1911

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The Sun Yat-Sen statue in Wuhan commemorates the Wuchang uprising. Behind the statue is the then seat of the transitional government of the Republic of China.
1911
Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz is deposed in the course of the Mexican Revolution .
Ernst von Schuch conducts the Rosenkavalier
The Rosenkavalier
by Richard Strauss
is premiered in Dresden.
Amundsen (left) and his companions Wisting, Hassel and Hanssen in Polheim, the photographer was Olav Bjaaland
The Norwegian Roald Amundsen
and four colleagues are the first to reach the South Pole .
Marie Curie's 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
With the Nobel Prize in Chemistry , Marie Curie
is the first woman to receive a second Nobel Prize .
1911 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1359/60 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1903/04 (turn of the year September 11th / 12th)
Baha'i calendar 67/68 (turn of the year 20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1316/17 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2454/55 (southern Buddhism); 2453/54 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Metal Pig辛亥 ( since January 30th , before that Metal Dog庚戌)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1273/74 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4244/45 (2-3 October)
Iranian calendar 1289/90 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1328/ 1329 (January 1-2. // 21-22 December.) / 1330
Japanese calendar Meiji 44 ( 明治 44 年);
Koki 2571
Jewish calendar 5671/72 (September 22-23)
Coptic calendar 1627/28 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 1086/87
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1326/27 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2221/22 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2222/23 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2453/54 (April 1)
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1967/68 (turn of the year April)

Like the previous year, 1911 was a year of revolutions . The revolution that began in Mexico last year led to the overthrow of long-term president Porfirio Díaz , followed by the revolutionary Francisco Madero . In China , after the unsuccessful Huanghuagang uprising, the Wuchang uprising and the Xinhai revolution occur , which lead to the establishment of the Republic of China under President Sun Yat-sen at the beginning of the following year . The price riot broke out in Vienna, during which the Austrian military fired at demonstrators for the first time since 1848. And initiated by Clara Zetkin , an International Women's Day is being celebrated for the first time in the world .

The "panther jump" of the German warship SMS Panther triggers the first international crisis of the year: The second Morocco crisis between the German Empire and France can only be resolved by the Morocco-Congo Treaty .

Italy tries to divert attention from domestic political problems with colonial expansion and declares war on the weakened Ottoman Empire . The Italo-Turkish War , which resulted in massacres of the civilian population and, for the first time, air bombs , ultimately led to the annexation of the North African regions of Tripoli and Cyrenaica by Italy.

During the year there are five different expeditions in Antarctica . The first reaching of the South Pole by the Norwegian Fram expedition led by Roald Amundsen shortly before the end of the year finally marks the climax of the “ Golden Age of Antarctic Research ”.

Franz Marc: Blue Horse I , 1911, oil on canvas

The opera Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss achieved an overwhelming success at its world premiere at the Dresden Court Opera and the naturalistic tragic comedy Die Ratten , premiered at the Berlin Lessing Theater , is “perhaps Gerhart Hauptmann's most important contribution to modern world theater”. Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is stolen from the Louvre by Vincenzo Peruggia , Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc found the Blue Rider and the Bremen artists' dispute is making waves across Germany.

When it comes to technology, there is a desire for superlatives: The Ponte del Risorgimento is opened, the first reinforced concrete bridge in Italy and, when it opens, the concrete arch bridge with the largest span, and the world's largest ship, the RMS Titanic , is launched in the Harland & Wolff shipyard .

events

Politics and world events

Italo-Turkish War

The Italo-Turkish War in the Mediterranean 1911–1912
Italian guns off Tripoli, 1911
  • October 3: The Italians begin shelling Tripoli .
  • October 4th: Tripoli and Tobruk are conquered.
  • October 14th: All coastal areas of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica are in Italian hands.
  • October 23: In the Italo-Turkish War , military reconnaissance from the air is carried out for the first time . The Italian Carlo Piazza flies over a Turkish position near Benghazi to observe the enemy .
  • October 23: After a bloody battle near Sciara Sciat, Italian troops carry out a massacre of the Arab population, most of whom are on the side of the Ottomans. In the weeks that followed, the occupying power carried out mass executions in public places and deported around 4,000 Arabs to penal islands such as Tremiti and Ponza . Nevertheless, the Italian advances did not get beyond the coastal oases in the following months. Instead, the troop strength must be increased to 100,000 men.
Italian airships bomb Ottoman positions

Deutsches Reich

Austria-Hungary

Price riot: Police take a stand in front of a grocery store
  • September 17th: In Vienna there is an inflationary revolt among workers, which is violently suppressed by the military. For the first time since 1848, fire is opened again on demonstrators in Vienna. Three people are killed and 149 injured. More than 488 people were arrested, of whom 283 were later sentenced to heavy imprisonment. Justice Minister Viktor von Hochenburger has specifically switched off the jury courts for this purpose.
  • October 5: The unemployed journeyman carpenter Nikola Njegos shoots Viktor von Hochenburger and Minister of Education Karl Stürgkh in the Vienna Reichsrat during a speech by Victor Adler on the revolt on inflation , but misses them.
  • November 3: Prime Minister Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn resigns as a result of the price riot. The Stürgkh Ministry follows the Gautsch III cabinet .
The wedding in Schwarzau am Steinfeld

Great Britain and its colonies

Winston Churchill (highlighted) in Sidney Street, London
  • January 3: In order to arrest members of a gang of Baltic anarchists, law enforcement officers cordon off a block of flats on Sidney Street in London's East End, whereupon - in the presence of Home Secretary Churchill  - a violent exchange of fire takes place, in which most anarchists are killed. Five people, including Jacob Peters , head of the Soviet secret police after the October Revolution, are arrested for alleged membership in the Piaktow gang , but all of them acquitted in the later trial.
  • June 22nd: The British royal couple George V and Maria von Teck are crowned at Westminster Abbey .
Vote in the House of Lords on the Parliament Act of 1911

Portugal and its colonies

  • August 21: Portugal receives a new constitution.
Manuel José de Arriaga

Other events in Europe

Nicaragua

Mexico

Francisco Madero, his wife and rebels; Photo from the first half of the year
  • May 25th: Dictator Porfirio Díaz is overthrown in the course of the Mexican Revolution . He resigns and flees into exile in Paris. Revolutionary leader Francisco Madero is elected as the new President of Mexico in October . Madero leaves all MPs and officers of the Díaz regime in their offices.
  • November 25 or 28: The Ayala plan , Emiliano Zapata's and his supporters' political program for the further course of the Mexican Revolution, is signed. The main points of the plan are: the resignation of Francisco Madero as president and free elections as soon as the country has calmed down, the appointment of Pascual Orozco as leader of the revolution and Emiliano Zapatas as his representative, the distribution of the land to the peasants and ejidos and the emphasis on the rural character of the mexican revolution.

China

Empire of India

George V and Queen Mary at the Delhi Durbar in 1911

Japan

Australia

Africa

  • May 21: French troops invade Morocco and occupy Fez and Rabat . This is justified with a cry for help from Sultan Mulai Abd al-Hafiz , who is currently involved in disputes with rebel tribes. A little later, the sultan denied such a call for help.
The gunboat SMS Panther

business

International exhibitions

Poster for the 1911 Expo in Turin
International Hygiene Exhibition poster

Company formation

Other events

science and technology

Antarctic exploration

The race to the South Pole
Interior of the Terra Nova Hut on Cape Evans
  • JANUARY 4: Robert Falcon Scott reached with its Terra Nova Expedition , the Ross Island , about 3 weeks later than planned because the Terra Nova 20 days in pack ice was included. At Cape Evans we land and, in addition to the expedition members , 17 ponies, 32 dogs, 3 snowmobiles, one of which is lost during unloading, around 30 tons of supplies and a complete, prefabricated hut measuring 15 × 7.7 meters. The hut will be built by January 17th and will serve as winter quarters.
  • January 14th: Amundsen's South Pole expedition arrives with her ship Fram as planned in the Bay of Whales and begins there with the construction of a hut and a tent camp, which will be completed on January 27th and named after Amundsen's ship Framheim .
  • February 4th: The Terra Nova with the “Northern Group” of the British expedition visits Framheim .
  • February 10th: Amundsen and his companions start building depots on the way to the South Pole, which will be completed on April 11th.
  • February 15: The Fram leaves Framheim .
A map of the Ross Sea with the routes of the Terra Nova expedition (green) and that of Amundsen (red)
  • September 8th: Amundsen leaves for the South Pole with seven men, but has to return to Framheim by September 16th.
  • October 20: Amundsen and four men set off again for the South Pole.
  • October 24th: A motorized group of the Terra Nova Expedition sets off towards the South Pole to set up depots for the other teams who will leave the winter quarters in Evans Bay on October 31st.
  • November 17th: Amundsen's expedition reaches the Transantarctic Mountains .
  • November 20: Amundsen's expedition reaches the Axel-Heiberg-Glacier .
  • December 4th: Scott's expedition is held up by a blizzard until December 9th.
  • December 11th: Scott's expedition reaches Beardmore Glacier and crosses it by December 20th.
  • December 14th: Roald Amundsen and his four companions Helmer Hanssen , Olav Bjaaland , Oscar Wisting and Sverre Hassel are the first people to reach the geographic South Pole and establish Camp Polheim .
  • December 18: Amundsen and his companions begin their return journey north.
More expeditions to the Antarctic
Shirase Nobu, the leader of the Japanese Antarctic Expedition from 1910 to 1912
  • February 26th: The Japanese Antarctic expedition , which started on February 11th from New Zealand under Shirase Nobu on the Kainan Maru , reaches the Antarctic. However, due to the bad weather and the formation of pack ice, she soon had to turn back and reached Sydney, Australia on May 1st, where the members of the expedition were stuck without means and had to endure the ridicule of the press. Only with the support of the Australian Tannatt William Edgeworth David can a new expedition that leaves Sydney on November 19th be equipped. However, it did not land for the rest of the year.
  • May 4: Under the command of Wilhelm Filchner , the Deutschland leaves Bremerhaven on the way to Antarctica . After a stopover in Buenos Aires, the Second German Antarctic Expedition will set course for South Georgia on October 4th , which will be reached on October 18th. After a research stay in Grytviken , the Germany expedition set out for the Weddell Sea on December 1 , with its route taking them past the South Sandwich Islands . Among other things, the so-called Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf , the second largest permanent ice cover in Antarctica, is discovered there.
  • December 2: The Australasian Antarctic Expedition sails from Hobart on the ship Aurora under the direction of Australian geologist Douglas Mawson for Macquarie Island , where it arrives on December 11 after surviving stormy weather conditions. A second ship, the Toroa , follows with food and passengers. On December 23, the aurora leaves Macquarie Island and begins exploring the coastal areas.

Arctic exploration

physics

The participants of the first Solvay conference

aviation

Landing on the USS Pennsylvania
  • January 18: The aviation pioneer Eugene Burton Ely succeeds - two months after the first successful start - the first time to land on a ship, on a platform of the heavy cruiser USS Pennsylvania . The catch hook system by Hugh Robinson , which is still used today, is used .
Glenn Curtiss

astronomy

List of asteroids discovered in 1911
No. and name Diameter
(km)
Date of discovery Explorer
(708) Raphaela 21.4 3 February Joseph Helffrich
(709) Fringilla 96.6 3 February Joseph Helffrich
(710) Gertrude 26.8 February 28 Johann Palisa
(711) Marmulla ? 1st March Johann Palisa
(712) Boliviana 127.6 19th March Gustav Witt
(713) Luscinia 105.5 April 18 Joseph Helffrich
(714) Ulula 39.2 May 18 Joseph Helffrich
(715) Transvaalia 28.6 April 22 Harry Edwin Wood
(716) Berkeley 21.3 30th July Johann Palisa
(717) Wisibada 31.0 26th of August Franz Kaiser
(718) Erida 72.9 September 29th Johann Palisa
(719) Albert ? October 3 Johann Palisa
(720) Bohlinia 33.7 October 18 Franz Kaiser
(721) Tabora 76.1 October 18 Franz Kaiser
(722) Frieda ? October 18 Johann Palisa
(723) Hammonia 35.7 October 21 Johann Palisa
(724) Hapag ? October 21 Johann Palisa
(725) Amanda 21.5 October 21 Johann Palisa
(726) Joëlla 44.0 22nd of November Joel Hastings Metcalf

Teaching and Research

Others

Ponte del Risorgimento
The Titanic about to be launched

Culture

Architecture and monument construction

Floor plan of the Curiohaus upon completion

Visual arts

Caricature on the Bremen artists' dispute
La strada entra nella casa
The yellow cow , oil on canvas

Movie

Asta Nielsen on the set of The Black Dream

literature

Fashion

  • The corset is increasingly being removed from women's fashion.
  • The French fashion designer Paul Poiret designs the so-called " hobble skirt ".
  • In Paris, the trouser dress comes into fashion at the same time .

Music and theater

John Singer Sargent : Dame Ethel Smyth
Vaslav Nijinsky as Petrushka of the world premiere (with Igor Stravinsky left)

Others

company

religion

Church of the Immaculate Conception in Moscow

Disasters

  • March 23: The Australian passenger liner Yongala is sunk by a cyclone off Townsville . All 122 people on board are killed. To this day, her sinking is one of the largest shipwrecks in Australia.
The burning Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .

Sports

figure skating

fencing

Soccer

Air sports

Motorsport

For entries of athletics world records, see the respective discipline under athletics .

Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize picture
Nobel Price for physics Wilhelm Wien
(1864–1928)
Deutsches ReichThe German Imperium Deutsches Reich "For his discoveries regarding the laws of thermal radiation" ( Vienna's law of displacement ) Wilhelm Vienna
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Marie Curie
(1867-1934)
Third French RepublicThird French Republic France (born in Warsaw , Congress Poland ) Congress PolandCongress Poland  “In recognition of the merit she has earned in the development of chemistry through the discovery of the elements radium and polonium , through the characterization of radium and its isolation in a metallic state, and through her investigations into the nature and chemical compounds of this important element " Marie Curie
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Allvar Gullstrand
(1862-1930)
SwedenSweden Sweden "For his work on the dioptric of the eye " Allvar Gullstrand
Nobel Prize in literature Maurice Maeterlinck
(1862-1949)
BelgiumBelgium Belgium "Due to his versatile literary effectiveness, especially his dramatic creations, which are characterized by a wealth of imagination and a poetic idealism, which, sometimes in the veiled form of the fairy tale game, reveals deep inspiration and mysteriously addresses the reader's feeling and intuition" Maurice Maeterlinck
Nobel Peace Prize Tobias Asser
(1838-1913)
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands Organizer of the International Conference on Private Law in The Hague Tobias Asser
Alfred Hermann Fried
(1864–1921)
Austrian EmpireEmpire of Austria Austria Founder of the magazine "Die Waffen Nieder" (later renamed " Die Friedens-Warte ") Alfred Hermann Fried

Historical maps and views

Bremen free port 1911

Born

January

Bruno Kreisky, 1980

February

Ronald Reagan, 1983

March

L. Ron Hubbard, 1950

April

Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen, ca.1965

May

Max Frisch on the CHF 20 commemorative coin 2011

June

July

  • 0July 2nd: Anja Ignatius , Finnish violinist and music teacher († 1995)
  • 0July 2: Reg Parnell , English racing driver and team boss († 1964)
  • 0July 2: Bohdan Wodiczko , Polish conductor and music teacher († 1985)
  • 0July 4th: Franco Ferrara , Italian conductor († 1985)
  • 0July 4th: Malte Jaeger , German actor († 1991)
  • 0July 4: Mitch Miller , American orchestra conductor and oboe player († 2010)
  • 0July 4th: Frederick Seitz , American physicist († 2008)
Georges Pompidou, 1965

August

Robert Taylor

September

  • 0September 2: René Amengual Astaburuaga , Chilean composer († 1954)
  • 0September 2: Floyd Council , American blues musician († 1976)
  • 0September 2: Werner Döring , German physicist († 2006)
  • 0September 3: Ernst Meister , German poet, radio play author, narrator and playwright († 1979)
  • 0September 6: Zeke Clements , American country musician († 1994)
  • 0September 7th: Henri de France , French engineer, developed the SECAM color television system († 1986)
  • 0September 7th: Todor Zhivkov , Bulgarian politician, head of government and president († 1998)
  • 0September 8: Tomasz Kiesewetter , Polish composer, conductor and music teacher († 1992)
  • 0September 8: Alois Pisnik , politician of the GDR († 2004)
  • 0September 8: Lee Wallard , American racing car driver († 1963)
  • 0September 9: Michel Aunaud , French racing car driver († 1982)
  • 0September 9: Richard Baer , German National Socialist, commandant of the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp († 1963)
  • 0September 9: John Gorton , Prime Minister of Australia († 2002)
  • 0September 9: Gerhard Gerlich , German politician († 1962)
  • 0September 9: Paul Goodman , American social philosopher and poet († 1972)
  • September 10: Hans Baumgartner , Swiss photographer († 1996)
  • September 10: Renée Simonot , French actress and voice actress († 2021)
  • September 11: Bola de Nieve , Cuban musician († 1971)
  • September 11: Albrecht Schönherr , German theologian and bishop († 2009)
  • September 13: Roger Arnaldez , French scholar of Islam († 2006)
  • September 13: Bill Monroe , American musician († 1996)
  • September 14: Leslie Graham , British motorcycle racer († 1953)
  • September 15: Emil Botta , Romanian actor and poet († 1977)
  • September 15: Joseph Pevney , American film director, actor, film producer and screenwriter († 2008)
  • September 16: Charles Amer , British entrepreneur and football club president of Middlesbrough FC († 2012)
  • September 17th: Otto Daiker , German motorcycle racer († 1968)
  • September 17: Wolfgang von Groote , German officer and military historian († 2000)
  • September 17: Theodor Piffl-Perčević , Austrian politician and Minister of Education († 1994)
  • September 18: Helmut Braselmann , German field handball player († 1993)
  • September 18: Karl-Heinz Grindler , German soccer player († 2004)
  • September 19: William Golding , British writer († 1993)
  • September 19: Allan Pettersson , Swedish composer and violist († 1980)
  • September 20: Alfred Naujocks , German National Socialist († 1966)
  • September 21: Erika Engel-Wojahn , German children's book author, poet and illustrator († 2004)
  • September 21: Artur Missbach , German politician († 1988)
  • September 22nd: Heinrich Krug , German water polo player
  • September 22: Franz Xaver Unertl , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 1970)
  • September 23: Lajzer Ajchenrand , Polish poet († 1985)
  • September 23: Frank Moss , American politician († 2003)
  • September 23: Franz Wagner , German and Austrian soccer player († 1974)
  • September 23: Sally Sweetland , American soprano († 2015)
  • September 24th: Marcel Chauvigné , French rower († 1972)
  • September 24: Haim Schwarzbaum , Israeli orientalist and narrative researcher († 1983)
  • September 24: Konstantin Tschernenko , Russian politician († 1985)
  • September 26: Bruno Venturini , Italian football goalkeeper († 1991)
  • September 28: Ellsworth Vines , American tennis player († 1994)
  • September 29: Takakichi Asō , Japanese entrepreneur and politician († 1980)
  • September 30: Ed Danowski , American football player († 1997)

October

November

  • 0November 1: Samuel Warren Carey , Australian geologist († 2002)
  • 0November 1: Otto Eidenschink , German mountaineer († 2004)
  • 0November 1: Donald William Kerst , American physicist († 1993)
  • 0November 1: Henri Troyat , French writer († 2007)
  • 0November 1: Sidney Wood , American tennis player († 2009)
  • 0November 2: Henry Cassirer , American journalist and writer († 2004)
  • 0November 2: Paul Carell , German Nazi functionary, author († 1997)
  • 0November 2: Odysseas Elytis , Greek poet († 1996)
  • 0November 3: Rosa Alarco Larrabure , Peruvian musicologist, composer and choir director († 1980)
  • 0November 3: Karl Bodmer , German motorcycle racer († 1955)
  • 0November 3: Vladimir Ussachevski , Russian-American composer († 1990)
  • 0November 4: Shimizu Osamu , Japanese composer († 1986)
  • 0November 5: Nicola Agnozzi , Italian bishop († 2008)
  • 0November 5: Marie Osborne , American film actress († 2010)
  • 0November 5: Roy Rogers , American country singer and actor († 1998)
  • 0November 6: Pawel Lisizian , Russian-Armenian baritone († 2004)
  • 0November 7th: Hans Pesser , Austrian football player and coach († 1986)
  • 0November 9: Ed Kahn , American football player († 1945)
  • November 10: Anton Perwein , Austrian field handball player († 1981)
  • November 11: Hans Bothmann , second head of the Chelmno extermination camp († 1946)
  • November 11th: Alfred Fane , British racing car driver and aviator († 1942)
  • November 11: Roberto Matta , Chilean surrealist painter († 2002)
  • November 11: Paul Rolland , American music teacher and violist († 1978)
  • November 13: Karl Baur , German pilot, flight instructor and engineer († 1963)
  • November 13th: Heinz von Foerster , Austrian cyberneticist († 2002)
  • November 15: Otto Baum , German officer of the Waffen-SS, last SS-Oberführer († 1998)
  • November 15: Kay Walsh , British dancer and actress († 2005)
  • November 17th: Heli Finkenzeller , German actress († 1991)
  • November 17: William Tannen , American film and stage actor († 1976)
  • November 18: Attilio Bertolucci , Italian poet, literary critic and translator († 2000)
  • November 18: Pierre Bonnard , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 2003)
  • November 18: Herbert Alois Kraus , Austrian journalist and politician († 2008)
  • November 20: David Seymour , Polish photographer († 1956)
  • November 20: Jean Shiley , American athlete († 1998)
  • November 20: Paul Zielinski , German football player († 1966)
  • November 24: Erik Bergman , Finnish composer († 2006)
  • November 25: Kurt Lütgen , German writer († 1992)
  • November 26th: Savino Guglielmetti , Italian gymnast († 2006)
  • November 26: Samuel Reshevsky , American chess player († 1992)
  • November 27: Curt Biegler , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 2000)
  • November 28: Margot Busak , German entrepreneur († 1992)
  • November 30th: Mori Arimasa , Japanese philosopher († 1976)
  • November 30th: Jorge Negrete , Mexican actor and singer († 1953)
  • November 30th: Hans Nielsen , German actor († 1965)
  • November 30th: Tamura Taijirō , Japanese writer († 1983)
  • November 30th: Boris Taslitzky , French socialist realism painter († 2005)
  • November 30th: Martin Teich , German television meteorologist († 2004)

December

Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain
Klaus Fuchs (around 1940)
  • December 29th: Klaus Fuchs , German-British nuclear physicist, Soviet "nuclear spy" († 1988)
  • December 29: Marcel Prawy , Austrian dramaturge and opera critic († 2003)
  • December 29: Otto Probst , Austrian politician, transport minister and national councilor († 1978)
  • December 30th: Walt Brown , American racing driver († 1951)
  • December 30th: Margret Thomann-Hegner , German painter and graphic artist († 2005)

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

January February

March April

Monument to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff in Rotterdam

May June

July August

  • 0July 3: Ernst Hoeltzer , German telegraph operator and photographer (* 1835)
Maria Pia of Savoy and Portugal

September October

Joseph Pulitzer

November December

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1911  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. https://m.klassiker-der-luftfahrt.de/geschichte/flugzeuge/fruehe-frachtluftfahrt/625502