Max Reinhardt (originally Maximilian Goldmann ; born September 9, 1873 in Baden (Lower Austria) ; died October 31, 1943 in New York ) was an Austrian theater and film director , artistic director , theater producer and theater founder . He founded the Salzburg Festival on August 22, 1920 with his Jedermann production .
Through the dramaturgically motivated use of the revolving stage , plastic decorations, the work with fixed side towers and stairs as performance options, the circular horizon with its depth, the indirect lighting, the play on podiums that protrude into the auditorium and on the arena stage , the crowd control or The Kammerspiel concept provided Reinhardt with diverse, broadly effective impulses for the renewal of theatrical art.
Origin and education
Reinhardt's parents were the Hungarian small trader Wilhelm Goldmann and his wife Rosa, née Wengraf. Wilhelm Goldmann's first company had just gone bankrupt during the founders' crash when Max was born on September 9, 1873 in Baden near Vienna, where the family spent the summer.
After attending secondary school and community school, the school leaver, known as the “quiet, very shy boy”, initially completed an apprenticeship in banking, but also took acting lessons from the Burgtheater statist Rudolf Perak. Max Goldmann made his debut in April 1890 at a Viennese private theater, the "Fürstlich Sulkowsky Privat-Theater" in Matzleinsdorf . At that time he took the stage name Reinhardt - in 1904 the name of the entire family was changed from Goldmann to Reinhardt. Allegedly the old Reinhardt from Theodor Storm's novella Immensee was the model for the name.
Even as a young actor, Reinhardt liked to portray old men who suited him very much - "I was able to hide my shyness behind a long white beard." After his first appearances, Reinhardt took private lessons from the former royal Saxon court actor and conservatory professor Emil Bürde. He got his first permanent engagement at a suburban theater, the Volkstheater in Rudolfsheim . Outside Vienna, Reinhardt first appeared in September 1893 at the Salzburg City Theater , where he played a total of 49 different roles during one season. In 1894 Otto Brahm , the designated director of the German Theater in Berlin , saw the actor in Rudolfsheim and offered him an engagement in Berlin.
The Reinhardt stages
From 1902 until the beginning of Nazi rule in 1933, Max Reinhardt worked as a director on various stages and founded theaters himself, especially in Berlin, where he built up a real theater empire with the Reinhardt theaters . His brother Edmund (1871-1929) supported him as impresario and manager. Reinhardt opened a new dimension to German-speaking theater through powerful productions and a targeted interaction of stage design , language, music and dance.
In 1910 Reinhardt married the actress Else Heims (1878-1958), with whom he had two sons, Wolfgang Reinhardt and Gottfried Reinhardt . Both sons became film producers in Hollywood . Reinhardt lived in the Magnus House from 1911 to 1921 .
In 1911 he hosted the world premiere of Hugo von Hofmannsthal's Jedermann in the Berlin Circus Schumann and the world premiere of Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss , for which he was engaged by Ernst von Schuch at the Semperoper in Dresden. Also in 1911, on December 23rd, Reinhardt Karl Gustav Vollmoeller's Das Mirakel staged in London's Olympia Hall. With the above-mentioned productions he gained a great deal of international attention, with his international fame, especially in Europe and the USA, being due to the Miracle production by Karl Gustav Vollmoeller. With the production of the Rosenkavalier , Reinhardt also became an early pioneer of modern music theater by demanding acting performances from singers.
In April 1918 he acquired Leopoldskron Castle , a Salzburg castle from the 18th century with large halls, a representative staircase, 40 rooms and a large park that was in a state of disrepair. Reinhardt had the castle rebuilt and renovated the staircase, the great hall and the marble hall. A small garden theater was created in the castle park. Reinhardt had theater productions shown in his castle in which the audience moved from room to room. Leopoldskron Palace became an important meeting place for writers, directors, composers and actors.
After it was Reinhardt in the immediate postwar years found it increasingly difficult to maintain its pre-eminence to the Berlin theaters, Leopold Jessner , the new director of the National Drama Theater in Berlin , his first successes began to celebrate on the Gendarmenmarkt and Reinhardt's monumental project from the Grosses Schauspielhaus , the was unable to meet the expectations set in it, Reinhardt decided to give up the management of his Berlin theaters and to break away from Berlin. In October 1920 he announced in the Deutsches Theater that he would be leaving Berlin and that the management of his theater would be transferred to his close colleague Felix Hollaender . Reinhardt moved to Salzburg. It was there that he initiated the Salzburg Festival together with the writer Hugo von Hofmannsthal and others .
When his Berlin theaters got into difficult economic waters under his successors, Reinhardt was again more present in Berlin from 1924. It was not until 1932 that he finally gave up the management of his Berlin theater company. In the same year he directed a radio play production of Heinrich von Kleist's play Prince Friedrich von Homburg for the German Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft . After the seizure of power of the Nazis in Germany who wanted to keep him at first, by granting an "honorary Aryan stem," he shifted his work to Austria, France and the USA, where he gave guest performances and Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream filmed (1935).
In 1935 he married the actress Helene Thimig (1889–1974) from the famous Viennese actor dynasty. Her father Hugo Thimig was an actor and at times director of the Vienna Burgtheater . Her brothers Hermann Thimig and Hans Thimig also worked as actors and directors all their lives.
Escape to the USA
In October 1937, Max Reinhardt and his wife fled to the United States with his wife because of the increasing anti-Semitism in Austria and the persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany. After his escape he wrote to the Hitler government: “The decision to finally break away from the Deutsches Theater is of course not easy for me. With this possession I am not only losing the fruit of 37 years of activity, I am also losing the soil that I built all my life and in which I grew myself. I'm losing my home. "
Reinhardt first worked in Hollywood, where he founded a theater and film academy. He learned from the press that in April 1938 his Salzburg property, Schloss Leopoldskron, was expropriated. In 1940 he became a citizen of the United States. In 1941 he moved to New York with his wife. He signed an appeal from prominent Austrian emigrants to join a planned “Austrian Battalion” for the liberation of Nazi Germany.
On October 31, 1943, Max Reinhardt died a few weeks after his 70th birthday in his New York hotel from the consequences of several strokes caused by a dog bite.
Reinhardt is buried in the tomb of a small mausoleum in the Jewish Westchester Hills Cemetery, Hastings-on-Hudson , Westchester County , New York. The family viewed the burial in New York State only as a “temporary solution” until the end of World War II, but the bereaved later left it at this grave site, as Reinhardt had shown himself determined during his lifetime not to enter either Germany or Austria again ".
Important places of activity
In 1901 he was a co-founder of the Schall und Rauch cabaret, developed in Berlin from the Überbrettl (later the Kleine Theater Unter den Linden). From 1902 to 1905 he took over its management - in addition to the New Theater (later the Theater on Schiffbauerdamm ).
In October 1905 he took over the leading traditional German theater building with the Deutsches Theater on Schumannstrasse in Berlin. “The nonsensual literary theater Otto Brahms was no longer successful. The trustee of naturalistic style unity, through which style breaker Reinhardt also finds himself in a marginal position, is pushed into the Lessingtheater by the landlord and owner Adolph L'Arronge [...] ”In the same month he opened the drama school of the German Theater to“ train young people ” teaching that has a golden ground ", and at the same time" spreading ideals whose ground is not always golden ". Reinhardt founded the Kammerspiele in the adjoining building of the Deutsches Theater.
From 1915 to 1918 he also headed the Berlin Volksbühne .
In 1919 the large theater in Berlin was built from the former Circus Renz , later Schumann, according to plans by Hans Poelzig (renamed Friedrichstadt-Palast after the war ). As a thank you for the help and support of his friend Karl Gustav Vollmoeller , his arrangement of Aeschylus ' Orestie , directed by Reinhardt, was performed at the opening . Reinhardt headed the Great Theater until 1920. It was here in particular that he developed the new style of mass directing with large extra choirs and elaborate stage machinery. With this form of show theater he became internationally known. The large theater was also derided as the "Reinhardt Circus" because of routine productions.
In 1920 he founded the Salzburg Festival in collaboration with the writer Hugo von Hofmannsthal, the composer Richard Strauss, the set designer Alfred Roller and the Vienna court opera director Franz Schalk . The first performance, Hofmannsthal's Jedermann , took place on August 22, 1920 on Domplatz. Reinhardt directed the drama of the Salzburg Festival for 18 years . In 1937 he directed Goethe's Faust for the last time, for which Clemens Holzmeister built the famous Faust city for him in the Felsenreitschule .
After the “ Anschluss ” of Austria in March 1938, Siegfried Jacobsohn's Max Reinhardt monograph was burned when the books were burned on the Residenzplatz in Salzburg on April 30, 1938. When it was burned, the following was shouted: “May the fire also consume abuse and shame, which happened to our German city from this junk. May the city of Mozart be free and German ! "
From April 1, 1924 to 1933 - and thus partly at the same time as the Deutsches Theater - Reinhardt headed the Theater in der Josefstadt in Vienna, which he acquired and converted through his theater company. The theater in der Josefstadt, which dates from the early nineteenth century, was rebuilt from 1923 to 1924 in the style of the Teatro La Fenice in Venice , suggested by Reinhardt .
The glamorous ensemble led by Reinhardt quickly gained international fame, and many of the actors were able to build a successful film career. The ensemble included Hans Albers , Albert Bassermann , Else Bassermann , Herbert Berghof , Theodor Danegger , Lili Darvas , Vilma Degischer , Ernst Deutsch , Wilhelm Dieterle , Tilla Durieux , Lucie Englisch , OW Fischer , Egon Friedell , Rudolf Forster , Adrienne Gessner , Käthe Gold , Marte Harell , Paul Hartmann , Maria Holst , Oskar Homolka , Attila Hörbiger , Gusti Huber , Hans Jaray , Oskar Karlweis , Fritz Kortner , Hilde Krahl , Fred Liewehr , Peter Lorre , Christl Mardayn , Alexander Moissi , Hans Moser , Erich Nikowitz , Hans Olden , Max Paulsen , Otto Preminger , Luise Rainer , Hortense Raky , Richard Romanowsky , Annie Rosar , Marianne Schönauer , Oskar Sima , Camilla Spira , Hans Thimig , Johanna Terwin-Moissi , Helene Thimig , Hermann Thimig , Hugo Thimig , Jane Tilden , Gustav Waldau , Gisela Wer District , Paula Wessely , Lina Woiwode . Werner Krauss was one of the founders of the Josefstadt Ensemble in 1924, but never appeared at this theater.
On April 1, 1924, The Servant of Two Lords was staged by Carlo Goldoni in Reinhardt's direction to reopen . The next Reinhardt production followed on April 9th: Kabale und Liebe by Friedrich Schiller (set and costumes by Alfred Roller ). On April 16, Reinhardt's new production of Hugo von Hofmannsthal's The Difficult (set by Oskar Strnad ) was shown.
Other directorial work during his time as director were:
- Lady Leprechaun of Calderon de la Barca (May 3, 1924)
- The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare (May 26, 1924)
- Beautiful Women of Rey (October 14, 1924)
- A Midsummer Night's Dream by Shakespeare (February 4, 1925)
- King Lear by Shakespeare (March 13, 1925) 
- Society of John Galsworthy (8 April 1925)
- Juarez and Maximilian by Franz Werfel (May 26, 1925)
- Riviera of Ferenc Molnár (23 December 1925)
- The Bourdet Prisoner (May 21, 1926)
- Dorothea Angermann by Gerhart Hauptmann , world premiere (November 20, 1926)
- Victoria by William Somerset Maugham (November 27, 1926)
- The good comrade of Tristan Bernard (11 May 1927)
- Periphery by František Langer (June 1, 1927)
- The Living Corpse of Leo Tolstoy (October 31, 1928)
- Watters-Hopkins Artists (November 28, 1928)
- The Emperor of America by George Bernard Shaw (January 11, 1930)
- Bourdet's Weak Sex (May 8, 1931)
- What You Want From Shakespeare (November 11, 1931)
- Mademoiselle by Jacques Deval (June 10, 1932)
At the suggestion of Reinhardt, the Vienna " Max Reinhardt Seminar " was founded in 1929 .
The actors in the theater also included artists who were no longer allowed or wanted to perform in Germany after 1933 and moved to Vienna, like Reinhardt himself. After the end of his tenure, he staged under his successor Otto Preminger, who was in office from 1933 to 1935 :
- Faust I by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (September 4, 1933)
- The beloved voice of Jean Cocteau with We want to dream by Sacha Guitry (February 21, 1934)
- Six people are looking for an author by Luigi Pirandello (March 6, 1934)
- Maria Stuart von Schiller (March 22, 1934)
From 1935 Reinhardt prepared to emigrate to the United States. During Ernst Lothar's time as director (1935–1938), Reinhardt directed again: In a night by Franz Werfel (October 5, 1937). This was Reinhardt's last work in Europe.
Reinhardt had had a hard time with the American theater since his first guest appearances in the United States, since “the American” especially loved “sensational pieces or sentimental kitsch romance novels”. He wanted “to forget the burden after the day and be able to either open his mouth and nose, laugh or cry. He needs life because he is still a child or at least wants to be outside of the 'business'. And he imagines 'life' to be either sensational or sweetened, at least always in a way that he does not experience it. ”As much as Reinhardt was fascinated by the long running times of individual US productions, he remained as a representative of a 'cultivated' European taste in theater, an actor and ensemble theater with material from which the viewer can learn, at the same time alien to US theater.
In 1937 he opened the Max Reinhardt Workshop for Stage, Screen and Radio , a kind of theater and film academy, in Hollywood , but the start of classes was delayed until June 1938, as a suitable school building could not be found for a time. His wife Helene Thimig also worked as a lecturer and director for the Max Reinhardt Workshop , which eventually moved into the Columbia Broadcasting System Building on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood.
After Reinhardt withdrew from active participation in the workshop in 1941, the couple moved to New York. Reinhardt had repeatedly strived to relocate his sphere of activity entirely to New York, which he most likely expected to achieve "continuity in his previous life's work". "His dream was to break through the commercial mechanisms of the production of pieces and to move the trust theater, which he considered illegitimate, to a standing stage largely determined by artistic concerns with a permanent ensemble and a demanding repertoire planned for the long term [...]."
Most of the estate is kept in a special collection at the University of Binghamton (New York) . A Max Reinhardt Research Center existed in Salzburg for several years. Today this is attached to the archive of the Salzburg Festival, with copies of many documents from Binghamton also being available. The Vienna Theater Museum is keeping other parts of the estate.
Theater and film history significance
In a conversation with his later dramaturge Arthur Kahane in 1901, in a conversation with his later dramaturge Arthur Kahane, the young Reinhardt, in contrast to the naturalistic theater of the 19th century, already committed himself to a festive and opulent theater: “What I have in mind is a theater that gives people joy again. That she leads out of the gray everyday misery beyond herself into a serene and pure air of beauty. I feel how people are fed up with finding their own misery again and again in the theater and how they long for brighter colors and a heightened life. "
At the center of Reinhardt's theater was the art of acting and the acting personality, from which the entire art of theater should start, as he emphasized in 1924: “Today and for all time, the human being must be the focus of all acting, the human being as an actor. Where the actor is also a dramatic writer, he has the power to create a world in his own image and thus awaken drama to its highest form of life - like Shakespeare and Molière. Whoever has anything to do with theater should be an actor. Whether he practices the art of acting or not is the secondary question. ”Reinhardt's ideal therefore represented a theater that did not need the director as a mediator between author and actor. The fact that the directors are nevertheless necessary is only due to the fact that stage writers do not really understand their craft.
Max Reinhardt was also far more interested in the film medium than most theater people of his time. He has made his own films as a director and occasionally as a producer. His first production for the film was Sumurûn (1910). He then founded his own film company in Vienna and was to direct the literary film adaptation of The Miracle (1912). After controversies about the miracle production that ran in the Vienna Rotunda in 1912, Reinhardt withdrew from the project. The author of the play and Reinhardt's friend and intimate Karl Gustav Vollmoeller, in consultation with the Berlin producer Joseph Menchen, got the French director Michel Carré , who finished the film after his script.
In 1913 Reinhardt signed a contract with Paul Davidson's Berlin projection company "Union" (PAGU) . For a fee of 200,000 Reichsmarks (1,085,597 euros) he shot the silent films produced in Italy: The Island of the Blessed and A Venetian Night , a work by his friend Karl Gustav Vollmoeller. In both films, Max Reinhardt demanded a lot from his cameraman Karl Freund , as he also demanded special shots such as the lagoon in the moonlight .
The island of the blessed was particularly praised by the criticism because Reinhardt “placed greater emphasis on the clarity of expression and the animation of the facial expression”. The film, which is striking because of its erotic style of play, was set partly in antiquity, in which sea gods , nymphs and fauns appeared and the actors appeared naked, and partly in the present, adapted to strict customs. As was often the case in the silent films of the time, the actors, most of whom came from Berlin, had to embody double roles: one in the past and one in the present. Sun played Wilhelm Diegelmann and Willy Prager both the narrow-minded fathers and the sea gods, and Ernst Matray a bachelor and a Faun. Leopoldine Konstantin mimed the Circe . However, large parts of the film should have fallen victim to film censorship. In addition to nude scenes, these were also "the first sex scenes filmed by a master craftsman", which were described as follows in the censorship report:
“In the second act 'People in Sight' the scenes of the naked naiads have to be removed until the moment when they turn around and jump into water. With the exception of the scene where the faun is stabbed by Cupid's arrow and makes convulsive convulsions, where he touches the girl and carries it away, the scenes where the girl lies on the ground and is caressed by the faun, where she is the sea god, must be removed wants to snatch away from the Faun, so that the scene only begins again when the young man saves the girl. In the III. Act from the Philistine scene on the island of the blessed, where Circe is sitting on the bench with the two old people, everything must be removed from the moment when her servant brings the magic potion. Furthermore, the love scene between Circe and the two bachelors has to stay away. The film may only be shown if all of the scenes listed here are omitted. "
In fact, it was not cut as prescribed.
Actors from the Deutsches Theater also played in A Venetian Night by Karl Gustav Vollmoeller (1914). Maria Carmi played the bride, Alfred Abel the young stranger, and this time Reinhardt gave Ernst Matray the roles of Anselmus and Pipistrello. The shooting, which began at the Venice train station , was particularly noticeable because the Venetians present were incited by a fanatic against the German-speaking filmmakers, who subsequently threw themselves on the film apparatus and blocked the recordings. When the police arrived, however, it was not the troublemakers who were arrested, but the filmmakers. Only after the intervention of a German consul could filming be continued and completed in the presence of the police.
1935 staged Reinhardt his only film in the US, A Midsummer Night's Dream ( A Midsummer Night's Dream ), along with William Dieterle (film music of Erich Wolfgang Korngold by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy ). The film for Warner Brothers was produced at great expense and had a star cast, but it had little success at the box office. Reinhardt also discovered Olivia de Havilland during this time , who made her debut in this film. But his theater work also received strong stimuli from film. Since he transferred the stylization concept of his theater too much to the film and did not know how to use the film's own means of expression creatively, his films were only coldly received by critics and audiences.
In contrast to many other stage directors who considered the " movie " for low entertainment, Max Reinhardt encouraged his actors to work for the film. He founded the drama school in Berlin and the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna, a large number of which have made careers in film. The actors who belonged to the ensemble of the Berlin cabaret Schall und Rauch , founded by Reinhardt (including Trude Hesterberg and Rosa Valetti ) , have also gained importance .
- 1909 - Professorship title awarded by the Duke of Coburg
- 1912 - Knight of the Legion of Honor
- 1918 - proposed for elevation to the nobility; due to the end of the Habsburg monarchy , no decision was made
- 1930 - Dr. hc in Frankfurt and Kiel
- 1930 Commander 2nd class of the Danish Order of Dannebrog
- 1933 - Dr. hc in Oxford
The following were named after Max Reinhardt:
- 1947 Reinhardtstrasse in Berlin-Mitte (renaming of the former Karlstrasse)
- 1949 Max-Reinhardt-Gasse in the Penzing district of Vienna
- the Max-Reinhardt-Gymnasium in Berlin-Hellersdorf (was closed in 2008 due to falling student numbers)
- 2001 the asteroid (16705) Reinhardt
- Postage stamps
Austria (1973), the Deutsche Bundespost Berlin (1957), the Deutsche Post der GDR (1973) and the Deutsche Bundespost (1993) issued commemorative stamps.
100 Pf special postage stamp of the German Federal Post Office (1993)
Bust at the municipal theater in Baden (Lower Austria)
Max Reinhardt Monument in front of the Deutsches Theater in Berlin
Bust for Max Reinhardt in the exhibition room of the Magnus House
- Memorial plaques
Commemorative plaque on Fontanestrasse 8 in Berlin-Grunewald
Berlin memorial plaque on Fontanestrasse 8 in Berlin-Grunewald
Memorial plaque at the Magnushaus in Berlin-Mitte
Memorial to the founding fathers of the Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin-Mitte
Stolperstein Salzburg , in front of Leopoldskron Palace (Leopoldskronstrasse 56–58)
- Selected letters, speeches, writings and scenes from director's books . Edited by Franz Hadamowsky . Hollinek, Vienna 1963.
- I am nothing but a theater man. Letters, speeches, essays, interviews, conversations . Edited by Hugo Fetting . Henschel, Berlin 1989.
- Life for the theater. Writings and personal testimonials . Edited by Hugo Fetting. Argon, Berlin 1991.
- Director's book for Hugo von Hofmannsthal's "Jedermann". Volume I: Facsimile. Edited by the Salzburg Festival Fund. Volume II: Edition & Comments. Edited by Harald Gschwandtner, Evelyn Annuß, Edda Fuhrich and Norbert Christian Wolf for the Salzburg Festival Fund. Hollitzer Verlag, Vienna 2020 ISBN 978-3-99012-622-6 .
Arthur Schnitzler's correspondence with Max Reinhardt and his colleagues . Edited by R. Wagner. Müller, Salzburg 1971.
- Hermann Bahr, Arthur Schnitzler: Correspondence, records, documents 1891–1931. Edited by Kurt Ifkovits, Martin Anton Müller. Göttingen: Wallstein 2018, ISBN 978-3-8353-3228-7 ( publisher presentation ) A letter from Reinhardt to Schnitzler and vice versa
- Gusti Adler: Max Reinhardt. His life. Biography on the basis of his notes for a self-biography, his letters, speeches and personal memories . Festungsverlag, Salzburg 1965.
- Heinrich Braulich: Max Reinhardt. Theater between dream and reality . 2nd edition. Henschel, Berlin 1969.
- Christian Engeli: Max Reinhardt against Berlin. A tax dispute from the 20s , in: Yearbook "The Bear of Berlin", ed. v. Association for the History of Berlin , 28th year, Berlin 1979.
- Christian Engeli: Four letters from Max Reinhardt on the tax dispute , in: Yearbook “The Bear of Berlin”, ed. v. Association for the History of Berlin , 28th year, Berlin 1979.
- Leonhard M. Fiedler: Max Reinhardt. With testimonials and photo documents . 4th edition Rowohlt, Reinbek 1994, ISBN 3-499-50228-3 (Rowohlt's monographs; 228).
- Christoph Funke: Max Reinhardt . Morgenbuch, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-371-00405-8 .
- Siegfried Jacobsohn : Max Reinhardt . 1st edition Erich Reiss, Berlin 1910 (This edition covers the seasons 1902 to 1910 - with illustrations).
- Siegfried Jacobsohn: Max Reinhardt . 5th edition. Erich Reiss, Berlin 1921 (This edition covers the seasons 1902 to 1919 - without images).
- Gusti Adler: “But don't forget the Chinese nightingales!” Memories of Max Reinhardt . Dtv, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-423-10111-3 .
- Julius Bab : The theater of the present . Weber, Leipzig 1928 (illustrated monographs on the history of theater; 1).
- Huntley Carter: The Theater of Max Reinhardt . Blom Books, New York 1964 (reprint of the New York 1914 edition).
- Leonhard M. Fiedler: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4 , pp. 357-359 ( version ). In:
- Benno Fleischmann: Max Reinhardt. the rediscovery of the baroque theater . Neff, Vienna 1948.
- Bruno Frank : The magician . Berlin 1929. - Novella about a “magician” of the theater, which is also understood as a homage to Max Reinhardt.
- Bruno Frank : Reinhardt in Hollywood. In: Das Neue Tage-Buch , Volume 6, Issue 36, September 3, 1938, pages 858–859 (beginnings of the Max Reinhardt Workshop 1938).
- Fritz Göttler: Surface ripples. Max Reinhardt's "Island of the Blessed" 1913 . In: Peter Buchka (Ed.): German moments. A sequence of images on a typology of the film (off-texts; 1). Edition Belleville, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-923646-49-6 , p. 14f. (on p. 15: picture from the film).
- Heinz Herald: Max Reinhardt. Portrait of a theater man . Rowohlt, Hamburg 1953.
- Susanne Höper: Max Reinhardt. Buildings and projects. A contribution to the history of architecture and theater in the first third of the 20th century . Dissertation, University of Göttingen 1994.
- Johannes Hofinger: The Leopoldskron Files. Max Reinhardt. The castle, Aryanization and restitution . Dissertation, University of Salzburg 2005.
- Franz Horch (Ed.), The schedules of the German theater from 1905–1930 . Piper, Munich 1930.
- Max Reinhardt .
- Max Reinhardt's game plans, 1905–1930 .
- Anthony Hostetter: Max Reinhardt's great theater. Its artistic goals, plannings and operations 1910–1933 . Mellen Publ., Lewiston, NY 2003, ISBN 0-7734-6802-1 .
- Heinrich Huesmann: Reinhardt World Theater. Buildings, venues, productions . Prestel, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-7913-0510-7 (with the contribution: "Max Reinhardt's American game plans" by Leonhard M. Fiedler).
- Christoph Kammertöns : Max Reinhardt , in: Elisabeth Schmierer (Hrsg.): Lexikon der Oper , Volume 2, Laaber, Laaber 2002, ISBN 978-3-89007-524-2 , pp. 445–448 (focus on opera / musical staging Reinhardt ).
- Yun Geol Kim: The significance of Max Reinhardt in the development of modern directorial theater: Reinhardt's theater as a suggestive institution . WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier 2006, ISBN 3-88476-795-X .
- Peter W. Marx: Max Reinhardt. From bourgeois theater to metropolitan culture . Francke Verlag, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-7720-8175-0 ( review)
- Gisela Prossnitz (Ed.): Max Reinhardt, the magician's dreams . Residenz-Verlag, Salzburg 1993, ISBN 3-7017-0840-1 (book accompanying the exhibition of the same name).
- Gottfried Reinhardt: The lover. Memories of his son Gottfried of Max Reinhardt . Droemer / Knaur, Munich 1973.
- Peter Roessler, Susanne Gföller (Ed.): Memory. Contributions to the 75th anniversary of the opening of the Max Reinhardt Seminar . Vienna 2005.
- Peter Roessler, Günther Einbrodt, Susanne Gföller (eds.): The forgotten years. On the 75th anniversary of the opening of the Max Reinhardt Seminar . Vienna 2004.
- Peter Sprengel (ed.): Sound and smoke, what is allowed and what is forbidden. Play texts from the first Max Reinhardt cabaret (Berlin 1901/02) . Nicolai, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-87584-386-X .
- Ernst Stern , Heinz Herald (Ed.): Reinhardt and his stage. Pictures of the work of the German theater . Publishing house, Eysler, Berlin 1920.
- John L. Styan: Max Reinhardt . University Press, Cambridge 1982, ISBN 0-521-22444-6 .
- Helene Thimig-Reinhardt: How Max Reinhardt lived. ... a hand's breadth above the floor . RSSchulz, Starnberg 1973.
- Sibylle Zehle: Max Reinhardt. A life as a festival. Brandstätter, Vienna 2020, ISBN 978-3-7106-0313-6 .
- Romy Schneider wore loud the famous interview of 23 April 1981, the star (see. The original. Why should publish the "star" his famous interview with Romy Schneider ) "is always a note to himself by Max Reinhardt with a quote from his speech To the actors: 'Put your childhood in your pocket and run away, because that's all you have. ”However, this was an inaccurate quote from Reinhardt's speech to the actors from 1928:“ I believe in the immortality of the theater. It is the most blissful hideaway for those who secretly put their childhood in their pockets and ran away with it in order to continue playing until the end of their lives. "
- Works by and about Max Reinhardt in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Max Reinhardt in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Entry on Max Reinhardt in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Max Reinhardt in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Janca Imwolde, Kornelia Papp: Max Reinhardt. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Partial estate in the ( Memento from April 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Vienna Library
- Max Reinhardt Archives
- For the 125th birthday of Max Reinhardt
- Group picture: Max Reinhardt with Richard Strauss, Ernst v. Schuch, Hugo v. Hofmannsthal, Nikolaus Graf von Seebach a. a. ( Memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Max Reinhardt Collection in the archive of the Academy of Arts, Berlin
- Arthur Kahane: Reinhardt as a stage reformer, quoted from: Max Reinhardt in Berlin . Edited by Knut Boeser and Renata Vatková. Frölich & Kaufmann, Berlin 1984, p. 300 f.
- Leonhard M. Fiedler: Max Reinhardt in personal testimonials and image documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1975, p. 13
- Leonhard M. Fiedler: Max Reinhardt in personal testimonials and image documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1975, p. 17
- Leonhard M. Fiedler: Max Reinhardt in personal testimonials and image documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1975, p. 17
- A list of the stage roles played by Max Reinhardt contains: Max Reinhardt. "A theater that gives people joy again ..." A documentary . Edited by Edda Fuhrich and Gisela Prossnitz. Langen Müller, Munich, Vienna 1987, pp. 207-212.
- Local. Edmund Reinhardt †. In: Badener Zeitung , July 24, 1929, p. 2 (online at ANNO ). ; top center
- An overview of Max Reinhardt's productions contains: Max Reinhardt. "A theater that gives people joy again ..." A documentary . Edited by Edda Fuhrich and Gisela Prossnitz. Langen Müller, Munich, Vienna 1987, pp. 212-222. - A list of only his Berlin productions is offered by: Max Reinhardt in Berlin . Edited by Knut Boeser and Renata Vatková. Frölich & Kaufmann, Berlin 1984, pp. 325–347. A compilation of his productions and guest performances in the United States includes: Edda Fuhrich-Leisler, Gisela Prossnitz: Max Reinhardt in America . Otto Müller, Salzburg 1976, pp. 432-434.
- Günther Rühle: Theater in Germany. 1887-1945. Its events - its people. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007. p. 400 f.
- Leonhard M. Fiedler: Max Reinhardt in personal testimonials and image documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1975, p. 117
- Letter from Max Reinhardt to the National Socialist Government of Germany, June 16, 1933, quoted from: Max Reinhardt. "A theater that gives people joy again ..." A documentary . Edited by Edda Fuhrich and Gisela Prossnitz. Langen Müller, Munich, Vienna 1987, p. 176 f., Here p. 176
- Gottfried Reinhardt: The Lover. Memories of his son Gottfried Reinhardt on Max Reinhardt . Droemer / Knaur, Munich, Zurich 1973, p. 394
- Gottfried Reinhardt: The Lover. Memories of his son Gottfried Reinhardt on Max Reinhardt . Droemer / Knaur, Munich, Zurich 1973, p. 394
- Max Reinhardt. "A theater that gives people joy again ..." A documentary . Edited by Edda Fuhrich and Gisela Prossnitz. Langen Müller, Munich, Vienna 1987, p. 46
- Max Reinhardt: Speech on the 25th anniversary of the founding of the drama school of the Deutsches Theater Berlin , quoted from: Max Reinhardt in Berlin . Edited by Knut Boeser and Renata Vatková. Frölich & Kaufmann, Berlin 1984, p. 155
- Hans Poelzig: Construction of the Great Berlin Playhouse. Festschrift for the opening
- Leonhard M. Fiedler: Max Reinhardt in personal testimonials and image documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1975, p. 95
- Johannes Hofinger: The Leopoldskron Files , Verlag Anton Pustet, Salzburg / Munich 2005
- derstandard.at Historical calendar as of April 1, 2009
- Max Reinhardt: German and American theater. A conversation , quoted from: Max Reinhardt in Berlin . Edited by Knut Boeser and Renata Vatková. Frölich & Kaufmann, Berlin 1984, pp. 39–40, here p. 39
- Edda Fuhrich-Leisler, Gisela Prossnitz: Max Reinhardt in America . Otto Müller, Salzburg 1976, p. 280
- Edda Fuhrich-Leisler, Gisela Prossnitz: Max Reinhardt in America . Otto Müller, Salzburg 1976, p. 303
- Max Reinhardt. "A theater that gives people joy again ..." A documentary . Edited by Edda Fuhrich and Gisela Prossnitz. Langen Müller, Munich, Vienna 1987, p. 197
- Binghamton University - Libraries: Special Collections: Research and Collections: Max Reinhardt Archives & Library. Retrieved April 25, 2018 .
- Salzburg Festival: Salzburg Festival> CONTACT> Archive. Retrieved April 25, 2018 (Austrian German).
- Digitization of Max Reinhardt's estate. Retrieved November 4, 2019 .
- Max Reinhardt: Life for the Theater. Writings and personal testimonials . Edited by Hugo Fetting. Argon, Berlin 1989, p. 73
- Max Reinhardt: On the importance of the actor , quoted from: Max Reinhardt in Berlin . Edited by Knut Boeser and Renata Vatková. Frölich & Kaufmann, Berlin 1984, p. 27
- Cinematographische Rundschau. No. 276, June 22, 1913
- Walter Fritz: “I experience the world in the cinema.” 100 years of cinema and film in Austria. Christian Brandstätter, Vienna 1996, p. 63, ISBN 3-85447-661-2 .
- From: Der Kinobesitzer Nr. 37, official organ of the Reich Association of Cinema Owners in Austria
- Arno Kerschbaumer, Nobilitierungen under the reign of Emperor Karl I / IV. Károly király (1916-1921) , Graz 2016, ISBN 978-3-9504153-1-5 , p. 237 lists under “Pending applications for a status survey and acts of grace for the kingdom Hungary ”: Application for elevation to the nobility for Max Reinhardt, theater director in Berlin (Hungarian citizen), on the basis of his services in the field of theater. The ministerial lecture before the monarch took place on October 29, 1918, but no more ultimate decision was made.
- Entry on Max Reinhardt in the Austria Forum (as a stamp representation), accessed on December 9, 2011
- Stern: The world star after the breakup. Romy Schneider very intimate. April 23, 1981.
- Die Zeit, 29, 1953
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Goldmann, Maximilian (maiden name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian theater director, artistic director and theater founder|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 9, 1873|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Baden (Lower Austria)|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 31, 1943|
|Place of death||new York|