Formula racing is a form of sport in which the performance of the vehicles is determined by technical rules (“formulas”) in certain areas in order to create approximately the same conditions for the competitors. Formula classes are known above all in motorsport and there again in car racing , but there are also racing formulas for sports aircraft , racing boats and model aircraft .
In automobile racing , it is carried out with special monoposto vehicles, the similarity of which to series vehicles is limited to certain components of the drive or chassis ( brand formulas ). Historically, a formula racing car only consists of the driver's seat, which is clad in aerodynamics , the drive and four wheels. It was not until the 1960s that wings added to these vehicles.
The best-known formula racing series is still Formula 1 , a worldwide series in which many large automobile manufacturers are involved, supplemented and added in the past. a. through Formula 2 (1947–2012 and again since 2017) and, since 1975, through Formula 3 .
In order to keep costs down, provisions have been issued that stipulate that individual parts are close to series production. The engine block in Formula 3 must have a motorsport homologation . The brand formulas usually stipulate engines and transmissions from series vehicles. In the very first brand formula, Formula V , essential parts of the suspension had to come from the VW Beetle .
Due to the global economic problems of recent years, the funds for motorsport are becoming increasingly scarce. As a result, the expensive formula racing series in particular have immense problems, so that individual teams, sometimes even entire series, have to give up. Manufacturers also often prefer to invest in touring cars , as it is easier to identify with the vehicle and the costs are much lower.
The DTM in Europe and the NASCAR Sprint Cup in the USA are now enjoying a comparable, and sometimes even greater, popularity with fans. Since the Formula 1 teams collect their offspring from so-called junior series earlier and earlier, the entire base threatens to collapse. The highest "junior class" for Formula 1 is now actually Formula 3, in which the cars only have around 150 kW engine power (Formula 1 engines have around 515 kW after the power reduction in 2006 - previously up to over 660). The F3000 , still celebrated in the 1990s young designers Formula 1 with its own junior teams of all major racing teams and strong 330 kW cars, dwindled to a handful of underfunded teams without any TV presence along and was hired at end of season of 2004. It was replaced by the GP2 series .
In almost all formula classes, from Formula LO to Formula 3 to Formula 1 , a uniform rim diameter of 13 inches is required, but the width varies. One of the well-known exceptions was Formula Vee , which was on the road on 15-inch rims, just like the VW Beetle.
- Sports car: Formula Vee: Live wild and dangerous. From: www.sportauto.de , February 20, 2010, accessed October 25, 2012 .
- Spiegel Online: Formula 3000: The current interview with Nick Heidfeld. From: www.spiegel.de , July 25, 1999, accessed on October 25, 2012 .
- GP2Series - website: The story so far. From: www.gp2series.com , accessed October 25, 2012 .