responsible and legally recognizing free will, because of the significant disadvantages, especially for the health of the homeless is a danger within the meaning of § 2 No. 1 a and b Nds. OVG is "(Rn. 15).
  36. Ruder, Karl-Heinz: Principles of the police and regulatory accommodation of (involuntarily) homeless people with special consideration for homeless Union citizens , materials on helping the homeless, issue No. 64, 2015, pp. 22-23.
  37. BayVGH, decision of April 26, 1993, BayVBl. 1993, 569; Hess. VGH, judgment of June 25, 1991, DVBl. 1991, 1371; VGH Mannheim, decision of March 27, 1991, DVBl. 1991, NVwZ-RR 1994, 394; OVG Lüneburg, decision of March 27, 1991, NVwZ 1992, 502, VG ​​Würzburg, decision of April 3, 2013 - W 5 E 13.248; VG Würzburg, decision of February 16, 2016 - W 5 E 16.161, Rn. 10, juris
  38. ^ Crisis UK: The homelessness legislation , 2015, ISBN 978-1-78519-029-2 , p. 8 ff.
  39. ^ Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) (2016), Statutory homelessness live tables , Table 770: decisions.
  40. ^ Anti-social Behavior, Crime and Policing Act 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2020 .
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  42. spiegel.de October 1, 2013: New law: Hungary prohibits homeless people from spending the night outdoors
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