Oskar Strnad (born October 26, 1879 in Vienna ; † September 3, 1935 in Bad Aussee ) was an Austrian architect , designer and set designer of Jewish origin. Together with Josef Frank , he shaped the so-called Vienna School of Architecture . He represented a modern conception of living for everyone, planned and built houses, designed furniture, created ceramics and watercolors, and set up plays and films.
Strnad completed his architecture studies with Max von Ferstel and Karl König at the Technical University in Vienna and graduated in 1904 with the dissertation The Principle of Decoration of Early Christian Art . He then worked for Friedrich Ohmann and the theater architects Fellner & Helmer . From 1906 there was regular collaboration with Oskar Wlach . In 1913 Josef Frank was accepted into this working group.
From 1909 to 1935 Strnad worked as a teacher at the Vienna School of Applied Arts ; At first he taught general form theory , from 1914 he took over the management of his own architecture class. In the same year, 1914, one of his main works was created, the house for the writer Jakob Wassermann on Kaasgraben in Vienna-Döbling.
From 1918 Strnad created designs for a "round theater" with the participation of his student Margarete Lihotzky (later: Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky ). The later film architects and production designers Artur Berger and Harry Horner were also among his students .
In the 1920s, Oskar Strnad and Josef Frank were among the pioneers of New Viennese living .
From 1919 Strnad was the set designer for the Vienna Volkstheater , and in 1923 he realized the “three-scene theater”, a three-part stage with a circle auditorium. Strnad later designed much-noticed sets for the Vienna State Opera , including for Wozzeck by Alban Berg and for the world premiere of Jonny plays by Ernst Krenek . For the Salzburg Festival he created the equipment for Don Juan ( 1931 ), Tristan and Don Giovanni . Strnad, who also worked as a landscape painter, used to paint the designs for his decorations in a light-handed way in watercolors.
Strnad broke the boundaries that the stage was carried by Alfred Roller in the sense of the spatial stage idea, he expanded the stage image to stage space. The prerequisite was an enormous knowledge of the historical fundamentals, the material and the technology of the stage. Strnad was a teacher at Max Reinhardt's private seminar in Schönbrunn (the later Max Reinhardt seminar ) and was the teacher of Robert Obsieger and Otto Niedermoser and Gustav Manker .
Among the students of Oskar Strnad were the carver Jakob Löw .
On September 3, 1935, Oskar Strnad, the former long-time President of the Austrian Werkbund , died of heart failure in Bad Aussee. He was buried on September 6, 1935 at the Vienna Central Cemetery in an honorary grave dedicated by the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde (Gate 1, Group 6, Row 0, No. 5). Strnad's widow Mathilde was hidden by Hertha Larisch-Ramsauer at great personal risk during the German persecution of the Jews and thus survived the Holocaust .
- Semi-detached house in the Werkbundsiedlung Vienna , 1932
- Volkswohnhaus in Vienna 15, Holochergasse, 1932
- Numerous residential buildings in Vienna and Lower Austria , interior courtyard design
- Soldiers' graves and war memorials
- Stage sets and costumes (77 designs owned by the Austrian Theater Museum in Vienna)
- Chairs and armchairs
The most popular set work by Strnad was Stefan Kamares The Young Baron Neuhaus at the Vienna Volkstheater (1934), where he put all his pride in the fact that the ornamentation of the doors and stoves of Schönbrunn and the embroidery of the old tails were a model for him, and that he really would have done nothing else than to educate theater work to be faithful to these forms ( Joseph Gregor ).
- Erich Boltenstern : The apartment for everyone. Suggestions for the formation and use of simple furniture for today's home. Drafts from the architecture class at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna [, under the direction of Oskar Strnad] . Julius Hoffmann Verlag, Stuttgart 1933, OBV .
- Max Eisler: Oskar Strnad - with the artist's selected writings . Gerlach and Wiedling, Vienna 1936, OBV .
- Joseph Gregor, Oskar Strnad: Speech on Oskar Strnad. (On December 2nd, 1935, three months after the death of Oskar Strnad, the Austrian Werkbund held a commemoration in the Small Music Association Hall in Vienna ...) . Reichner, Vienna 1936, OBV .
- Joseph Gregor: Oskar Strnad. His legacy to the theater . From: Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte , Issue 12/13, . Schrill, Vienna 1949.
- Juliane Stoklaska: Oskar Strnad . Dissertation. University of Vienna, Vienna 1960, OBV .
- Otto Niedermoser: Oskar Strnad. 1879-1935 . Austria series, Volume 304/306, OBV . . Bergland-Verlag, Vienna 1965,
- Johannes Spalt (Red.): The architect Oskar Strnad. For the hundredth birthday on October 26, 1979 . Reports, University of Applied Arts in Vienna, Volume 20, . Vienna 1979, OBV .
- Ulla Weich: The theoretical views of the architect and teacher Oskar Strnad . Thesis. University of Vienna, Vienna 1995, OBV .
- Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky: Why I became an architect . Residenz, Salzburg 2004, ISBN 3-7017-1369-3 , ISBN 978-3-7017-1369-1 .
- Iris Meder, Oskar Strnad: Oskar Strnad 1879–1935. This publication appears on the occasion of the exhibition ... in the Jewish Museum of the City of Vienna from March 28, 2007 to June 24, 2007 . Pustet, Salzburg (among others) 2007, ISBN 978-3-7025-0553-0 .
Individual evidence / note
- Oscar Strnad: The principle of decoration in early Christian art. A critical study of her torrent stereotomy with special consideration of the related works of Rome and Ravenna . Dissertation. Technical University, Vienna 1904, ÖNB .
- Marlene Ott: Josef Frank (1885 - 1967) - furniture and interior design . Dissertation. University of Vienna, Vienna 2010, p. 471. - Full text online (PDF; 36.0 MB) .
- deaths. - Oskar Strnad died. In: Neue Freie Presse , Morgenblatt, No. 25496/1935, September 4, 1935, p. 6, center. (Online at ANNO ).
- Ilse Krumpöck: The images in the Army History Museum. A publication by the Army History Museum - Military History Institute Vienna . Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna 2004, OBV , p. 111 f.
- Hedwig Abraham: Oskar Strnad . In: viennatouristguide.at , accessed on December 13, 2012.
- Daily news. (...) deaths. The funeral of Professor Oskar Strnad (...). In: Wiener Zeitung , September 6, 1935, p. 6, bottom center. (Online at ANNO ).
- Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky : Zeitzeugin , in: Displaced reason: Emigration and exile Austrian science. 2nd International Symposium, October 19-23, 1987 in Vienna . Vienna: Jugend und Volk 1988, p. 630
- Altaussee is sometimes mentioned as the place of death , among other things in the death report in the Wiener Zeitung . - See: Professor Dr. Oskar Strnad † .. In: Wiener Zeitung , September 4, 1935, p. 6, center. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Entry on Oskar Strnad in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Oskar Strnad. In: Architects Lexicon Vienna 1770–1945. Published by the Architekturzentrum Wien . Vienna 2007.
- Evelyne Polt-Heinzl : Portrait module on Oskar Strnad at litkult1920er.aau.at , a project of the University of Klagenfurt
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian architect, set designer and designer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 26, 1879|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 3, 1935|
|Place of death||Bad Aussee|