|Porfirio Díaz is deposed in the course of the Mexican Revolution .||
by Richard Strauss
is premiered in Dresden.
and four colleagues are the first to reach the South Pole .
Nobel Prize in Chemistry , Marie Curie
is the first woman to receive a second Nobel Prize .
|1911 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1359/60 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1903/04 (turn of the year September 11th / 12th)|
|Baha'i calendar||67/68 (turn of the year 20/21 March)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1316/17 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2454/55 (southern Buddhism); 2453/54 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1273/74 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4244/45 (2-3 October)|
|Iranian calendar||1289/90 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1328/ 1329 (January 1-2. // 21-22 December.) / 1330|
Meiji 44 (
明治 44 年);
|Jewish calendar||5671/72 (September 22-23)|
|Coptic calendar||1627/28 (September 11-12)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1326/27 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2221/22 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2222/23 (turn of the year October)
|Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar)||2453/54 (April 1)|
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1967/68 (turn of the year April)|
Like the previous year, 1911 was a year of revolutions . The revolution that began in Mexico last year led to the overthrow of long-term president Porfirio Díaz , followed by the revolutionary Francisco Madero . In China , after the unsuccessful Huanghuagang uprising, the Wuchang uprising and the Xinhai revolution occur , which lead to the establishment of the Republic of China under President Sun Yat-sen at the beginning of the following year . The price riot broke out in Vienna, during which the Austrian military fired at demonstrators for the first time since 1848. And initiated by Clara Zetkin , an International Women's Day is being celebrated for the first time in the world .
The "panther jump" of the German warship SMS Panther triggers the first international crisis of the year: The second Morocco crisis between the German Empire and France can only be resolved by the Morocco-Congo Treaty .
Italy tries to divert attention from domestic political problems with colonial expansion and declares war on the weakened Ottoman Empire . The Italo-Turkish War , which resulted in massacres of the civilian population and, for the first time, air bombs , ultimately led to the annexation of the North African regions of Tripoli and Cyrenaica by Italy.
During the year there are five different expeditions in Antarctica . The first reaching of the South Pole by the Norwegian Fram expedition led by Roald Amundsen shortly before the end of the year finally marks the climax of the “ Golden Age of Antarctic Research ”.
The opera Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss achieved an overwhelming success at its world premiere at the Dresden Court Opera and the naturalistic tragic comedy Die Ratten , premiered at the Berlin Lessing Theater , is “perhaps Gerhart Hauptmann's most important contribution to modern world theater”. Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is stolen from the Louvre by Vincenzo Peruggia , Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc found the Blue Rider and the Bremen artists' dispute is making waves across Germany.
When it comes to technology, there is a desire for superlatives: The Ponte del Risorgimento is opened, the first reinforced concrete bridge in Italy and, when it opens, the concrete arch bridge with the largest span, and the world's largest ship, the RMS Titanic , is launched in the Harland & Wolff shipyard .
Politics and world events
- September 26: The Italian government under Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti gives the Sublime Porte an ultimatum. It demands the immediate cession of the provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica from the Ottoman Empire .
- September 29th: The Kingdom of Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire .
- October 3: The Italians begin shelling Tripoli .
- October 4th: Tripoli and Tobruk are conquered.
- October 14th: All coastal areas of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica are in Italian hands.
- October 23: In the Italo-Turkish War , military reconnaissance from the air is carried out for the first time . The Italian Carlo Piazza flies over a Turkish position near Benghazi to observe the enemy .
- October 23: After a bloody battle near Sciara Sciat, Italian troops carry out a massacre of the Arab population, most of whom are on the side of the Ottomans. In the weeks that followed, the occupying power carried out mass executions in public places and deported around 4,000 Arabs to penal islands such as Tremiti and Ponza . Nevertheless, the Italian advances did not get beyond the coastal oases in the following months. Instead, the troop strength must be increased to 100,000 men.
- November 1st: In the Italo-Turkish War , the first two-kilo bombs are manually dropped from an Etrich Taube on people in oases.
- November 5: Italy annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica , both parts of the Ottoman Empire .
- January 1: Kaiser Wilhelm II appoints Baron Colmar von der Goltz , Count Alfred von Schlieffen and Max von Bock and Polach as field marshals in Berlin .
- May 4: The German Reichstag rejects the introduction of the font Antiqua as an official signature, and opts for maintaining the Gothic script .
- July 19: The Reich Insurance Code , which is the legal basis of the welfare state in Germany (forerunner of the SGB ), is passed.
- October 22nd: After the new constitution comes into force, the election for the newly formed state parliament takes place in Alsace-Lorraine .
- December 20: With the Insurance Act for Salaried Employees ( VGfA ), pension insurance for salaried employees begins.
- Gustav Landauer's call for socialism appears in Germany.
- June 28: After losing the government majority in the Reichsrat elections , Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling resigns as Prime Minister. His successor is Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn .
- September 17th: In Vienna there is an inflationary revolt among workers, which is violently suppressed by the military. For the first time since 1848, fire is opened again on demonstrators in Vienna. Three people are killed and 149 injured. More than 488 people were arrested, of whom 283 were later sentenced to heavy imprisonment. Justice Minister Viktor von Hochenburger has specifically switched off the jury courts for this purpose.
- October 5: The unemployed journeyman carpenter Nikola Njegos shoots Viktor von Hochenburger and Minister of Education Karl Stürgkh in the Vienna Reichsrat during a speech by Victor Adler on the revolt on inflation , but misses them.
- November 3: Prime Minister Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn resigns as a result of the price riot. The Stürgkh Ministry follows the Gautsch III cabinet .
- October 21: After the engagement on June 13 at Lucca, Archduke Karl, the later Austrian Emperor Karl I , marries 19-year-old Zita von Bourbon-Parma in Schloss Schwarzau am Steinfeld .
Great Britain and its colonies
- January 3: In order to arrest members of a gang of Baltic anarchists, law enforcement officers cordon off a block of flats on Sidney Street in London's East End, whereupon - in the presence of Home Secretary Churchill - a violent exchange of fire takes place, in which most anarchists are killed. Five people, including Jacob Peters , head of the Soviet secret police after the October Revolution, are arrested for alleged membership in the Piaktow gang , but all of them acquitted in the later trial.
- June 22nd: The British royal couple George V and Maria von Teck are crowned at Westminster Abbey .
- August 10th: The Parliament Act is passed in the British Parliament . With the entry into force of this law, the powers of the House of Lords will be curtailed, which can no longer repeal or postpone laws passed by the House of Commons .
- November 13: At the Carlton Club meeting of the British Conservative Party in the eponymous Carlton Club in London, the new chairman of the Conservative party faction in the House of Commons is elected after the resignation of Arthur Balfour . Due to a stalemate between the two leading candidates Austen Chamberlain and Walter Long , the compromise candidate and clear outsider Andrew Bonar Law is chosen as chairman.
- December 12th: George V is crowned Emperor of India in Delhi . It is the only imperial coronation in India .
Portugal and its colonies
- May 28: The election for the constituent national assembly , in which all male Portuguese are eligible to vote for the first time, is won by the Republican Party .
- June 30th: The “flag war” ends with the official introduction of the red and green republican flag , which replaces the blue and white flag of the monarchists.
- August 21: Portugal receives a new constitution.
- August 24th: Manuel José de Arriaga is elected the first constitutional President of the Republic of Portugal on the proposal of António José de Almeida against Bernardino Machado .
- September 4th: João Pinheiro Chagas becomes the first constitutional head of government of the newly established republic in Portugal .
- November 13: Overthrow of the Chagas government in Portugal . Augusto de Vasconcelos becomes the country's new head of government.
- December 24: The Rebellion of Manufahi in Portuguese Timor under the Timorese rulers Boaventura starts.
Other events in Europe
- January 1st: Marc Ruchet becomes President of Switzerland again .
- January 8: Monaco , the last absolute monarchy in Europe, receives a constitution under Prince Albert I.
- March 10: France changes from the previous Paris time to the time zone of the prime meridian in Greenwich and introduces Western European Time .
- March 19: Initiated by Clara Zetkin , an International Women's Day is celebrated for the first time .
- March 20: With the discovery of the apparently murdered Andrej Jušcinskij 12-year-old starts in Kiev , the Beilis affair . Conservative members of the organization of the Black Hundred try to portray the murder as a Jewish ritual murder , although all the evidence points in a different direction.
- March 29: Ivan Geschow replaces Aleksandar Malinov as Prime Minister in Tsarist Bulgaria .
- July: The Parti républicain-socialiste is founded in France .
- January 1: The newly constituted constituent assembly elects General Juan José Estrada, who has been in power since August 29 of the previous year, as the constitutional president of Nicaragua .
- January 2: The new government of Nicaragua is recognized by the United States .
- May 8: War Minister Luís Mena Solórzano is arrested on the orders of Estrada.
- May 9: Juan José Estrada resigns. He will be succeeded by the previous Vice President Adolfo Díaz . He is supported by the USA . Emiliano Chamorro Vargas becomes the new Minister of War.
- May 25th: Dictator Porfirio Díaz is overthrown in the course of the Mexican Revolution . He resigns and flees into exile in Paris. Revolutionary leader Francisco Madero is elected as the new President of Mexico in October . Madero leaves all MPs and officers of the Díaz regime in their offices.
- November 25 or 28: The Ayala plan , Emiliano Zapata's and his supporters' political program for the further course of the Mexican Revolution, is signed. The main points of the plan are: the resignation of Francisco Madero as president and free elections as soon as the country has calmed down, the appointment of Pascual Orozco as leader of the revolution and Emiliano Zapatas as his representative, the distribution of the land to the peasants and ejidos and the emphasis on the rural character of the mexican revolution.
- April 27: The Huanghuagang uprising begins in China.
- October 10: With the Wuchang uprising in the garrison of Wuchang (武昌), today Wuhan (武漢 市), the Xinhai revolution breaks out and after a few weeks finally leads to the end of the Empire and the establishment of the Republic of China .
- December 29th: Sun Yat-sen is elected the first President of China.
- December 29th: In Outer Mongolia , the 8th Jebtsundamba Khutukhtu rises to become Bogd Khan and declares the country independent.
Empire of India
- DECEMBER 12: The British King George V is in Delhi as part of the week-long Delhi Durbar to Emperor of India crowned. The capital city of British India is relocated here from Calcutta as part of the coronation celebrations , and New Delhi is created as a result.
- The division of Bengal in 1905 is revised by the British colonial rulers after violent riots.
- January 24: Anarchist Kōtoku Shūsui and ten others found guilty in a conspiracy to murder the emperor are executed.
- January 1: Following the compromise on the future Australian capital Canberra , New South Wales cedes the Federal Capital Territory to the central government of the Australian Confederation . In 1913, construction of the planned capital began.
- May 21: French troops invade Morocco and occupy Fez and Rabat . This is justified with a cry for help from Sultan Mulai Abd al-Hafiz , who is currently involved in disputes with rebel tribes. A little later, the sultan denied such a call for help.
- July 1: The German warship SMS Panther ordered to Agadir triggers the Second Morocco Crisis .
- November 4: The Second Morocco Crisis is ended by the Franco-German Morocco-Congo Treaty .
- The Mines and Works Act is passed in South Africa .
- The colonization of the Wadai by France is completed.
- April 29th: King Vittorio Emanuele III. opens the Esposizione internazionale dell'industria e del lavoro , the 1911 world exhibition held in Turin on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the unification of the Kingdom of Italy . It lasts until November 19th and is visited by over 7 million people.
- May 6: At the suggestion of Odol -Fabrikanten Karl August Lingner is in the Municipal Exhibition Palace in Dresden , the International Hygiene Exhibition opened. It lasts until October 31 and, with 5.2 million people, is the most popular exhibition in Dresden to this day.
- July 15: Eugène Blum and Alice Lévy found the watch manufacturer Ebel in La Chaux-de-Fonds . The brand name is a word created from the founding names E ugene B lum e t L évy. Eugène Blum is responsible for the technical side of brand development, Alice Levy designs the aesthetic aspects of Ebel watches .
- November 3: Racing driver Louis Chevrolet and entrepreneur William Durant found the automobile company Chevrolet Motor Car Company in Detroit .
- March 29: The Colt M1911 self-loading pistol is introduced to the US armed forces as a regular weapon after several series of tests .
- October 4: The entire route of the Usambara Railway in German East Africa is put into operation after 18 years of construction.
- October: vintage of the century for German winemakers , the wine is also known as comet wine .
- December 1: The Lampertsmühle-Otterbach-Otterberg railway is opened for freight traffic.
science and technology
The race to the South Pole
- JANUARY 4: Robert Falcon Scott reached with its Terra Nova Expedition , the Ross Island , about 3 weeks later than planned because the Terra Nova 20 days in pack ice was included. At Cape Evans we land and, in addition to the expedition members , 17 ponies, 32 dogs, 3 snowmobiles, one of which is lost during unloading, around 30 tons of supplies and a complete, prefabricated hut measuring 15 × 7.7 meters. The hut will be built by January 17th and will serve as winter quarters.
- January 14th: Amundsen's South Pole expedition arrives with her ship Fram as planned in the Bay of Whales and begins there with the construction of a hut and a tent camp, which will be completed on January 27th and named after Amundsen's ship Framheim .
- February 4th: The Terra Nova with the “Northern Group” of the British expedition visits Framheim .
- February 10th: Amundsen and his companions start building depots on the way to the South Pole, which will be completed on April 11th.
- February 15: The Fram leaves Framheim .
- September 8th: Amundsen leaves for the South Pole with seven men, but has to return to Framheim by September 16th.
- October 20: Amundsen and four men set off again for the South Pole.
- October 24th: A motorized group of the Terra Nova Expedition sets off towards the South Pole to set up depots for the other teams who will leave the winter quarters in Evans Bay on October 31st.
- November 17th: Amundsen's expedition reaches the Transantarctic Mountains .
- November 20: Amundsen's expedition reaches the Axel-Heiberg-Glacier .
- December 4th: Scott's expedition is held up by a blizzard until December 9th.
- December 11th: Scott's expedition reaches Beardmore Glacier and crosses it by December 20th.
- December 14th: Roald Amundsen and his four companions Helmer Hanssen , Olav Bjaaland , Oscar Wisting and Sverre Hassel are the first people to reach the geographic South Pole and establish Camp Polheim .
- December 18: Amundsen and his companions begin their return journey north.
More expeditions to the Antarctic
- February 26th: The Japanese Antarctic expedition , which started on February 11th from New Zealand under Shirase Nobu on the Kainan Maru , reaches the Antarctic. However, due to the bad weather and the formation of pack ice, she soon had to turn back and reached Sydney, Australia on May 1st, where the members of the expedition were stuck without means and had to endure the ridicule of the press. Only with the support of the Australian Tannatt William Edgeworth David can a new expedition that leaves Sydney on November 19th be equipped. However, it did not land for the rest of the year.
- May 4: Under the command of Wilhelm Filchner , the Deutschland leaves Bremerhaven on the way to Antarctica . After a stopover in Buenos Aires, the Second German Antarctic Expedition will set course for South Georgia on October 4th , which will be reached on October 18th. After a research stay in Grytviken , the Germany expedition set out for the Weddell Sea on December 1 , with its route taking them past the South Sandwich Islands . Among other things, the so-called Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf , the second largest permanent ice cover in Antarctica, is discovered there.
- December 2: The Australasian Antarctic Expedition sails from Hobart on the ship Aurora under the direction of Australian geologist Douglas Mawson for Macquarie Island , where it arrives on December 11 after surviving stormy weather conditions. A second ship, the Toroa , follows with food and passengers. On December 23, the aurora leaves Macquarie Island and begins exploring the coastal areas.
- October: In search of the missing polar explorer Ejnar Mikkelsen , Knud Rasmussen , accompanied by the Greenlander Qulutanguaq, sets off from the Thule trading post in northern Greenland to the Melville Bay . The next year he leads the First Thule Expedition to northeast Greenland with the same goal.
- Ernest Rutherford presented his atomic model (with shell and core ) in the spring .
- April 8th: While cooling mercury with liquid helium, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers the effect of superconductivity , in which metal completely loses its electrical resistance.
- October 30 to November 3: The first Solvay conference on the theory of radiation and quanta , organized by the Belgian industrialist and amateur researcher Ernest Solvay , will be held in Brussels under the chairmanship of Hendrik Antoon Lorentz .
- January 18: The aviation pioneer Eugene Burton Ely succeeds - two months after the first successful start - the first time to land on a ship, on a platform of the heavy cruiser USS Pennsylvania . The catch hook system by Hugh Robinson , which is still used today, is used .
- January 26: The US aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss succeeds in taking off in a seaplane for the first time .
- February 18: The French pilot Henri Pequet completes the first official mail delivery flight in India . With his double-decker, he transports 6,000 letters and postcards from Allahabad to Naini, eight kilometers away.
- April 12th: In around four hours, the Frenchman Pierre Prier is the first person to fly the 400 km long route from London to Paris.
- August 19: The first cargo plane flew in Germany. A Harlan monoplane transported freshly printed copies of the Berliner Morgenpost from Berlin-Johannisthal to Frankfurt an der Oder.
- September 13th: On her 25th birthday, Melli Beese completed the required rounds and figures with a Rumpler pigeon to acquire a pilot's license and was then the first woman in Germany to receive the “ pilot's license ”.
List of asteroids discovered in 1911
|No. and name||
|Date of discovery||Explorer|
|(708) Raphaela||21.4||3 February||Joseph Helffrich|
|(709) Fringilla||96.6||3 February||Joseph Helffrich|
|(710) Gertrude||26.8||February 28||Johann Palisa|
|(711) Marmulla||?||1st March||Johann Palisa|
|(712) Boliviana||127.6||19th March||Gustav Witt|
|(713) Luscinia||105.5||April 18||Joseph Helffrich|
|(714) Ulula||39.2||May 18||Joseph Helffrich|
|(715) Transvaalia||28.6||April 22||Harry Edwin Wood|
|(716) Berkeley||21.3||30th July||Johann Palisa|
|(717) Wisibada||31.0||26th of August||Franz Kaiser|
|(718) Erida||72.9||September 29th||Johann Palisa|
|(719) Albert||?||October 3||Johann Palisa|
|(720) Bohlinia||33.7||October 18||Franz Kaiser|
|(721) Tabora||76.1||October 18||Franz Kaiser|
|(722) Frieda||?||October 18||Johann Palisa|
|(723) Hammonia||35.7||October 21||Johann Palisa|
|(724) Hapag||?||October 21||Johann Palisa|
|(725) Amanda||21.5||October 21||Johann Palisa|
|(726) Joëlla||44.0||22nd of November||Joel Hastings Metcalf|
Teaching and Research
- January 11th: In Berlin the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science e. V., forerunner of the later Max Planck Society .
- March 9: The republican government re-establishes the University of Lisbon, which was dissolved in 1537, by decree . In the university constitution, on April 19, the Lisbon Medical and Surgical College, the Pharmaceutical College, the Polytechnic College and the Advanced Literary Studies courses will be transformed into faculties of the new university.
- June 17th: The University of Iceland is founded in Reykjavík . The first rector is Björn Magnússon Ólsen .
- January 27th: The last ship mill on the Elbe in Pistian is demolished.
- February 18: An earthquake causes a landslide in the Pamir Mountains , which gives rise to the Saressee , which is 55.8 km long today .
- Spring: On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Risorgimento , the Ponte del Risorgimento is opened across the Tiber in Rome . It is the first reinforced concrete bridge in Italy and when it opens it has the largest span of all concrete arch bridges .
- MAY 31: The RMS Titanic was in Belfast at the shipyard of Harland & Wolff its launch . The completed RMS Olympic will then be handed over to the White Star Line . The latter starts its maiden voyage on June 14th .
- July 24: A Yale University expedition led by Hiram Bingham stumbled upon the ruins of the Inca city of Machu Picchu in Peru .
- September 7th: The old Elbe tunnel in Hamburg is inaugurated.
- September 11th: The coastal radio station Swinoujscie , later Rügen Radio , is opened.
- November 4: The first ocean-going ship with a diesel engine , the Selandia , is launched in Copenhagen.
- November 16: The philosophers Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein meet for the first time in Cambridge , which soon results in an intensive collaboration.
- The world's first television set is installed in the Deutsches Museum.
- Joseph John Thomson builds the first mass spectrograph .
Architecture and monument construction
- March 5: Emperor Franz Joseph I opens the House of Industry in Vienna . The splendid late historical building was built according to plans by the architect Karl König . Inside is what was originally the first paternoster elevator in Austria by Anton Freissler .
- June 4th: The Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II is inaugurated in Rome in memory of the 50th anniversary of the unification of Italy.
- July 12: The Fritz Reuter memorial in Stavenhagen by sculptor Wilhelm Wandschneider is unveiled.
- The Curiohaus in Hamburg is completed, built according to a design by the architect Johann Emil Schaudt for the Society of Friends of the Fatherland School and Education System and named after the founder of this society, Johann Carl Daniel Curio .
- January: Because Gustav Pauli , scientific director of Der Kunstverein in Bremen , bought the painting Poppy Field from Vincent van Gogh for the Kunsthalle Bremen , a “warning” appears in the Bremer Nachrichten . That is the impetus for the Bremen artist dispute .
- March 25th: The Emperor Franz Joseph's Jubilee Artists' House is opened in Brno with an exhibition by the Association of German-Moravian Visual Artists .
- April 17th: The 80-page brochure A Protest German Artists by Carl Vinnen and others appears in the Bremen artists' dispute . In June an answer will appear under the title In the Battle for Art. The answer to the “protest of German artists” .
- August 21: The portrait of the Mona Lisa is stolen from the Louvre by the 31-year-old Italian painter Vincenzo Peruggia .
- October: Lovis Corinth paints the portrait of Carl Hagenbeck with the walrus Pallas in oil on canvas . A few months later, in December, he suffered a stroke.
- November / December: After a stay in Paris, Umberto Boccioni paints the picture La strada entra nella casa and initially titled it simply balcony .
- December 2: After a dispute provoked by him, Wassily Kandinsky leaves the Neue Künstlervereinigung München and founds the artists' association Der Blaue Reiter with Franz Marc .
- December 18: After the break up of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München , the last exhibition as well as the first one of the editorial staff of the Blue Rider opens on the same day , where Franz Marc shows his paintings Blue Horse , Horses in Landscape and The Yellow Cow .
- Herwarth Walden coined the term expressionism .
- The Cubism splits into Salonkubisten and Galeriekubisten .
- January 28th: The silent film drama Das Liebesglück der Blind by Curt A. Stark and Heinrich Bolten-Baeckers based on the script by Rosa Porten has its world premiere . It is considered to be the first German film with a self-contained plot at all. For the leading actress Henny Porten , who is not mentioned by name , it means the rise to become the first German cinema star .
- October 21: The oldest surviving Austrian feature film appears in the cinemas: The miller and his child with Max Bing in the leading role.
- November 1st: The Oesterreichisch-Ungarische Kinoindustrie Ges.mbH is renamed Wiener Kunstfilm GmbH , which in the following years becomes the leading Austrian silent film production company.
- The Danish director Urban Gad has made numerous feature films in Germany and Denmark, including Hot Blood , Moth , The Black Dream , In the Big Moment , The Foreign Bird and The Traitor . Asta Nielsen plays the leading female role in all of these films .
- The story of the weekly newsreel in Austria begins when Wiener Kunstfilm regularly publishes weekly new reports from Vienna and other parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy for the first time. In the German Reich, too, newsreels are produced for the first time .
- David Horsley opens the first film studio in Hollywood , the Nestor Motion Picture Company .
- January 11th: The poem End of the World by Jakob van Hoddis is published in the Berlin magazine Der Demokratie .
- February 20: The first issue of the magazine Die Aktion , magazine for liberal politics and literature by Franz Pfemfert appears.
- March 18: Alfred Lichtenstein's poem The Twilight appears in the expressionist magazine Der Sturm .
- The corset is increasingly being removed from women's fashion.
- The French fashion designer Paul Poiret designs the so-called " hobble skirt ".
- In Paris, the trouser dress comes into fashion at the same time .
Music and theater
- JANUARY 21: The March of the Women of Ethel Smyth is in the Pall Mall premiered in London. Another performance will take place on March 23rd at the Royal Albert Hall , from where the song spread rapidly in England and became the anthem of the English suffragette movement .
- January 26th: The opera Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss has its world premiere in the Dresden Court Opera . The work with the libretto by the Austrian writer Hugo von Hofmannsthal , the title of which was controversial to the end, is an overwhelming success.
- February 15: The world premiere of the comedy Die Hose by Carl Sternheim causes a scandal. The caustic mockery of the German philistine ultimately even led to the play being temporarily banned.
- March 25th: The world premiere of the operetta Grigri by Paul Lincke takes place at the Metropol-Theater in Cologne.
- March 28: The comic opera The Fair at Sorochyntsi by Modest Mussorgsky on a story by Nikolai Gogol will premiere decades after the composer's death in St. Petersburg.
- May 19: The one-act play The Spanish Hour by Maurice Ravel based on a libretto by Franc-Nohain is premiered at the Opéra-Comique in Paris . The “musical comedy” was rejected by the audience and critics.
- May 22nd: The world premiere of Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien ( The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian ), a “Mystery in Five Acts” by Gabriele D'Annunzio , at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris turns into a scandal. The Archbishop of Paris, Léon-Adolphe Amette , forbids all Catholics to attend the performances because of the portrayal of the saint by a scantily clad Jewish and Russian woman, Ida Rubinstein .
- JUNE 2: The opera Isabeau of Pietro Mascagni is headed by the composer at the Teatro Colon premiered in Buenos Aires. The libretto of the leggenda drammatica in three acts comes from Luigi Illica . The story of Lady Godiva served as inspiration . The opera quickly became popular and inspired a number of other operas based on legends.
- June 13: Igor Stravinsky's ballet Petrushka is premiered in Paris with Vaslav Nijinsky in the title role . The pantomime choreography is by Michel Fokine , the costumes and the stage design by Alexander Benois .
- October 14th: The tragic comedy Das weite Land by Arthur Schnitzler is premiered simultaneously on several stages in German-speaking countries.
- November 20: Six months after the composer's death, Gustav Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde is premiered in Munich under the direction of Bruno Walter . While avoiding the word symphony , Mahler called the work a “symphonic song cycle ” for fear that a 9th symphony - as with his models Ludwig van Beethoven and Anton Bruckner - could be his last.
- November 23: The musical play Der Kuhreigen by Wilhelm Kienzl , directed by Rainer Simons, premieres at the Vienna Volksoper . The libretto comes from Richard Batka based on the novella Die kleine Blanchefleur by Rudolf Hans Bartsch .
- November 24th: The world premiere of the operetta Eva by Franz Lehár with the libretto by Alfred Maria Willner and Robert Bodanzky takes place at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna .
- December 1: Hugo von Hofmannsthal's play Jedermann is premiered in the Berlin Schumann Circus, directed by Max Reinhardt .
- December 23: The operetta Alt-Wien based on music by Joseph Lanner , compiled and arranged by Emil Stern, is premiered at the Carltheater in Vienna . The libretto was written by Gustav Kadelburg , Julius Wilhelm and MA Weikone .
- December 23rd: The Miracle by Karl Gustav Vollmoeller with music by Engelbert Humperdinck and staged by Max Reinhardt is premiered in the Olympia Hall in London .
- Opening of the Münchner Kammerspiele
- January 5th: The Bioparco Rome opens. The zoo for the Italian capital was designed by the animal dealer Carl Hagenbeck based on the Hamburg model.
- May 28: The Linden Museum opens in Stuttgart , today one of the largest ethnographic museums in Europe.
- August 1: In Munich , the Hellabrunn Zoo opened.
- JANUARY 13: An unemployed that have become Navy Koch stands in the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum on Rembrandt's painting The Night Watch with a knife.
- May 24th: With the encyclical Iamdudum in Lusitania, Pope Pius X branded the separation of church and state carried out in Portugal as a crime.
- December 21: In Moscow, the Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary designed by Tomasz Bohdanowicz-Dworzecki is consecrated as a branch church of the Moscow Polish community. To this day it is the largest Catholic church in Russia .
- March 23: The Australian passenger liner Yongala is sunk by a cyclone off Townsville . All 122 people on board are killed. To this day, her sinking is one of the largest shipwrecks in Australia.
- March 25: 146 mostly underage workers are killed in the fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City. Some of the corpses are found sitting at the workplace, which they did not dare to leave.
- September 30th: The Austin Dam breaks and leads to the second largest flood disaster in Pennsylvania , USA.
- November 16: One of the historically stronger earthquakes in Germany causes great damage in Ebingen . The Hohenzollerngraben is often wrongly said to have a connection.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .
- February 3: The Swede Ulrich Salchow becomes world champion in men's figure skating for the tenth time at the World Figure Skating Championships in Berlin .
- December 17th: The German Fencing Association is founded in Frankfurt am Main .
- February 13: The Croatian football club Hajduk Split is founded.
- March 15: FK Austria Wien is founded.
- July 5th: Austrian football championship 1911/12 : The first Austrian football championship is launched, in which only Viennese clubs are entitled to participate. The first match will be played on September 3rd.
- January 21: The first Monte Carlo Rally , initiated by Albert I , begins. In Geneva, Paris, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Berlin, Vienna and Brussels, a total of 20 participants start in the direction of Monaco . The Frenchman Henri Louis Rougier finally becomes the first overall winner.
- MAY 30: On the racetrack in Speedway (Indiana) will be the first 500-mile race at Indianapolis for automobiles held. Ray Harroun wins on a Marmon Wasp.
For entries of athletics world records, see the respective discipline under athletics .
|price||person||country||Reason for awarding the prize||picture|
|Nobel Price for physics||
|Deutsches Reich||"For his discoveries regarding the laws of thermal radiation" ( Vienna's law of displacement )|
|Nobel Prize in Chemistry||
|France (born in Warsaw , Congress Poland )||“In recognition of the merit she has earned in the development of chemistry through the discovery of the elements radium and polonium , through the characterization of radium and its isolation in a metallic state, and through her investigations into the nature and chemical compounds of this important element "|
|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine||
|Sweden||"For his work on the dioptric of the eye "|
|Nobel Prize in literature||
|Belgium||"Due to his versatile literary effectiveness, especially his dramatic creations, which are characterized by a wealth of imagination and a poetic idealism, which, sometimes in the veiled form of the fairy tale game, reveals deep inspiration and mysteriously addresses the reader's feeling and intuition"|
|Nobel Peace Prize||
|Netherlands||Organizer of the International Conference on Private Law in The Hague|
Alfred Hermann Fried
|Austria||Founder of the magazine "Die Waffen Nieder" (later renamed " Die Friedens-Warte ")|
Historical maps and views
- Guido Santin , Italian rower († 2008) January 1:
- Julius Angerhausen , German auxiliary bishop († 1990) January 3:
- Fritz Huschke von Hanstein , German motor sportsman († 1996) January 3:
- Enrico Lorenzetti , Italian motorcycle racer († 1989) January 4th:
- Noro Morales , Puerto Rican mambo and rumba musician († 1964) January 4th:
- Johann Asch , German politician († 1990) January 5:
- Jean-Pierre Aumont , French actor and screenwriter († 2001) January 5:
- Friedrich Hendrix , German athlete († 1941) January 6th:
- Hein Thorn Prikker , German motorcycle racer († 1998) January 6th:
- Roberto Amoroso , Italian filmmaker († 1994) January 7th:
- Julián de Ajuriaguerra , Basque neuropsychiatrist and psychoanalyst († 1993) January 7:
- Andrej Očenáš , Slovak composer († 1995) January 8:
- Carmen Guerrero Franco , Mexican actress († 1986) January 9:
- Franz Nauber , German horn player († 2001) January 9:
- January 10: Nazım Aslangil , Turkish ski racer
- January 11: Margarete Berger-Heise , German politician († 1981)
- January 11: Tommy Duncan , American country singer († 1967)
- January 11: Brunhilde Pomsel , German secretary and stenographer († 2017)
- January 12: Robert Abshagen , German communist and resistance fighter († 1944)
- January 13: Guido del Mestri , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1993)
- January 14: Heinz Engelmann , German actor († 1996)
- January 14: Hans-Martin Majewski , German film composer († 1997)
- January 14: Anatoly Rybakov , Russian writer († 1998)
- January 14: George Tremblay , American composer († 1982)
- January 15: Nasib Shiganow , Tatar composer († 1988)
- January 16: Eduardo Frei Montalva , Chilean politician († 1982)
- January 16: Roger Lapébie , French cyclist († 1996)
- January 17: Hans-Wilhelm Quitzow , German geologist († 2009)
- January 17: George Stigler , American economist († 1991)
- January 18: Gábor Darvas , Hungarian composer and musicologist († 1985)
- January 18: Danny Kaye , American actor, comedian and singer († 1987)
- January 18: Hans-Hilmar Staudte , German chess master and problem composer († 1979)
- January 18: José María Arguedas , Peruvian writer († 1969)
- January 19: Garrett Birkhoff , American mathematician († 1996)
- January 19: Ken Nelson , American music producer († 2008)
- January 20: Alfredo Foni , Italian football player and coach († 1985)
- January 21: Erich Angermann , German politician († 1968)
- January 22: Mary Hayley Bell , British actress and playwright († 2005)
- January 22nd: Bruno Kreisky , Austrian politician and Federal Chancellor († 1990)
- January 22nd: Roberto García Morillo , Argentine composer († 2003)
- January 23: Renzo Avanzo , Italian documentary filmmaker († 1989)
- January 23: Anna Maria Jokl , Austrian-Israeli writer, psychotherapist († 2001)
- January 24: Catherine L. Moore , American science fiction and fantasy writer († 1987)
- January 25: Kurt Maetzig , German film director († 2012)
- January 26: Max Gluckman , South African ethnosociologist († 1975)
- January 26: Polycarp Kusch , American physicist († 1993)
- January 26: Norbert Schultze , German composer († 2002)
- January 27: Alfons Dorfner , Austrian canoeist († 1982)
- January 27: Maria Wimmer , German actress († 1996)
- January 28: Lee Metcalf , American politician († 1978)
- January 29: Reuben H. Tucker , American 2-Star General († 1970)
- January 30th: Roy Eldridge , American jazz trumpeter († 1989)
- January 30th: Paris Pişmiş , Turkish-Armenian astronomer († 1999)
- January 31: Hans Arens , German literary and linguist († 2003)
- January 31: Josef Rösing , German politician († 1983)
- January 31: Dan Thornton , American politician († 1976)
- Michael Murach , German amateur boxer and European champion († 1941) February 1:
- Jussi Björling , Swedish singer († 1960) February 2:
- Jean-Jacques Grunenwald , French organist, composer and music teacher († 1982) February 2:
- Jehan Alain , French organist and composer († 1940) February 3:
- Reba Monness , American table tennis player († 1980) February 3:
- Antun Nalis , Yugoslav actor († 2000) February 4:
- Peter Schütte , German actor and singer († 1973) February 4:
- Wilhelm Andersen , German theologian († 1980) February 5:
- Nakamura Mitsuo , Japanese writer and literary critic († 1988) February 5:
- Ronald Reagan , American actor, 33rd Governor of California, 40th President of the USA († 2004) February 6:
- Rudolf Raftl , Austrian soccer goalie († 1994) February 7th:
- Erwin Feller , German politician († 1991) February 8:
- Elizabeth Bishop , American writer and Pulitzer Prize winner († 1979) February 8:
- Bernhard Bechler , German officer and politician in the GDR († 2002) February 9:
- February 10: Mstislaw Keldysch , Russian aeronautical scientist and mathematician († 1978)
- February 10: Georg Kliesing , German politician († 1992)
- February 11: Carl Keenan Seyfert , American astronomer († 1960)
- February 12: Elizabeth B. Andrews , American politician († 2002)
- February 12: Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh , President of Ireland († 1978)
- February 12: Hans Habe , German journalist, writer and screenwriter († 1977)
- February 12: Kurt Planck , Austrian police lawyer († 1975)
- February 12: Hermine Schröder , German athlete († 1978)
- February 14: Maurice Gatsonides , Dutch racing car driver and entrepreneur († 1998)
- February 14: Willem Kolff , Dutch internist († 2009)
- February 14: Mercedes Sagredo , Dominican composer († 1998)
- February 14: Gerhard Schumann , German writer († 1995)
- February 14: Eduardo Serrano , Venezuelan musician, conductor and composer († 2008)
- February 16: Agnes Kraus , German actress († 1995)
- February 18: Auður Auðuns , Icelandic lawyer and politician († 1999)
- February 18: Hans Woellke , German athlete († 1943)
- February 19: Bill Bowerman , American track and field coach and entrepreneur († 1999)
- February 19: Herwart Miessner , German politician († 2002)
- February 19: Merle Oberon , British actress († 1979)
- February 19: Helmut Sündermann , German publicist († 1972)
- February 20: Robert McBride , American composer († 2007)
- February 20: Peter Paul , German actor († 1985)
- February 20: Hans Scholz , German writer, journalist and painter († 1988)
- February 25: Karl Haager , German lawyer, judge at the Federal Constitutional Court († 2008)
- February 25: Kurt Ziesel , Austrian journalist († 2001)
- February 26: Fritz Bock , Austrian politician, co-founder of the ÖVP († 1993)
- February 27: Egon Sundberg , Swedish football player († 2015)
- February 27: Heinz Starke , German politician († 2001)
- February 28: Friedrich Karl Dörner , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1992)
- February 28: Bernd Scholz , German composer († 1969)
- Harry Golombek , British chess grandmaster († 1995) March 1:
- Joachim Ruoff , Ia officer of the SS Leadership Main Office and SS Standartenführer († 1996) March 1:
- Josef Krejci , Austrian handball player March 2nd:
- Jean Harlow , American actress († 1937) March 3:
- Jean-Paul Colas , French racing car driver († 2019) March 4:
- Carl Forberg , American racing driver († 2000) March 4:
- Gregor Determann , German politician († 1993) March 5:
- Andrés Pardo Tovar , Colombian sociologist, ethnomusicologist and folklorist († 1972) March 5:
- Heinrich Homann , German politician († 1994) March 6:
- Nikolai Baibakov , Soviet politician († 2008) March 7:
- Stefan Kisielewski , Polish composer and writer († 1991) March 7th:
- Herbert Abel , German geographer and museum director († 1994) March 8:
- Alan Hovhaness , American composer († 2000) March 8:
- Wilhelm Sandner , German speed skater († 1984) March 8:
- François Stahly , Franco-German sculptor († 2006) March 8:
- Raymond Abrashkin , American writer, screenwriter and director († 1960) March 9:
- Clara Rockmore , Russian theremin virtuoso († 1998) March 9:
- March 10: Remigi Blättler , Swiss clarinetist and folk musician († 2003)
- March 11: Pericle Patocchi , Swiss writer and teacher († 1968)
- March 11th: Fritz Trautwein , Hamburg architect († 1993)
- March 12: Harry Fisher , American trade unionist, peace activist († 2003)
- March 12: William Patrick Hitler , nephew of Adolf Hitler and the son of Alois Hitler Junior († 1987)
- March 12: Gustavo Díaz Ordaz , Mexican politician and President of Mexico († 1979)
- March 13: José Ardévol , Cuban composer († 1981)
- March 13: Willi Göttert , German pastor and peace activist († 2008)
- March 13: L. Ron Hubbard , science fiction writer and founder of Scientology († 1986)
- March 14: Karl Neckermann , German athlete († 1984)
- March 15: Wilhelm Mohnke , SS brigade leader and major general of the Waffen SS († 2001)
- March 16: Sybille Bedford , German-British journalist and writer († 2006)
- March 16: Bob Foster , British motorcycle racer († 1982)
- March 16: Pierre Harmel , Belgian politician († 2009)
- March 16: Josef Mengele , doctor in the Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp († 1979)
- March 18: Heinz-Josef Adamski , German historian, folklorist and grammar school teacher († 2002)
- March 18: Gabriel Celaya , Spanish writer († 1991)
- March 20: Arthur Knautz , German field handball player († 1943)
- March 20: Alfonso García Robles , Mexican politician; Nobel Peace Prize Laureate († 1991)
- March 21: Günther Klotz , Lord Mayor of Karlsruhe (1952 to 1970) († 1972)
- March 21: Hans Nicklisch , German writer and translator († 2001)
- March 24th: Edgar Arro , Estonian composer and organist († 1978)
- March 24: Joseph Barbera , American animator and producer († 2006)
- March 24th: Hans Sion , German brewer († 1998)
- March 25: Jack Ruby , murderer of the alleged Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald († 1967)
- March 26th: Lennart Atterwall , Swedish athlete († 2001)
- March 26: John Langshaw Austin , English philosopher and linguist († 1960)
- March 26: Bernard Katz , biophysicist and neurophysiologist († 2003)
- March 26: Tennessee Williams , American writer († 1983)
- March 28: Therese Angeloff , German cabaret artist and actress († 1985)
- March 28: Heinz Maier-Leibnitz , German physicist († 2000)
- March 28: Consalvo Sanesi , Italian racing driver († 1998)
- March 28: William Sears , American author († 1992)
- March 28: Heinrich Sonnrein , German football player and goalkeeper († 1944)
- March 29: Brigitte Horney , German actress († 1988)
- March 30: Ekrem Akurgal , Turkish archaeologist († 2002)
- March 30th: Heini Dittmar , German glider pilot († 1960)
- March 30th: Lester Stoefen , American tennis player and coach († 1970)
- March 31: Elisabeth Grümmer , opera and chamber singer († 1986)
- Joe Fortenberry , American basketball player († 1993) April 1:
- Adam Cardinal Kozłowiecki , Archbishop of Lusaka († 2007) April 1:
- Gerardus Antonius Joseph van Os , Dutch biochemist († 2006) April 1:
- Darrell A. Amyx , American classical archaeologist († 1997) April 2:
- John Montague , Canadian violinist and music teacher († 1991) April 2:
- Wanda Wróblewska , Polish theater director († 1997) April 2:
- Eugen Eckert , German sculptor and painter († 1998) April 3:
- Theo Schuster , German chess player and chess journalist († 1998) April 3:
- Václav Čtvrtek , Czech writer († 1976) April 4:
- Erich Kästner , German designer († 2005) April 5:
- Jimmy Kinnon , founder of Narcotics Anonymous († 1985) April 5:
- Dieter Oesterlen , German architect and university lecturer († 1994) April 5:
- Feodor Lynen , German biochemist and Nobel Prize winner († 1979) April 6:
- Pietro Scarpini , Italian pianist and music teacher († 1997) April 6:
- Hervé Bazin , French writer († 1996) April 7:
- Melvin Calvin , American chemist and biochemist († 1997) April 8:
- Emil Cioran , Romanian philosopher († 1995) April 8:
- Rafael Arnáiz Barón , Trappist, mystic († 1938) April 9:
- April 10: Martin Denny , American jazz pianist († 2005)
- April 10: Heinz Hillegaart , German diplomat († 1975)
- April 10: Alois Niederalt , German politician († 2004)
- April 11: Leopold Hawelka , Austrian founder and operator of Café Hawelka († 2011)
- April 11: Stanisława Walasiewicz , Polish-American athlete († 1980)
- April 13: Gunter Böhmer , German-Swiss painter, draftsman and book illustrator († 1986)
- April 13: Wolfgang Görg , German photographer († 1984)
- April 13: Eric Oliver , British motorcycle racer († 1980)
- April 14: Leo Kowalski , German composer and pianist († 1986)
- April 14: Theodor Romscha , Ukrainian bishop and martyr († 1947)
- April 15: Yuri Arbatsky , composer and folklorist († 1963)
- April 16: William T. Stearn , British botanist († 2001)
- April 17: Helmut Apffel , German philologist, local historian and educator († 2007)
- April 17: George Seaton , American director, screenwriter, producer († 1979)
- April 18: Carl Appel , Austrian architect († 1997)
- April 18: Wilhelm Banse , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 1965)
- April 18: Rudolf Wölfl , German philologist, educator and humanist († 2003)
- April 19: Helmut Berthold , German field handball player († 2000)
- April 20: Reidar Andersen , Norwegian ski jumper († 1991)
- April 20: Barbara Beyenka , theologian, translator and writer († 2006)
- April 20: Kukrit Pramoj , Prime Minister of Thailand († 1995)
- April 20: Hans Studer , Swiss composer, choir director and organist († 1984)
- April 21: Leonard Warren , American baritone († 1960)
- April 22nd: Fritz Lamerdin , German forest official († 1993)
- April 23: Bruno Ahlberg , Finnish boxer († 1966)
- April 23: Valentin Brück , German politician († 1980)
- April 23: Józef Cyrankiewicz , Polish communist politician and Prime Minister († 1989)
- April 23: Ronald Neame , British cameraman, screenwriter and director († 2010)
- April 24: Eugen Jebeleanu , Romanian poet († 1991)
- April 24: Karl Schiller , German politician († 1994)
- April 25: Kenneth Lee Spencer , American-German opera singer (bass) and actor († 1964)
- April 25: Robert Jan Verbelen , Flemish writer († 1990)
- April 26: Paul Verner , member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the SED in the GDR († 1986)
- April 27: Bruno Beger , German anthropologist and SS Hauptsturmführer († 2009)
- April 28: Nicolás Casimiro , Dominican singer († 1964)
- April 28: Mario Bauzá , Cuban jazz musician († 1993)
- April 29: Erika von Brockdorff , German resistance fighter in World War II († 1943)
- April 30: Peter Blachstein , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 1977)
- April 30th: Luise Rinser , German writer († 2002)
- Koçi Xoxe , Albanian politician († 1949) May 1:
- Marie Therese Hug , princess from the House of Hohenzollern († 2005) May 2:
- Heinrich Kiefer , German painter and graphic artist († 1980) May 3:
- Walter Adamson , German-Australian writer († 2010) May 4:
- Andor Lilienthal , Hungarian chess grandmaster († 2010) May 5th:
- Herschel C. Loveless , American politician († 1989) May 5:
- Walter Müller , Austrian actor († 1969) May 6:
- Viktor Fogarassy , Austrian businessman and art collector († 1989) May 6:
- Ishirō Honda , Japanese director († 1993) May 7:
- Robert Johnson , American blues musician († 1938) May 8:
- May 10: Alberto Soresina , Italian composer and music teacher († 2007)
- May 11: Helmut Arndt , German economist († 1997)
- May 11: Ludwig Kratz , German chemist († 1957)
- May 12: Wilhelm Leichum , German athlete († 1941)
- May 14: Hans Vogt , German composer († 1992)
- May 15: Max Frisch , Swiss architect and writer († 1991)
- May 15: Leo Fuchs , Polish-American, Yiddish actor, comedian, singer and dancer († 1994)
- May 15: Herta Oberheuser , doctor in the Ravensbrück concentration camp († 1978)
- May 16: Walter Hollitscher , Austrian philosopher, Marxist and psychoanalyst († 1986)
- May 17th: Jillert Cammenga , Dutch composer and conductor († 1993)
- May 17th: André Jaunet , Swiss flautist († 1988)
- May 17th: Albéric O'Kelly de Galway , Belgian chess master and 3rd correspondence chess world champion († 1980)
- May 17: Maureen O'Sullivan , Irish-American actress († 1998)
- May 18: Big Joe Turner , American blues and rock 'n' roll singer († 1985)
- May 20: Norbert Aresin , German physician († 1971)
- May 20: Annie MG Schmidt , Dutch writer († 1995)
- May 21: Johannes Beeskow , coachbuilder († 2005)
- May 22nd: Anatol Rapoport , central thought leader in so-called systems science († 2007)
- May 23: Paul Augustin Mayer , German Curia Cardinal († 2010)
- May 23: Betty Nuthall , English tennis player († 1983)
- May 23: Ernst Voigt , German pilot and test pilot († 2000)
- May 24th: Heinz Cramer , German staff officer and modern pentathlon († 2003)
- May 24: Herbert W. Clutter , American murder victim († 1959)
- May 24: Lotte Rausch , German actress († 1995)
- May 24th: Ne Win , Myanmar politician († 2002)
- May 26: Maurice Baquet , French actor († 2005)
- May 27: Hubert H. Humphrey , American politician († 1978)
- May 27: Teddy Kollek , Israeli politician, Mayor of Jerusalem 1965–1993 († 2007)
- May 27: Vincent Price , American actor († 1993)
- May 28: Fritz Hochwälder , Austrian writer († 1986)
- May 28: Jean-Pierre Lévy , French Resistance member, founder of the Franc-Tireurs († 1996)
- May 28: Alfred Nier , American physicist († 1994)
- May 29: Fernando Chueca Goitia , Spanish historian († 2004)
- May 29: Charles Jay , French composer († 1988)
- May 31: Maurice Allais , French economist and Nobel Prize winner († 2010)
- May: Gholam Hossein Banan , Iranian singer († 1986)
- Hermann Auf der Heide , German hockey player († 1984) June 1:
- Karl Rührschneck , German motorcycle racer († 1997) June 2:
- Billy Fiske , American bobsleigh driver and Olympic champion († 1940) June 4:
- Günther Nollau , German attorney and lawyer († 1991) June 4:
- Jean Cayrol , French author and publisher († 2005) June 6:
- Mario Perazzolo , Italian football player and coach († 2001) June 7th:
- Hans Appel , German football player († 1973) June 8:
- Ralph Maria Siegel , German composer and lyricist († 1972) June 8:
- André Dewavrin , founder of the Free French Secret Service († 1998) June 9:
- Sigi Engl , Austrian-American ski racer and ski school director († 1982) June 9:
- Maclyn McCarty , American biologist († 2005) June 9:
- June 10: Denes Agay , American composer and arranger († 2007)
- June 10: Ralph Kirkpatrick , American harpsichordist († 1984)
- June 11: Peter Acht , German diplomat and historian († 2010)
- June 11th: Detlev Lais , German saxophonist and pop singer († 1978)
- June 12: Milovan Đilas , Yugoslav politician, writer and dissident († 1995)
- June 13: Luis Walter Alvarez , American physicist and Nobel Prize winner († 1988)
- June 13: Erwin Wilhelm Müller , German-American physicist († 1977)
- June 14: Lev Abramov , Russian chess player and referee († 2004)
- June 14: Herbert Fritsche , poet († 1960)
- June 14: Marcel Perincioli , Swiss sculptor († 2005)
- June 15: Mark Fax , American composer and music teacher († 1974)
- June 15: Marie-Louise Henry , Franco-German Protestant theologian († 2006)
- June 15: Jack McCracken , American basketball player († 1958)
- June 15: Janusz Minkiewicz , Polish writer, poet, satirist, journalist and translator († 1981)
- June 16: Georg Meistermann , German painter († 1990)
- June 16: Willibald Schmaus , German and Austrian soccer player († 1979)
- June 16: Phyllis Sellick , English pianist and music teacher († 2007)
- June 17: Viktor Nekrasov , Soviet war writer († 1987)
- June 19: Hermann Höfle , SS-Sturmbannführer († 1962)
- June 20: Paul Pietsch , German racing car driver and publisher († 2012)
- June 22nd: Nicolas Naaman , Syrian Archbishop († 1982)
- June 21: Hanna Malewska , Polish writer († 1983)
- June 21: Aleksander Marczewski , Polish composer, conductor and organist († 1981)
- June 22: Harvey Shapiro , American cellist and music teacher († 2007)
- June 23: Nikolai Kuznetsov , Soviet engine designer († 1995)
- June 23: David Ogilvy , British copywriter († 1999)
- June 24th: Juan Manuel Fangio , Argentine racing car driver († 1995)
- June 24: Georg Heubeck , German actuary († 1989)
- June 24th: Ernesto Sabato , Argentine writer and physicist († 2011)
- June 25: William Howard Stein , American biochemist and Nobel Prize winner († 1980)
- June 26: Rolf Karlsen , Norwegian composer and organist († 1982)
- June 26: Edward H. Levi , American lawyer and politician († 2000)
- June 26: Georg Schubert , German painter and graphic artist († 2005)
- June 26: Ernst Witt , German mathematician († 1991)
- June 26: Mildred Didrikson Zaharias , American athlete and golfer († 1956)
- June 27: Georg Dascher , German handball player († 1944)
- June 29: Bernard Herrmann , American composer († 1975)
- June 29: Bernhard zur Lippe-Biesterfeld , Prince of the Netherlands († 2004)
- June 30: Heinz Abraham , German politician († 1992)
- June 30: Kurt Lingens , Righteous Among the Nations, doctor († 2004)
- June 30: Czesław Miłosz , Polish writer († 2004)
- Anja Ignatius , Finnish violinist and music teacher († 1995) July 2nd:
- Reg Parnell , English racing driver and team boss († 1964) July 2:
- Bohdan Wodiczko , Polish conductor and music teacher († 1985) July 2:
- Franco Ferrara , Italian conductor († 1985) July 4th:
- Malte Jaeger , German actor († 1991) July 4th:
- Mitch Miller , American orchestra conductor and oboe player († 2010) July 4:
- Frederick Seitz , American physicist († 2008) July 4th:
- Georges Pompidou , French politician († 1974) July 5:
- Leonhard Birkofer , German chemist († 2015) July 5:
- LaVerne Sofie Andrews , American singer († 1967) July 6:
- Manuel Enrique Pérez Díaz , Venezuelan guitarist, composer and music teacher († 1984) July 6:
- Hermann Ferdinand Arning , German lawyer and politician († 1987) July 7th:
- Jesse Carver , English football player and coach († 2003) July 7th:
- Gretchen Franklin , British actress († 2005) July 7th:
- Ernst Klett , German publisher († 1998) July 7:
- Ludwig Pfältzer , German conscientious objector and Nazi victim († 1942) July 7:
- Marcel Reymond , Swiss ski jumper († unknown) July 7th:
- Tommy Anderson , Canadian ice hockey player and coach († 1971) July 9:
- Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat , Scottish general and commanding officer in World War II († 1995) July 9:
- Mervyn Peake , British writer, illustrator († 1968) July 9:
- John Archibald Wheeler , American theoretical physicist († 2008) July 9:
- July 10: Cootie Williams , American jazz trumpeter († 1985)
- July 10: David Peel Yates , British officer († 1978)
- July 11: Viola Mitchell , American violinist († 2002)
- July 12: Bogdan Ostromęcki , Polish poet, essayist and translator († 1979)
- July 14: Terry-Thomas , British actor († 1990)
- July 16: Ginger Rogers , American actress († 1995)
- July 17: Lucas Mahrenbrand , Austrian painter and graphic artist († 1994)
- July 18: Hume Cronyn , Canadian actor († 2003)
- July 19: Cissy van Bennekom , Dutch actress († 2005)
- July 19: Jos Cillien , Luxembourg artistic gymnast († 1984)
- July 21: Werner Bieder , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1999)
- July 21: Walter Lohmann , German racing cyclist († 1993)
- July 21: Marshall McLuhan , media theorist, media critic and publicist († 1980)
- July 22: Emil Andres , American racing driver († 1999)
- July 22: Luis Alfonzo Larrain , Venezuelan composer and musician († 1996)
- July 24: Kazys Ambrozaitis , Lithuanian radiologist († 2017)
- July 24th: Rudolf Liechtenhan the Younger , Swiss dramaturge and ballet specialist († 2005)
- July 24: John Passmore Widgery , British judge († 1981)
- July 25: Len Duncan , American racing driver († 1998)
- July 26th: Lia Wöhr , German actress, director, dancer († 1994)
- July 27: Heinrich Neuy , German Bauhaus artist, painter († 2003)
- July 28: Morris Goldenberg , American percussionist and music teacher († 1969)
- July 28: Gerhard Stöck , German athlete and Olympic champion († 1985)
- July 29: Ján Cikker , Slovak composer († 1989)
- July 29: Eduard Claudius , German writer and diplomat of the GDR († 1976)
- July 29: Foster Furcolo , American politician († 1995)
- July 30: Wolf Ackva , German actor († 2000)
- July 30th: André Adam , French sociologist and ethnologist († 1991)
- July 30th: Pierre Souvairan , Swiss-Canadian pianist and music teacher of French origin († 2000)
- Pericle Felici , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1982) August 1:
- Alfred Mansveld , Belgian bobsleigh driver August 2nd:
- Manuel Esperón , Mexican film composer († 2011) August 3:
- Otto Bittelmann , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 2000) August 5:
- John Calvert , American magician and actor († 2013) August 5:
- Robert Taylor , American film actor († 1969) August 5th:
- Lucille Ball , American actress († 1989) August 6:
- Annibale Frossi , Italian football player and coach († 1999) August 6:
- Kadidja Wedekind , German actress and journalist († 1994) August 6:
- Ji Xianlin , Chinese linguist, palaeographer, Indologist and historian († 2009) August 6:
- Nicholas Ray , American film director († 1979) August 7:
- Frederick Grinke , Canadian violinist and music teacher († 1987) August 8:
- Herwig Walter , German actor († 1986) August 8:
- William Alfred Fowler , American physicist († 1995) August 9:
- Mario Wandruszka , Austrian Romance studies and linguist († 2004) August 9:
- August 11th: Thanom Kittikachorn , Thai general and politician († 2004)
- August 12: Hubert Armbruster , German lawyer († 1995)
- August 12: Cantinflas , Mexican actor, singer, comedian and producer († 1993)
- August 16: Ernst Friedrich Schumacher , British economist († 1977)
- August 17th: Mikhail Botvinnik , Russian chess grandmaster († 1995)
- August 17: Martin Sandberger , SS-Standartenführer and commander of the security police († 2010)
- August 18: Wolfgang Dessecker , German athlete and Olympic participant († 1973)
- August 21: Gedeon Barcza , Hungarian chess player († 1986)
- August 22: Robert Fischer , President of the Federal Court of Justice († 1983)
- August 22: Edvard Hambro , Norwegian politician († 1977)
- August 22: Harry Heltzer , American manager and former CEO of 3M († 2005)
- August 23: Carl Dolmetsch , English recorder player († 1997)
- August 23: Hilda Kuper , Zimbabwean anthropologist († 1992)
- August 23: Betty Robinson , American sprinter and Olympic champion († 1999)
- August 23: Birger Ruud , Norwegian ski jumper and Olympic champion († 1998)
- August 24: Victor Barna , Hungarian table tennis player († 1972)
- August 24: Friedrich Luft , German theater critic († 1990)
- August 24: Michel Pablo , leading Trotskyist from Greece († 1996)
- August 25: Võ Nguyên Giáp , Vietnamese general († 2013)
- August 26th: Erich Arndt , German track cyclist
- August 26: Mario Celoria , Italian football player († 1984)
- August 28: Nérée Arsenault , Canadian politician and forest engineer († 1982)
- August 28: Joseph Luns , Dutch politician, diplomat and NATO Secretary General († 2002)
- August 30th: Gigi Parrish , American actress († 2006)
- August 30: Helene Pfleiderer , German benefactress († 1994)
- August 30: Arsenio Rodríguez , Cuban musician and composer († 1970)
- August 30: Hermann Stork , German water diver († 1962)
- René Amengual Astaburuaga , Chilean composer († 1954) September 2:
- Floyd Council , American blues musician († 1976) September 2:
- Werner Döring , German physicist († 2006) September 2:
- Ernst Meister , German poet, radio play author, narrator and playwright († 1979) September 3:
- Zeke Clements , American country musician († 1994) September 6:
- Henri de France , French engineer, developed the SECAM color television system († 1986) September 7th:
- Todor Zhivkov , Bulgarian politician, head of government and president († 1998) September 7th:
- Tomasz Kiesewetter , Polish composer, conductor and music teacher († 1992) September 8:
- Alois Pisnik , politician of the GDR († 2004) September 8:
- Lee Wallard , American racing car driver († 1963) September 8:
- Michel Aunaud , French racing car driver († 1982) September 9:
- Richard Baer , German National Socialist, commandant of the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp († 1963) September 9:
- John Gorton , Prime Minister of Australia († 2002) September 9:
- Gerhard Gerlich , German politician († 1962) September 9:
- Paul Goodman , American social philosopher and poet († 1972) September 9:
- September 10: Hans Baumgartner , Swiss photographer († 1996)
- September 10: Renée Simonot , French actress and voice actress († 2021)
- September 11: Bola de Nieve , Cuban musician († 1971)
- September 11: Albrecht Schönherr , German theologian and bishop († 2009)
- September 13: Roger Arnaldez , French scholar of Islam († 2006)
- September 13: Bill Monroe , American musician († 1996)
- September 14: Leslie Graham , British motorcycle racer († 1953)
- September 15: Emil Botta , Romanian actor and poet († 1977)
- September 15: Joseph Pevney , American film director, actor, film producer and screenwriter († 2008)
- September 16: Charles Amer , British entrepreneur and football club president of Middlesbrough FC († 2012)
- September 17th: Otto Daiker , German motorcycle racer († 1968)
- September 17: Wolfgang von Groote , German officer and military historian († 2000)
- September 17: Theodor Piffl-Perčević , Austrian politician and Minister of Education († 1994)
- September 18: Helmut Braselmann , German field handball player († 1993)
- September 18: Karl-Heinz Grindler , German soccer player († 2004)
- September 19: William Golding , British writer († 1993)
- September 19: Allan Pettersson , Swedish composer and violist († 1980)
- September 20: Alfred Naujocks , German National Socialist († 1966)
- September 21: Erika Engel-Wojahn , German children's book author, poet and illustrator († 2004)
- September 21: Artur Missbach , German politician († 1988)
- September 22nd: Heinrich Krug , German water polo player
- September 22: Franz Xaver Unertl , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 1970)
- September 23: Lajzer Ajchenrand , Polish poet († 1985)
- September 23: Frank Moss , American politician († 2003)
- September 23: Franz Wagner , German and Austrian soccer player († 1974)
- September 23: Sally Sweetland , American soprano († 2015)
- September 24th: Marcel Chauvigné , French rower († 1972)
- September 24: Haim Schwarzbaum , Israeli orientalist and narrative researcher († 1983)
- September 24: Konstantin Tschernenko , Russian politician († 1985)
- September 26: Bruno Venturini , Italian football goalkeeper († 1991)
- September 28: Ellsworth Vines , American tennis player († 1994)
- September 29: Takakichi Asō , Japanese entrepreneur and politician († 1980)
- September 30: Ed Danowski , American football player († 1997)
- Hermann Adler , German writer and publicist († 2001) October 2:
- Jack Finney , American writer († 1995) October 2:
- Tilly Fleischer , German athlete († 2005) October 2:
- Pascal Rywalski , Swiss Capuchin and Minister General († 2002) October 2:
- Ljubiša Broćić , Yugoslav football coach († 1995) October 3:
- Wilhelm Wöste , Catholic theologian, auxiliary bishop in Münster († 1993) October 3:
- Hans Cossy , German actor († 1972) October 4:
- Hermann Nattkämper , German football player († 2005) October 4:
- Flann O'Brien , Irish writer († 1966) October 5:
- Vaughn Monroe , American singer, band leader and trumpeter († 1973) October 7:
- October 11: Nello Pagani , Italian motorcycle and automobile racing driver († 2003)
- October 11: Juan Carlos Zabala , Argentine athlete and Olympic champion († 1983)
- October 12: Bruno Liebrucks , German philosopher († 1986)
- October 13: Migjeni , Albanian poet († 1938)
- October 13: André Navarra , French cellist († 1988)
- October 14: Wilhelm Karl Arnold , German psychologist († 1983)
- October 14: Lê Đức Thọ , Vietnamese politician († 1990)
- October 15: John S. McKiernan , American politician († 1997)
- October 16: Ronald Kinloch Anderson , Scottish pianist, music teacher and music producer († 1984)
- October 17: Negrito Chapuseaux , Dominican singer and composer († 1986)
- October 19: Hilde Spiel , Austrian journalist and writer († 1990)
- October 19: Willie Perryman , American blues musician († 1985)
- October 19: Ludwig Vörg , German alpinist († 1941)
- October 19: Eberhard Werdin , German composer († 1991)
- October 20: Grete Schickedanz , German entrepreneur († 1994)
- October 21: Mary Blair , American artist († 1978)
- October 22: Willi Aengevelt , German real estate agent († 2006)
- October 22: Gerhard Bosinski , German Protestant theologian († 1985)
- October 24: Paul Grégoire , Archbishop of Montréal and Cardinal († 1993)
- October 24: Sonny Terry , American blues singer and harmonica player († 1986)
- October 25: Roelof Frankot , Dutch painter († 1984)
- October 26: Mogens Brems , Danish actor († 1989)
- October 26: Sid Gillman , American football player and coach († 2003)
- October 26: Mahalia Jackson , American gospel singer († 1972)
- October 27: Leif Erickson , American actor († 1986)
- October 30: Ernst Feick , President of the German Handball Federation († 2007)
- October 30: Ruth Hussey , American actress († 2005)
- October 30: Maxim Hermaniuk , Ukrainian Archbishop († 1996)
- October 31: Alexander Achijeser , Russian-Ukrainian theoretical physicist († 2000)
- October 31: René Hardy , member of the Resistance, presumably the traitor of Jean Moulin († 1987)
- October 31: Hans Mennekes , German artist († 1983)
- Samuel Warren Carey , Australian geologist († 2002) November 1:
- Otto Eidenschink , German mountaineer († 2004) November 1:
- Donald William Kerst , American physicist († 1993) November 1:
- Henri Troyat , French writer († 2007) November 1:
- Sidney Wood , American tennis player († 2009) November 1:
- Henry Cassirer , American journalist and writer († 2004) November 2:
- Paul Carell , German Nazi functionary, author († 1997) November 2:
- Odysseas Elytis , Greek poet († 1996) November 2:
- Rosa Alarco Larrabure , Peruvian musicologist, composer and choir director († 1980) November 3:
- Karl Bodmer , German motorcycle racer († 1955) November 3:
- Vladimir Ussachevski , Russian-American composer († 1990) November 3:
- Shimizu Osamu , Japanese composer († 1986) November 4:
- Nicola Agnozzi , Italian bishop († 2008) November 5:
- Marie Osborne , American film actress († 2010) November 5:
- Roy Rogers , American country singer and actor († 1998) November 5:
- Pawel Lisizian , Russian-Armenian baritone († 2004) November 6:
- Hans Pesser , Austrian football player and coach († 1986) November 7th:
- Ed Kahn , American football player († 1945) November 9:
- November 10: Anton Perwein , Austrian field handball player († 1981)
- November 11: Hans Bothmann , second head of the Chelmno extermination camp († 1946)
- November 11th: Alfred Fane , British racing car driver and aviator († 1942)
- November 11: Roberto Matta , Chilean surrealist painter († 2002)
- November 11: Paul Rolland , American music teacher and violist († 1978)
- November 13: Karl Baur , German pilot, flight instructor and engineer († 1963)
- November 13th: Heinz von Foerster , Austrian cyberneticist († 2002)
- November 15: Otto Baum , German officer of the Waffen-SS, last SS-Oberführer († 1998)
- November 15: Kay Walsh , British dancer and actress († 2005)
- November 17th: Heli Finkenzeller , German actress († 1991)
- November 17: William Tannen , American film and stage actor († 1976)
- November 18: Attilio Bertolucci , Italian poet, literary critic and translator († 2000)
- November 18: Pierre Bonnard , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 2003)
- November 18: Herbert Alois Kraus , Austrian journalist and politician († 2008)
- November 20: David Seymour , Polish photographer († 1956)
- November 20: Jean Shiley , American athlete († 1998)
- November 20: Paul Zielinski , German football player († 1966)
- November 24: Erik Bergman , Finnish composer († 2006)
- November 25: Kurt Lütgen , German writer († 1992)
- November 26th: Savino Guglielmetti , Italian gymnast († 2006)
- November 26: Samuel Reshevsky , American chess player († 1992)
- November 27: Curt Biegler , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 2000)
- November 28: Margot Busak , German entrepreneur († 1992)
- November 30th: Mori Arimasa , Japanese philosopher († 1976)
- November 30th: Jorge Negrete , Mexican actor and singer († 1953)
- November 30th: Hans Nielsen , German actor († 1965)
- November 30th: Tamura Taijirō , Japanese writer († 1983)
- November 30th: Boris Taslitzky , French socialist realism painter († 2005)
- November 30th: Martin Teich , German television meteorologist († 2004)
- Franz Binder , Austrian football player († 1989) December 1:
- Ralph Kercheval , American football player († 2010) December 1:
- Ray Hanken , American football player († 1980) December 3:
- Nino Rota , Italian composer († 1979) December 3:
- Gerhard Menzel , entrepreneur in the glass industry († 1997) December 4th:
- Ferdinand Friedensbacher , Austrian ski racer and ski jumper († 1987) December 5:
- Carlos Marighella , Brazilian revolutionary and theoretician of urban guerrillas († 1969) December 5:
- Władysław Szpilman , Polish pianist, composer and writer († 2000) December 5:
- Max Braithwaite , Canadian writer († 1995) December 7:
- Peter Hamel , German director († 1979) December 7th:
- Lee J. Cobb , American actor († 1976) December 8:
- Kin Platt , American writer († 2003) December 8:
- Broderick Crawford , American actor († 1986) December 9:
- December 10: Anni Schaad , founder of the Langani fashion jewelry workshop († 1988)
- December 11: Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock , German captain and frigate captain († 1986)
- December 11: Nagib Mahfuz , Egyptian writer, Nobel Prize winner († 2006)
- December 12th: Stanley Bate , English composer († 1959)
- December 12: Thomas Canning , American composer († 1989)
- December 12th: Dore Hoyer , German dancer and choreographer († 1967)
- December 13: Emmy Albus , German athlete († 1995)
- December 13: Trygve Haavelmo , Norwegian economist and Nobel Prize winner († 1999)
- December 13: Fritz Kalmar , Austrian author and stage artist († 2008)
- December 13: Kenneth Patchen , American writer († 1972)
- December 14: Spike Jones , American musician († 1965)
- December 14th: Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain , one of the fathers of the jet engine († 1998)
- December 15: Stan Kenton , American piano player and composer († 1979)
- December 17th: Gilbert de Rudder , pseudonym Grizzly , Belgian motorcycle racer († 1946)
- December 18: Jules Dassin , American film director († 2008)
- December 21: Junie Astor , French actress († 1967)
- December 21: Paul Burkhard , Swiss composer († 1977)
- December 23: Niels Kaj Jerne , British medic and Nobel Prize winner († 1994)
- December 25th: Louise Bourgeois , French painter and sculptor († 2010)
- December 26: Ludwig Kraus , German engineer († 1997)
- December 26th: Takamatsu , Japanese princess († 2004)
- December 27: Heinz Maegerlein , German sports journalist († 1998)
- December 27: Juana Francisca Rubio , Spanish poster artist and painter († 2008)
- December 29th: Klaus Fuchs , German-British nuclear physicist, Soviet "nuclear spy" († 1988)
- December 29: Marcel Prawy , Austrian dramaturge and opera critic († 2003)
- December 29: Otto Probst , Austrian politician, transport minister and national councilor († 1978)
- December 30th: Walt Brown , American racing driver († 1951)
- December 30th: Margret Thomann-Hegner , German painter and graphic artist († 2005)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Narayan Apte , alleged mastermind behind the assassination attempt on Mahatma Gandhi († 1949)
- Ahmed Ateş , Turkish orientalist († 1966)
- Queen Fatima of Libya († 2009)
- Ludwig Jeep , German classical philologist (* 1846) January 4:
- Harfenjule , Berlin street singer and city original (* 1829) January 8:
- Emma Ihr , German politician and trade unionist (* 1857) January 8th:
- Edvard Rusjan , Slovenian aviation pioneer (* 1886) January 9th:
- January 11: Charles J. Hughes , American politician (* 1853)
- January 11: Richard von Perger , Austrian composer, conductor and music teacher (* 1854)
- January 12: Franz Eugen Schlachter , classical philologist and translator of the Schlachter Bible (* 1859)
- January 12: Georg Jellinek , German constitutional lawyer (* 1851)
- January 13 : Willibald A. Nagel , German physiologist (* 1870)
- January 17th: Francis Galton , British medic (* 1822)
- January 18: Otto Hetzer , German inventor and entrepreneur, founder of glued wood construction (* 1846)
- January 22nd: Siegmund Lustgarten , Austrian doctor (* 1857)
- January 24th: Heinrich Mayr , German forest scientist (* 1854)
- January 26: Friedrich Arnd , German publicist (* 1839)
- January 28: August Aschinger , German restaurateur (* 1862)
- January 28: Maurice Yvon , French architect (* 1857)
- January 29: Wilhelm Wilmanns , German Germanist (* 1842)
- January 30th: Theodor Christomannos , Austrian lawyer, pioneer of tourism in South Tyrol (* 1854)
- January 30th: Emil Hundrieser , German sculptor (* 1846)
- January 31: Paul Singer , German manufacturer and member of the Reichstag (* 1844)
- Piet Cronjé , commander of the Boers in the First and Second Boer War (* 1836) February 4:
- Morteza Qoli Chan Hedayat , Iranian politician (* 1856) February 6:
- Gustaf Fröding , Swedish poet (* 1860) February 8:
- Bernhard Ludwig Suphan , German literary scholar (* 1845) February 9:
- February 10: Hiram A. Tuttle , American politician (* 1837)
- February 11: Emil Jacobsen , German chemist and writer (* 1836)
- February 11: Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild , Austrian banker (* 1844)
- February 15: Theodor Escherich , German-Austrian pediatrician and bacteriologist, discoverer of the Escherichia coli bacterium (* 1857)
- February 16: Agnes Günther , German writer (* 1863)
- February 17: William Paine Lord , American politician (* 1838)
- February 19: Paul Morton , American politician (* 1857)
- February 21: Eugène Vast , French organist and composer (* 1835)
- February 25: Jules Bouval , French organist and composer (* 1867)
- February 25: Friedrich Spielhagen , German writer (* 1829)
- February 25: Fritz von Uhde , German painter (* 1848)
- February 26: Ludwig Gottsleben , Austrian actor and writer (* 1836)
- February 27: John Lee Carroll , American politician (* 1830)
- February 28: Ida Baccini , Italian writer and journalist (* 1850)
- Joseph Auer , German composer (* 1855) March 1:
- Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff , Dutch chemist and Nobel Prize winner (* 1852) March 1:
- Friedrich Goll , Swiss organ builder (* 1839) March 2nd:
- Hendrik Jacobus Hamaker , Dutch legal scholar (* 1844) March 2:
- Gottlob Theuerkauf , German painter and lithographer (* 1833) March 5:
- Hermann Jakob Dingelstad , German Roman Catholic theologian and bishop (* 1835) March 6:
- Ernst Falkenthal , German colonial official (* 1858) March 8:
- Otto Puchstein , German archaeologist (* 1856) March 9:
- March 11th: Ernst Brenner , Swiss politician (* 1856)
- March 13: Jacob Maarten van Bemmelen , Dutch chemist (* 1830)
- March 17: Friedrich Haase , German actor, director and theater director (* 1825)
- March 18: John Attfield , English chemist (* 1835)
- March 21: Saturnin Arloing , French veterinarian, infectiologist and professor of anatomy and physiology (* 1846)
- March 22nd: Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz , German archaeologist (* 1839)
- March 23: Godfried Marschall , Vicar General and Auxiliary Bishop in the Archdiocese of Vienna (* 1840)
- March 23: Eduard Zacharias , German botanist (* 1852)
- March 27: Hans Arnhold , Austrian politician (* 1989)
- March 29: Alexandre Guilmant , French organist and composer (* 1837)
- March 30: Pellegrino Artusi , Italian literary critic (* 1820)
- March 30: Ellen Swallow Richards , American chemist and ecologist (* 1842)
- March 31: Ella Magnussen , German painter (* 1847)
- Martin Greif , German poet (* 1839) April 1:
- Daniil Chwolson , Russian orientalist and archaeologist (* 1819) April 5:
- Berthold Riehl , German art historian (* 1858) April 5:
- April 10: Samuel Loyd , American game inventor and puzzle specialist (* 1841)
- April 11: Władysław Floriański , Polish singer and opera director (* 1854)
- April 13: George Washington Glick , American politician (* 1827)
- April 13: Konrad Koch , German educator and football pioneer (* 1846)
- April 13: John McLane , American politician (* 1852)
- April 14: Daniel Paul Schreber , German lawyer and author (* 1842)
- April 15: Johannes Bosscha , Dutch physicist (* 1831)
- April 15: Georg Knorr , German engineer and entrepreneur (* 1859)
- April 20: Georg Schleusner , German Protestant clergyman (* 1841)
- April 25: Emilio Salgari , Italian writer (* 1862)
- Richard Weitbrecht , German theologian and writer (* 1851) May 1:
- Otto Lueger , German engineer (* 1843) May 2:
- Alfred B. Kittredge , American politician (* 1861) May 4:
- Adolph Woermann , Hamburg merchant, shipowner and politician (* 1847) May 4th:
- Hermann Auleb , German lawyer, author and politician (* 1832) May 5:
- Gustav Haarmann , German politician (* 1848) May 5:
- May 10: La Fayette Grover , American politician (* 1823)
- May 14: András L. Áchim , Hungarian politician (* 1871)
- May 14th: Guido Hermann Schäf , German organ builder (* 1840)
- May 18: Gustav Mahler , Austrian composer and conductor (* 1860)
- May 23: Carl August von der Meden , first President of the German Tennis Federation (* 1841)
- May 26: Paul Ewald , German Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1857)
- May 29: Remigio Acevedo , Chilean organist and composer (* 1863)
- May 30: Milton Bradley , American draftsman, lithographer, patent attorney, inventor, game maker (* 1836)
- Johannes Otzen , German architect (* 1839) June 8:
- June 10: Adolf von Wilbrandt , German writer and director of the Burgtheater in Vienna (* 1837)
- June 14: Fedor Flinzer , German illustrator, educator and author (* 1832)
- June 14: Johan Svendsen , Norwegian composer (* 1840)
- June 17th: Othmar Zeidler , Austrian chemist (* 1850)
- June 18: George W. McBride , American politician (* 1854)
- June 20: Ole Andreas Øverland , Norwegian historian (* 1855)
- Ernst Hoeltzer , German telegraph operator and photographer (* 1835) July 3:
- Maria Pia of Savoy , Princess of Italy and Queen of Portugal (* 1847) July 5th:
- Helene Ross , German painter (* 1827) July 7th:
- Paul Tschackert , German church historian (* 1848) July 7th:
- July 12: Júlia da Costa , Brazilian poet (* 1844)
- July 13: William B. Shattuc , American politician (* 1841)
- July 14: Franziska Feifalik , Austrian hairdresser and confidante of Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary (* 1842)
- July 14th: Hermann Senator , German medic (* 1834)
- July 18: Hermann Naftali Adler , Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom (* 1839)
- July 18: Friedrich Eichlam , German cactus collector (* 1862)
- July 20: Hermann Schubert , German mathematician (* 1848)
- July 30th: Adolphe Deslandres , French composer and organist (* 1840)
- Edwin Austin Abbey , American painter and illustrator (* 1852) August 1:
- Konrad Duden , German philologist (* 1829) August 1:
- Reinhold Begas , German sculptor and painter (* 1831) August 3:
- Edward Murphy , American politician (* 1836) August 3:
- Anton Josef Gruscha , Cardinal and Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Vienna (* 1820) August 5th:
- Florentino Ameghino , Argentine zoologist, paleontologist, geologist and anthropologist (* 1853) August 6:
- William P. Frye , American politician (* 1830) August 8:
- August 12: Jozef Israëls , Dutch painter (* 1824)
- August 15: Albert Ladenburg , German chemist (* 1842)
- August 22nd: Theodor Scheimpflug , Austrian geodesist, discoverer of the photographic rule (* 1865)
- August 29th: Asaf Jah VI. , Prince of Hyderabad (* 1866)
- August 30: Otto Wendt , German legal scholar (* 1846)
- August: Wassili Kühner , Russian composer (* 1840)
- Roger Q. Mills , American politician (* 1832) September 2:
- Cardinal Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko , Bishop of Krakow (* 1842) September 8:
- September 11: William Robertson Boggs , officer in the US Army, Brigadier General of the Confederate Army in the Civil War and professor at the Polytechnic Institute of Virginia (* 1829)
- September 16: Edward Whymper , English mountaineer (* 1840)
- September 17: Thomas Henry Carter , American politician (* 1854)
- September 18: Pyotr Stolypin , Russian politician (* 1862)
- September 21: Ahmed Urabi Pascha , Egyptian officer and politician, leader of the Urabi movement (* 1841)
- September 23: Samuel Oettli , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1846)
- September 27: Fletcher D. Proctor , American politician (* 1860)
- Wilhelm Dilthey , German philosopher, educator, psychologist, cultural historian (* 1833) October 1:
- Charles Théodore Malherbe , French musicologist and composer (* 1853) October 5th:
- John Hughlings Jackson , English neurologist (* 1835) October 7th:
- Joseph V. Quarles , American politician (* 1843) October 7:
- Cornelius Newton Bliss , American politician (* 1833) October 9:
- October 10: Jack Daniel , American entrepreneur and founder of the Jack Daniel's Tennessee Whiskey distillery (* around 1850)
- October 17: Abram P. Williams , American politician (* 1832)
- October 18: Johann Hinrich Angelbeck , German politician (* 1833)
- October 18: Alfred Binet , French pedagogue and psychologist (* 1857)
- October 22: Gustav von Oertzen , German colonial official (* 1836)
- October 25: Édouard François André , French gardener, garden designer and botanist (* 1840)
- October 29: Joseph Pulitzer , American journalist and editor (* 1847)
- James Benton Grant , American politician (* 1848) November 1:
- Norman Jay Colman , American politician (* 1827) November 3:
- November 14th: Constantin Christomanos , Greek historian, playwright and theater director (* 1867)
- November 16: Engelbert Arnold , Swiss electrical engineer (* 1856)
- November 17: Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg , German officer, member of parliament and publicist (* 1848)
- November 22nd: William George Aston , British consular officer (* 1841)
- November 22nd: Alexander Schoeller , German banker (* 1852)
- November 24th: Wilhelm Jensen , German writer (* 1837)
- November 27: Josef Anton Schobinger , Swiss politician (* 1849)
- November 29th: Isaac Johnson , British inventor (* 1811)
- November 30th: Johannes Vahlen , German classical philologist (* 1830)
- Adolf Walewski , Polish actor, director and playwright (* 1852) December 4:
- Ruth Bré , German mother rights activist, women's rights activist, writer, journalist, theater writer and radical critic of patriarchy (* 1862) December 7th:
- December 10: Joseph Dalton Hooker , English botanist and traveler (* 1817)
- December 11th: Prithvi , King of Nepal (* 1875)
Exact date of death unknown
- Ernst Anders , German portrait and genre painter (* 1845)
- Shigeru Aoki , Japanese painter (* 1882)
- Michael Arzt , German entrepreneur (* 1841)
- Emmanuel Lafarge , French opera singer (* 1862)