|coat of arms||Austria map|
|Political District :||Liezen|
|License plate :||LI|
|Residents :||1,872 (January 1, 2020)|
|Postal code :||8992|
|Area code :||03622|
|Community code :||6 12 04|
|UN / LOCODE||AT ATS|
|Address of the
|Mayor :||Gerald Loitzl ( ÖVP )|
Municipal Council : ( 2020 )
|Location of Altaussee in the Liezen district|
Altaussee from Loser seen
|Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria|
Altaussee is a municipality with 1872 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020) in the Styrian Salzkammergut in Austria. The municipality is located in the Liezen district ( judicial district Liezen ) and covers 92.11 km² large parts of the Ausseerland and the Dead Mountains . The place at the foot of the Loser is particularly known as a health resort and is located directly on Lake Altaussee .
The settlement history of Altaussee goes back to around 200 to 400 AD, with salt mining playing a major role in the development of the place. After the end of the Roman era, Slavs settled in Ausseerland, which were gradually assimilated by Bavarian settlers from the 8th century onwards. In the Middle Ages, the municipality was initially part of the lordship of Grauscharn-Pürgg , and then of Pflindsberg .
In the course of the 19th century, tourism appeared in the form of summer holidays and subsequently replaced mining as the most important economic factor. During the time of National Socialism, the place was incorporated into the administrative unit Oberdonau (Upper Austria), in 1948 it came back to Styria. 1943-1945 was the Altaussee salt mine an art depot for Austrian and German art goods and NS - looted art from all over Europe.
Today Altaussee is one of the communities with the highest number of overnight stays in the Liezen district. The Altaussee salt mine is the largest salt mining site in Austria.
The municipality of Altaussee is located in the Ausseerland in the Styrian Salzkammergut in the district of Liezen , state of Styria . Altaussee and extends over an area of 92.11 square kilometers is located at an altitude of on the west bank of the Altaussee lake on the southwestern edge of the Dead Mountains . The community center is located in a basin bounded north by Loser ( ), east by Trisselwand ( ) and west by Sandling ( ). The highest mountain Altaussee is the Schönberg at on the state border with Upper Austria . Due to the alpine location and the large proportion of the Dead Mountains , around half of the municipal area consists of alpine wasteland , the rest are forests , grassland and other forms of land.
Water and healing spring
The Altausseer See , which belongs to the municipality , is drained by the Altausseer Traun , one of the three source rivers of the Traun . Coming from the northwest, the small Augstbach flows through the town, which flows into the Altausseer Traun shortly after it leaves the Altausseer See. The Augstsee , the Wildensee and the Ostersee are also located in the municipality .
The main spring was taken in 1961 and officially recognized as the Aussee healing spring . The water containing Glauber's salt is led from the salt mine directly to the drinking fountain in the drinking hall in the Altaussee spa and administrative building. As part of a drinking cure , it is supposed to provide relief from biliary, liver, stomach and intestinal diseases as well as gout. The drinking cure is prescribed by the resident spa doctor. The bottled healing water is also available in the Kleine Feinen Kur Stefan in the Kur- und Amtshaus.
The Dead Mountains , whose foothills surround Altaussee on three sides, consists largely of limestone and dolomite , which were formed in the seas of the Mesozoic Era , especially the Triassic and Jura , about 210 to 135 million years ago.
In the west of Altaussee, the Hallstatt Triassic limestone appears predominantly , in the north mainly the Dachstein limestone from the Triassic and in the east the Jura with Plassen and Tressenstein limestone and the Oberalm formation . The south of Altaussee towards Bad Aussee is characterized by a highly glacial ground moraine from the Würm glacial period . The Altaussee settlement core itself lies completely on an alluvial cone that rises about eight meters above the lake level of the Altaussee lake.
The lake basin of Lake Altaussee was formed as a tongue basin of a glacier during the worm glaciation. It is a glacial deepening area of an already pre-glacial steep step on the edge of the Dachstein limestone platform of the Dead Mountains .
With karstification , many sinkholes and caves formed, such as the 86 km long Raucherkar cave on the border between Altaussee and Upper Austria . This cave is part of the Schönberg cave system , which with a length of 140 km (as of September 2014) is the longest cave in Austria and the European Union . The cave system ranks 13th on the list of the longest caves in the world.
A large part of the Altaussee municipal area is under the strictest nature protection. The following nature protection levels exist:
- Natura 2000 European Protected Areas ( Dead Mountains with Altausseer See - AT2243000)
- Nature reserves ( Altausseer See - NSG 03 a , Dead Mountains West - NSG 16 a )
- Protected Caves ( nail bar cave (cadastral number 1626/5) , Loser cave at Aussee (1623/8) , Raucherkarhöhle (1626/55), Schwarzmooskogeleishöhle (1623/40))
- Protected parts of the landscape ( Seeklaus / Altausseer Traun )
- Landscape protection areas ( LSG-14b - Salzkammergut West )
- Natural monuments ( Trattenbach waterfall , summer linden tree )
- ÖPUL project areas and biotopes
The entire municipality is also within the scope of the Alpine Convention .
Altaussee consists of two cadastral communities and is divided into five localities:
- The cadastral community Altaussee (8,320.74 hectares) comprises the localities:
- the closer local area of Altaussee (310 inhabitants) including Reith
- Fishing village (266 Ew.) Including posers
- Lichtersberg (465 Ew.) Including Hinterposern, Moos, Ramsau, Steinberg, Waldgraben, Wimm, Lupitsch, Bach, Gründl, Klaus, Mitteregg, Neunhäuser, Oberlupitsch and Unterlupitsch
- Puchen (555 Ew.)
- The cadastral community Lupitsch (936.74 ha) forms its own locality (276 Ew.) Including Arzleiten, Hollau and Platten.
The figures in brackets refer to the area (as of December 31, 2019) and the resident population on January 1, 2020 ().
Only two of the six neighboring communities of Altaussee are in Styria , those are the two remaining communities in the Ausseerland, Bad Aussee and Grundlsee . The other neighboring communities are in the Upper Austrian district of Gmunden (GM). Clockwise and starting in the west, these are Bad Goisern , Bad Ischl , Ebensee and Grünau im Almtal . All neighboring communities are in the Salzkammergut .
|Bad Ischl (GM)||Ebensee (GM)||Grünau im Almtal (GM)|
|Bad Goisern (GM)||Grundlsee|
The climate in Altaussee is determined by its geographical location in the Aussee basin. It is mainly characterized by its high altitude and its location in the northern congestion area. With currents from west to north, the result is often days of precipitation, which in winter are accompanied by a great deal of snow. With 100 to 120 days of snow cover per year, the Aussee Basin is one of the most snow-sure basin locations in Austria. Snowfall is expected from October to May, with fresh snow falling every third day on average from December to March.
With a relative sunshine duration of over 50%, autumn is the most favorable time in terms of weather in the region. The climate in the Aussee Basin is often a stimulating climate , especially in winter . Altaussee has been a recognized climatic health resort since 1989 .
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall in the Aussee basin
Source: ZAMG: Climate data from Austria 1971–2000 - Station: Bad Aussee, altitude: 665 m
The name Altaussee is pronounced in standard German [ ˈaltˌaʊseː ]. In the Aussee dialect, the place is called Åid'n Aussee [ ˌɔidn̩ˈausːə ] or Åidaussee [ ˈɔidˌausəː ]. The place name was first mentioned in a document in 1265 as Aussee interior (Inneres Aussee). The name form "Alt Awssee" was first mentioned in 1393. The prefix Alt- can be explained by the fact that the name Aussee probably did not initially refer to the settlement area of today's Bad Aussee , but to the Altaussee.
The etymology of the word Aussee is not exactly clear. The common interpretation is the origin from Old Slavonic . Attempts to explain it go from Old Slavic osoje (the place on the shady side) to Old Slavic ov (i) sah (for the oat farmers) to Slavic ovec / ovca (the sheep). Another interpretation sees the Middle High German aust or Old High German ougest (harvest) in the first syllable of the word Aussee and the Middle High German se (see) in the second syllable . This approach is based on the assumption that the Altausseer See originally bore the name , or that the town and lake had the same name.
Primeval times, Celts and Roman times
The earliest evidence of human settlement activity in the Ausseerland are Paleolithic finds in the salt furnace cave in the Dead Mountains (Grundlsee municipality). Charcoal remains from a paleolithic fireplace found there could be dated to an age of around 34,000 years. Numerous relics from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, as well as a Bronze Age settlement, were found along the natural traffic route of the Koppental (Bad Aussee municipality). These finds can be explained in the context of Hallstatt , which is only 20 km away and which, due to its archaeological significance, gave its name to the older Iron Age (800–450 BC). The younger Iron Age / La Tène period (500–100 BC), which was borne by the Celts , left no archaeological traces. Only the river name Traun (from Celtic druna , the running one) indicates Celtic settlement. As evidence of Roman rule in Noricum , traces of late Roman settlement were discovered during excavations in Bad Aussee (Koppental) and on the Altaussee Michlhallberg ( Sandling massif ). According to the finds that have been recovered so far, the settlement in the Altaussee municipal area was likely to have existed from the end of the 2nd century AD until the late 4th century. A Roman salt mining is suspected there.
Slavs and Bavarians
The era of the Great Migration left no traces in the Ausseerland. The next population group that can be identified with certainty were the Slavs . Traces of Slavic settlement by name can be found throughout the Ausseerland (place and field names with the endings -itz, -itsch, -isch ; in Altaussee e.g. Lupitsch ). Around 800 a strong immigration of Bavarians began . Important traces of the first contact of the Slavs with the Bavarians are the place names. The earliest datable Germanizations of place names in Ausseerland come from the Old High German period before 1100.
Medieval salt mining, Archdiocese of Salzburg, Styria
Settlement and salt mining in today's Altaussee municipality were first mentioned in a document in 1147. Margrave Ottokar III. gave the Rein monastery near Graz two salt pans at the Ahornberg ("in Enstal apud Mahorn") on the eastern slope of the Sandling . After the death of the last Duke of Babenberg, Friedrich II. In 1246, the elected Archbishop of Salzburg, Philipp von Spanheim , occupied large parts of the Ennstal and thus also the Ausseerland . To strengthen the new claim to power and to protect the nearby salt mines on the Sandling massif and the mule tracks, he built the small fortress of Pflindsberg on a hill east of Altaussee . Philipp von Spanheim had to retire after the Peace of Ofen in 1254 and the castle and the Ausseerland fell back to Styria around 1260. The previous history of the Ausseerland is controversial. Most likely it was part of a county in the Ennstal under the margraves of the Carinthian Marks in the 12th to 13th centuries . The theory that the Aussee area previously belonged to the county of Traunau cannot be proven. In 1265, Pflindsberg Castle was expanded and first mentioned in a document as Vlinsperch castrum . In the same year the place was first mentioned by name as Aussee interior . Due to its protective function for the saltworks and the road over the Pötschenpass, Pflindsberg Castle was an important border fortress in Styria towards the end of the 13th century. The plant developed into the administrative center with lower jurisdiction of the independent rule Pflindsberg, which was separated from the sovereign rule Grauscharn-Pürgg . It comprised around 90% of the goods in the Ausseerland and, as part of the Salzkammergut, was princely. The care office was exercised by a sovereign official. The small fortress also functioned as the seat of the maintenance office responsible for the salt works (Hallamt). The two offices (caretaker of the Pflindsberg rule and caretaker of the saltworks) were mostly exercised in personal union. However, the official seat of the saltworks administration was moved to Markt Aussee as early as 1395 . Between 1460 and 1490 the rule was given high jurisdiction . From this point on, the castle keepers also acted as district judges and the castle keep of Pflindsberg Castle served as the district court's prison.
Protestantism, re-Catholicization (from 1599), dominance of salt mining
In the course of the 16th century, the administrative seat of the Pflindsberg estate was relocated to Markt Aussee . With the Reformation in the 16th century, the population of the Ausseerland had become largely Protestant . From 1599 a re-Catholicisation commission forcibly pushed through the Counter Reformation . The entire Ausseerland was spared the major armed conflicts and social uprisings of the 16th and 17th centuries ( peasant wars , Thirty Years War ). Reasons for the absence of social tensions were a relatively secure livelihood for the population and extensive social concessions on the part of the authorities. The entire Salzkammergut was a closed territory that had dedicated itself to a mono-economy. The only line of business was salt production, to which all economic activity was tailored. Most of the people of Altaussee were employed in salt mining and, in addition, mostly small part-time farmers who, together with their family members, produced some of the essential products themselves. As a privilege there were bathing rooms for the salt works and in the case of illness the free medical help.
As early as 1764, working hours in the mine were set at eight hours. Overtime was paid separately. In addition, the permanent workers received wages in kind. Furthermore, the workers were entitled to a pension. The establishment of union funds, the so-called brother shop , offered further social security.
During the Napoleonic Wars between 1800 and 1809, French troops marched through the Ausseerland several times. In 1809 the Koppen and Pötschen Passes were fortified and fortified. But there was no fighting. In 1813 the Pötschenpass was fortified again, this time with several gun emplacements, a powder magazine and two barracks. The expected battles for the pass did not materialize, as Napoleon's troops were decisively defeated in the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813 .
Beginnings of tourism
In the following years the Salzkammergut was discovered for the summer resort . The nearby Bad Ischl developed into a prominent health resort and was an imperial summer residence from 1849 . Due to the presence of the nobility in the region, the Ausseerland became more and more a center of attraction for elegant society. In 1847 the officer and writer Joseph Christian Freiherr von Zedlitz, on the advice of Adalbert Stifter , who already knew the place, was the first guest to build a summer house on Lake Altaussee . The family of the poet August Daniel von Binzer followed . In 1864 the family of the future German Chancellor Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst bought a house and converted it into a summer villa.
Many artists and representatives of Viennese society were soon drawn to Altaussee, which had become a political community since 1848 when the manor was abolished. The Kronprinz-Rudolf-Bahn was opened in 1877 and the infrastructure of the Ausseerland was finally well developed for tourism.
At the turn of the century, mainly authors from the Jung Wien group , such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal , Leopold Andrian , Raoul Auernheimer , Arthur Schnitzler , Richard Beer-Hofmann , Hermann Bahr and Jakob Wassermann, spent their holidays in Altaussee . The latter moved to Altaussee in 1919, where he lived until his death in 1934. Even Theodor Herzl spent many summers in Altaussee.
In the 1930s, Hermann Broch (1936–1938) spent the summer months in the community, as did Friedrich Torberg , who lived alternately in Vienna and Altaussee after the Second World War. After Austria's annexation, Broch was arrested in Altaussee in March 1938 and imprisoned for three weeks in neighboring Bad Aussee . His National Socialist postman had denounced him as a communist. The end of democracy under Austrofascism in 1933, a memorial was erected in Altaussee as early as 1935: a Barbara chapel was built in the Steinberg tunnel of the Altaussee salt mine to commemorate dictator Engelbert Dollfuß, who was murdered in 1934 .
National Socialism, Nazi-looted art, resistance, Alpine fortress
After the referendum in 1938 on the annexation of Austria to the German Reich , in which only one negative vote was cast in Altaussee , the entire Ausseerland was incorporated into the Reichsgau Oberdonau (Upper Austria). The autonomy of the municipalities of Bad Aussee , Grundlsee and Altaussee was dissolved and a mayor's office was set up in Bad Aussee. The Altaussee and Grundsees municipal offices were henceforth field offices of Bad Aussee. The total of 29 Altaussee villas owned by Jewish families were Aryanized . The place subsequently attracted numerous Nazi figures who lived in these villas. For example, three National Socialist Gauleiter regularly spent their holidays in Altaussee: August Eigruber , Konrad Henlein and Hugo Jury . The Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and his family lived in the neighboring village of Grundlsee .
In 1943 work began on setting up a depot for works of art in the Altaussee salt mine . In August of the same year, the storage of art treasures from Austrian churches, monasteries and museums began in order to protect them from bomb attacks. As of February 1944, the inventory of around 4,700 works of art was stored. It was stolen art from all over Europe , which was collected under the code name Special Order Linz and intended for the planned Führermuseum in Linz. At the end of the war, the entire depot in eleven disused factories comprised around 6,500 paintings as well as numerous statues, furniture, weapons, coins and libraries. Including a part of the so-called guide library . The largest part of this library was deposited in the Villa Castiglioni in the neighboring village of Grundlsee. In April 1945 the Gauleiter August Eigruber planned to destroy the cultural assets. For this purpose, he had eight aircraft bombs, each weighing 500 kg, transported into the tunnels of the salt mine. However, the destruction of the art treasures and the mine could be prevented at the last minute by the saltworks administration, the salvage officers and miners. The art depot was confiscated by the US Army in May 1945 , and the works of art were brought to the Central Collecting Point in Munich in the following years . This is where the difficult process of return began, which has not yet been completed. The total value of the cultural goods deposited in the mine was estimated at around 3.5 billion US dollars after the war.
From the spring of 1944 there was a permanent hiding place for Ausseer , Goiserer and Bad Ischler Wehrmacht deserters , conscientious objectors and resistance fighters in the Toten Gebirge , north of the Loser near the Schwarzenbergalm . This hiding place, known as the hedgehog , was supplied with food by people they trusted from the local community. At the end of the war there were around 20 people there.
The Ausseerland was part of the so-called “ Alpine Fortress ” and in 1944/45 a final retreat for National Socialist party and government offices and Wehrmacht staff . Entire governments installed in the Balkans by the National Socialists also sought refuge. At the end of the war, nine pro-fascist governments in exile from Eastern Europe were in Altaussee. Günther Altenburg , for example, acted from the end of 1944 until the end of the war as the head of the Foreign Office for Bulgaria and Romania (Altenburg office) in Altaussee, where he was in charge of the German government-in-exile of Bulgaria and Romania .
Ernst Kaltenbrunner , head of the Reich Security Main Office , moved his headquarters from Berlin to the Villa Kerry in Altaussee at the end of April 1945 . From there, with the help of Wilhelm Höttl , he tried to contact the Western Allies in order to achieve a separate peace.
End of the war in 1945
When the war ended in 1945, a large number put on high Nazi officials and central to the Holocaust jointly responsible SS members to Altaussee and tried hiding there, including August Eigruber , Hugo Jury , Adolf Eichmann , Franz Stangl ( commandant of Sobibor and Treblinka ) and Anton Burger (camp commandant in the Theresienstadt ghetto ).
On May 8, 1945, the day of the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht , the Americans reached the Ausseerland. The main force of the American army followed the next day . Before that, a self-appointed civil government under Albrecht Gaiswinkler had already formed in Bad Aussee , which maintained order and ensured that the population was fed.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner fled to the Altaussee Wildenseehütte after the end of the war . He was arrested there on May 12, 1945 by an American military patrol from the CIC . At the end of the war, a box with around 60 kg of looted gold was discovered near the Villa Kerry, where Kaltenbrunner had lived . Much of it has been missing since the turmoil of the first days after the war.
On July 1, 1948, the Ausseerland and Altaussee were reintegrated into Styria. From 1945 to 1955 it was part of the American zone of occupation in Austria.
In the following decades the municipality invested large sums in the infrastructure. In 1960, she bought the Auspitzvilla, built in 1884 in the Fischerndorf district, and had it converted into a spa house, which was put into operation in 1961 with a drinking fountain for the Aussee medicinal spring. In 1969, work began on channeling the community, and in 1972 the Volkshaus was built as a fire station , event center and gymnasium for the elementary school.
In the 1990s the Kurhaus was rebuilt and completely refurbished; In 1994 the municipal administration moved in and it has served as a spa and administrative building ever since. From the first municipal council elections after the Second World War until 2010, the SPÖ provided the mayor of Altaussee. Since 2010 this office has been held for the first time by an ÖVP candidate .
As part of the Styrian municipal structural reform , a merger with the municipalities of Bad Aussee and Grundlsee was under discussion. However, since February 2013 it has been decided that the three municipalities will remain independent.
Population development and structure
The municipality is relatively sparsely populated with a population density of 20 inhabitants per square kilometer; For comparison: Styria has a density of 76 inhabitants / km², Austria 106 inhabitants / km² (as of January 1st, 2020).
The population of Altaussee was constantly falling from 1951 to 2012. In 2013, there was a slight increase. The marked increase in the population from 1939 to 1951 can be explained by the massive influx of "bomb refugees" from the cities during the Second World War and of people displaced (mainly from the Sudetenland ) after the Second World War. According to the 1951 census, the community still had 2,267 inhabitants, but the population fell to 1,777 by 2012, which is below the level of 1910.
The rough age structure of the Altaussee population as of January 1, 2012 shows that 65.6% of the Altaussee people are over 15 and under 65 years old. 11.9% of the population are younger, 22.5% older. The proportion of women in the population is 49.9%.
According to the 2001 census, 8.1% of the over-15-year-olds had graduated from a university , technical college or academy (proportion of women: 44.6%), 10.1% had the Matura (proportion of women: 49.9%) and 51.1 % had completed an apprenticeship or vocational middle school (share of women 44.3%). 30.7% only had a compulsory school certificate , 68.3% of them women.
Origin, language and religion
According to statistics from January 1, 2012, 93.5% of Altaussee's inhabitants were Austrian citizens and 90.7% were born in Austria. 4.7% of the people from Altaussee came from other EU countries, 1.7% from non-EU countries. In Altaussee, as in the rest of the Salzkammergut , a variety of the Central or Danube Bavarian dialect is spoken.
In the 2001 census, the following were given as colloquial language:
- 96.1% German
- 0.8% Croatian
- 0.7% Serbian
- 0.5% Hungarian
- 0.2% Slovenian
- 0.1% Bosnian
- 0.1% Turkish
- 1.4% another language.
In the 2001 census, the people of Altaussee stated that their religion was:
9.5% of the population stated that they were not confessed . The only official religious meeting room in the municipality is the Catholic parish church of St. Aegis in the village of Fischerndorf.
The church was first mentioned in a document in 1280, but it was probably built in the 12th century. In 1770, Empress Maria Theresa founded her own vicariate , which rose to become an independent parish in 1892 . The area of the Altaussee community is now part of the Catholic parish association of the "Ausseerland parishes" and is looked after by the Bad Aussee parish office. The members of the Protestant church belong to the Protestant parish Bad Aussee.
Living and housing situation
Altaussee has a growing number of second homes . In 2006, with 509 residential properties, 38.7% of all apartments and houses in the community were second homes. As a result, houses and land in Altaussee have become very expensive and virtually no longer affordable for locals. Today you are already paying up to 400 euros per m² building site and the apartment prices are between 3,500 and 6,000 euros per m². The generally higher price level that prevails in tourism-intensive areas is additionally pushed in the entire Ausseerland by a very high density of millionaires, which is one of the highest in Austria today.
The consequences of this development - strong socio-cultural and socio-economic changes - show parallels to urban gentrification phenomena and lead to an exodus of young people. The municipality of Altaussee is trying to counteract this by means of subsidized apartments for locals, but has not yet introduced a second home tax , which municipalities levy in a comparable situation.
In 1999 a housing estate was built to create affordable housing for local residents. In 2012/13 there was another subsidized new settlement and the construction of a generation house for the elderly and people in need of care.
Culture and sights
- Catholic parish church Altaussee hl. Aegidius: The oldest building in the community is the parish church; it was first mentioned in a document in the general land of the Duchy of Styria , which was laid out under Albrecht I between 1280 and 1295. The church patron indicates that it was built in the 12th century. The current building dates from 1434. Emperor Franz Joseph I financed an extensive renovation in the neo-Gothic style from 1859 to 1861 . From the previous building is u. a. a late Gothic tabernacle still preserved (around 1520).
- Pflindsberg Castle : The Pflindsberg castle ruins are also the only larger medieval fortification in the Ausseerland . The castle was built as a fortification around 1250 by order of the elected Archbishop of Salzburg, Philipp von Spanheim . After the last inhabitant left the castle complex in 1755, it was left to decay. In 2000, the Austrian Federal Forests built a lookout point on the site of the former castle complex .
- The Altaussee open-air graduation system , which was built in 1956, is an architectural rarity . In it, brine from the Altaussee salt mine drips over fir branches, releasing essential oils . Regular use is said to provide relief from bronchial and asthma diseases. In Altaussee, the Mühlberg mill is also a historic watermill . In the summer months there is a weekly foam grinding.
Museums and cultural trails
The Altaussee Literature Museum, founded in 1970, is located in the Kur- und Amtshaus . The focus of the collection is on writers who worked in Altaussee, such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal , Friedrich Torberg and Jakob Wassermann . The museum sees itself as a meeting place for literature enthusiasts. Historical exhibits, audio and video examples, readings, a book flea market, book shop, reading room and literature garden should contribute to the communication of literature. The second museum are the Altaussee Salt Mine , the mine of Altaussee salt mine. It is located a little outside the village on the north-eastern slopes of the Sandling in the Steinberg tunnel, which was struck in 1319. The central museum of the region is the Kammerhofmuseum in Bad Aussee with collections on the history and folk culture of the Ausseerland.
There are three marked cultural hiking trails in the Altaussee municipality:
- The Via Artis embarks on the trail of the end because as the story unfolds in Altaussee writers and artists and surrounded it to the district fishing village (five stations, distance: about 4 km, walking time: about 1 ½ to 2 hours).
- The Via Salis follows the traces of salt mining in Altaussee (23 stations, distance: approx. 8 km, difference in altitude: approx. 300 m, walking time: approx. 2 ½ to 3 hours),
- The LiteraTour goes on a literary walk through the town (starting point is the Altaussee Literature Museum).
The Altaussee Kiritåg , whose beer tent is one of the most famous in Austria, with around 20,000 guests over three days, it is one of the largest tent festivals in the country. Around 600 barrels of beer are consumed on the three beer tent festivals .
The tent festival has been held annually on the first weekend in September since 1961. The beer tent is organized by the Altaussee volunteer fire brigade , supported by other associations, such as the local mountain rescue service, and private individuals.
Twice a year - in the week before Easter and in the first week of October - the training workshops of the International Working Group for Group Analysis take place in Altaussee , in which more than a hundred candidates from all over the German-speaking area and numerous countries in Eastern and Southeastern Europe take part.
The most famous artist in Altaussee is the actor and director Klaus Maria Brandauer . He is chairman of the Poetry Association in Ausseerland , which realizes cultural projects every summer. Among other things, he staged William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream in the Altausseer Seewiese and Felix Mitterer's play in the mountain in the salt mine for several years . The writer Barbara Frischmuth lives in the community and runs the local literature museum. The Altaussee painter Horst K. Jandl is best known for his romantic landscape paintings.
The Aussee landscape attracted many painters early on. Between 1801 and 1848 Archduke Johann had his chamber painters work in Ausseerland, including Jakob and Friedrich Gauermann , Matthäus Loder , Thomas Ender and Jakob and Rudolf Alt , resulting in a large number of landscapes with Altaussee motifs. Other painters working in Altaussee are Carl von Binzer , Anton Filkuka and Christl Kerry .
The alpine landscape of Altaussee has often served as a film set. The most famous recent film shoot took place in 2015 when scenes for the James Bond film James Bond 007: Specter were filmed there. In Altaussee z. B. also the film A village is fighting back in 2019 . Since 2010 , the exhibition series Kunst am Steinberg has been taking place in the Altaussee mine from May to October . The annual group exhibitions each offer up to five contemporary artists a forum for their art. There is also a long tradition of amateur drama in Altaussee .
In 1924, the Altaussee home theater was founded, the first theater group in the area, which existed until 1935. From 1949 to 1957 the Altaussee Geselligkeitsverein performed Glück-Auf Theater, and from 1979 to 2005 the re-established Altaussee home theater performed a total of 22 pieces. In 2011, a new theater association, the Stage Altaussee, was launched, which performs a play every year.
Most of the customs are around the rough nights in the relatively long winter time. December 5th is the so-called Miglåtåg (derived from Nikolaus - Nikolo - Niklo - Miklo ). In the evening, the loud screaming Miglån [ miɡlɔn ], as the Krampuses are called in Altaussee, move from house to house in various groups (pass'n) and accompany the figure of St. Nicholas when they visit children. In addition to the Pözteufön (fur devils) with their carved wooden masks, there are black or red gangbones in a fabric outfit , Miglåmandl and Miglåweuwö and the elaborately made figures of the Grosteufön made from fir twigs and Miasteufön (made from moss and lichen).
On January 5th is the so-called Glöckötåg (Glöcklertag). On this day, children go from house to house with bells and white linen sacks until twelve o'clock in the morning to “ring out” the winter and are rewarded with bells and sweets. If a lot of bell ringer rings in a house , it means good luck in the New Year. In the evening, a symbolic struggle of the spring representing, according to ringing takes on a central, mostly snow-covered field in the village center Glöckler with Bärigln (Pelzperchten) instead of representing the winter. The Glöckler want to "ring out" the winter, the Perchten try to get hold of the Glöckler's bells and throw them into the snow, which creates a wild fight. After this action, the fur-covered Perchten go from house to house. They check the houses for cleanliness and are not allowed to speak a word while they still keep their faces hidden. At midnight the ghost of this last rough night is over.
There are also a multitude of customs around the time of carnival , culminating in the so-called three holy days of carnival from Mardi Gras Sunday to Mardi Gras. During these days the Maschkera (masked carnival goers) go around and the so-called carnival letters take place, in which embarrassing misconducts of people from the village community are brought up in a vicious, mostly musically accompanied performance. There are also rifle parades , the parade of the drum women on Shrove Monday and the lavishly designed Altausseer Knopferln on Shrove Tuesday . The lively Aussee carnival march stands acoustically above all the hustle and bustle for three days .
Only in the following Carnival Lent are in the Styrian Salzkammergut , the Beigel , a salty, ring-shaped pretzels baked. On Palm Sunday, the last Sunday of Lent, children distribute previously consecrated palm trees to neighbors and friends.
Music and costume
Folk music and new folk music dominate in Altaussee . As in the rest of the Salzkammergut , the traditional forms of songs such as yodelers , Landlers and Steirer are passed on and varied in Altaussee . The Gstanzlsingen and Paschen at the Steirer, the Schleinigen and the Landler are particularly characteristic of the folk music in the inner and Styrian Salzkammergut. The most important music genre is dance music in its form as violin music. Central instruments in Aussee folk music are the violin, double bass, Styrian accordion and guitar. The line-up is expanded and changed in any number of variations.
Military piper and drum music has also been preserved in Altaussee through the rifle system. The Altaussee band Rauhnacht , for example, documents the unconventional approach to folk music by fusing traditional motifs with elements of world , funk and rock music. The Salinenmusik Altaussee, founded in 1852, and the Lupitsch fire brigade band give regular concerts in the Altaussee spa gardens in summer.
For many people from Altaussee, “Ausseea G'wånd” is a matter of course that has no fixed norms. It is continuously adapted to current tastes. The fact that there is not a single traditional costume association in the entire Ausseerland should also be seen in this context . The "G'wånd" for women is a dirndl with a white blouse, which comes in all possible colors. The classic version consists of a pink skirt ("Kittl"), a green "Leibl" and a purple apron ("Fischta"). For particularly festive occasions, a black silk apron is tied and a silk scarf is placed over the shoulder.
The men's costume consists of green embroidered leather trousers , which are either shorts or knee breeches. The classic Altaussee lederhosen are short, “seven-seamed” (with seven side seams), with an approx. 2 cm wide “Bürserl” piece at the end of the leg. The result is a light stripe just before the end of the pants. Hand-made green knee socks (socks), a green vest (Leüwö) and a gray or green Spenzer (Janka or skirt) over them are worn with lederhosen . On special occasions, a white shirt (Pfoad) is attracted and a printed, silk Bindl tied.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2009, 6.1% of those employed in Altaussee were employed in agriculture and forestry (full-time employment). 22.6% were employed in industry and construction , of which 4.5% in mining . The majority of the workforce was employed in the service sector, 11.8% of them in the tourism sector . The general activity rate was 46.0%, the activity rate of 15–64 year olds was 68.0%. The unemployment rate was 1.8%.
The number of workplaces rose between the last two censuses in 1991 and 2001 by 9.5% to 115. The number of jobs increased in the same period by 11.3% to 561. Thus, the municipality offered 2001 theoretically for 75.3% of its 745 employed residents have a job.
In 2009, 265 people living outside the municipality had a job in Altaussee, while 497 people from Altaussee worked outside the city. In 2009, 63% of all employed people from Altaussee were employed outside of their place of residence. 80.4% of the in-commuters came from the Liezen district, and 62.6% of the out-commuters also stayed within the boundaries of the district.
Tourism has had a long tradition in the place since the summer vacation in the 19th century. With 133,345 overnight stays per year (overnight stays in all types of accommodation, status: 2011) and 34 tourist workplaces (status: 2006), the tourism industry is one of the most important economic factors in the service sector in the summer and winter seasons . Together with the other three communities in the Styrian Salzkammergut, the Altaussee community forms the Ausseerland-Salzkammergut holiday region . This in turn is part of the larger, cross-state tourism region of the Salzkammergut . In 2012 Altaussee had a total of 1,661 guest beds in 152 quarters. Of these, three were hotels, two of them with a four-star standard. Half of the beds were offered in apartments and holiday homes, around 35% in hotels, inns and guest houses and almost 15% in private quarters. The largest share of quarters was made up of around 64% of holiday homes and holiday homes, followed by private rooms (22%). There was also a youth hostel and a campsite.
The tourist businesses in the municipality are more busy in the summer than in the winter. In the winter half of 2009/10, bed occupancy was 19.6%, well below the average for the Liezen district (31.6%). The average length of stay was 4.3 days and the number of overnight stays was 26.7 per inhabitant. Both values are only slightly below the district average (length of stay: 4.7, density of overnight stays: 27.4). In comparison, the bed occupancy in the summer half of 2009/10 was 31.8%, which is well above the average for the district (23.8%). The average length of stay was 3.6 days and the number of overnight stays was 47.4 per inhabitant. The density of overnight stays was clearly above the district average (21.7), the length of stay just below (4.1 days).
Agriculture and mining
Salt has been mined on the Sandling massif near Altaussee without interrupting operations since at least 1147 . Salt mining has made a significant contribution to the development of the place and, in addition to the meager agriculture, has ensured a small but secure income for the population for centuries.
The Salinen Austria AG is today the largest industrial company in the community and employs 57 people (as of 2012). With an annual production of 450,000 tons of salt (as of 2008), the Altaussee salt mine is the largest salt production site in Austria today.
Agriculture and forestry in Altaussee have always been closely connected to mining. Because of their low wages, the miners were mostly forced to secure their livelihoods as part-time farmers. Forestry was also characterized by mining, since the brewing pans of the Bad Aussee saltworks were only fired with wood until the 19th century. This history is also reflected in the current form of agriculture and forestry. The largest forest owners are the state Austrian Federal Forests (the salt mining and the Salinen Austria were also nationalized until 1997). Agriculture is dominated by part-time businesses. In 1999 there were 95 agricultural and forestry businesses in Altaussee, four of which were run as full-time, 81 as part-time businesses and ten as businesses run by legal entities (e.g. the Austrian Federal Forests). Compared to 1995, the number of businesses fell by a total of 11.2%, the number of part-time businesses fell by 11%, and the number of full-time businesses and those of legal entities remained constant. The area used for agriculture and forestry by Altaussee companies in 1999 was 13,070 hectares, of which 96% were owned by legal entities, 3% were part-time farms and only 0.4% were full-time farms. In 1999 the average farm size was 13.8 ha for full-time farms, 5.1 ha for part-time farms and 1,260.5 hectares for legal entities. As the total area of Altaussee is only 9,211.5 hectares, at least 29% of the area cultivated by the local agricultural and forestry operations is outside the municipality.
Due to its relatively remote location in a valley basin, Altaussee is only connected to the national road network in the south. Here it is the Salzkammergutstrasse B 145, which connects the community to the west over the Pötschenpass with Bad Goisern and Bad Ischl and to the east with the Hinterbergtal and further over the Klachauer Höhe with Trautenfels in the Ennstal . The localities of Lupitsch and Lichtersberg are located directly on the Salzkammergut Bundesstraße, the other localities are accessed via Altausseerstraße L 702, which connects Altaussee with Bad Aussee . In addition, there is a larger feeder road, Wimmstraße L 702a, directly from Salzkammergutstraße, which joins Altausseerstraße before the actual start of the village.
The nine kilometer long Loser Panoramastraße (built 1970–1975) also begins in Altaussee . It is operated as a toll road and leads up to above sea level . Since 2001 there have been plans for a direct connection road from Pötschen to the Loser ski area . The aim is to relieve the Altausseerstraße leading through the center of Altaussee. Implementation is planned for 2020, but the financing is still open.
Altaussee can be reached by public transport using the ÖBB-Postbus GmbH buses . The 955 bus connects the community up to twelve times a day to the neighboring community of Bad Aussee (travel time: ten minutes). The closest connection to the rail network is also in Bad Aussee, around four kilometers to the south.
A small, solar-powered excursion boat operates on Lake Altausseer from the end of April to the end of October. From the ship landing stage “Altaussee Madlmaier” near the Altaussee town center, there are one to five trips a day to the Seewiese on the eastern shore of the Altaussee lake and back. The travel time for one way is around 25 minutes.
In the years 1905/06 the construction of a brine pipeline (also called "Salzsträhn") from Altaussee through the Rettenbachtal to Bad Ischl. There it flows into the historic brine pipeline from Hallstatt to the saltworks in Ebensee . The total length of the line is around 36 km. Since the shutdown of the salt works in Bad Aussee in 1983, the brine extracted from the Altaussee salt mine has been flowing exclusively to Ebensee. Previously, the brine had been conveyed from the Altaussee mine on Sandling to the brewhouses in Bad Aussee via a seven-kilometer pipe (documented as "Saltzrynn") since the 13th century. In 1616 this line was renewed. It consisted of 3,784 three meter long wooden pipes.
Education, safety, health and clubs
There has been an independent elementary school in the municipality since 1897. Until 1991 there was also a separate elementary school in the village of Lupitsch. In 1992 the Altaussee school building was completely renovated, in 2008/09 a new gym was built. The school now houses four classes that are supervised by six teachers. Secondary schools up to the Matura are located in the neighboring municipality of Bad Aussee. The nearest full university is in Salzburg, 79 km away .
Altaussee no longer has its own police station, although the area of responsibility of the former gendarmerie post has been attached to the Bad Aussee police station. The volunteer fire brigade was founded in 1877. In addition to the main building opened in 2006 in the Puchen district, it has had its own water weir on Lake Altaussee since 1956 . In addition, there has been an independent fire brigade in the village of Lupitsch since 1919. A task force of the Austrian Mountain Rescue Service was set up in 1952 to rescue mountain victims . A general practitioner is available in the community for health care. To visit a specialist, however, you have to go to the neighboring Bad Aussee. This is also where the LKH Bad Aussee is located, which is operated jointly with the LKH Rottenmann as the “Rottenmann-Bad Aussee Hospital Association”. More than 40 clubs (2012) are registered in the Altaussee community. The oldest club is the Privileged Shooting Society , which was founded around 1793.
sport and freetime
There are eleven sports clubs in Altaussee. The largest is the Altaussee Winter Sports Club (WSV), founded in 1951. The Altausseer football club (FC Altaussee), founded in 1971, was renamed FC Ausseerland in 2011 and has been the only football club in Ausseerland since the dissolution of SV Bad Aussee . In addition to the football pitch, the town has a tennis court and a stick sports facility. Of the registered sports clubs, the Altaussee pigeon shooting club is probably the most unusual sport. In this special form of "pigeon shooting" you aim at a target with a wooden pigeon hanging on a pendulum.
Altaussee offers winter and summer sports opportunities. The Loser-Sandling ski area (850–1770 m) includes 29 km of slopes and runs. In addition, 15 km of cross-country trails (classic and skating) are groomed in the municipality.
The surrounding mountains of the Dead Mountains are accessible through a well-marked hiking network, so the purple path of the cross-border long-distance hiking trail Via Alpina also leads through the municipality. There are also three refuge huts, the Loserhütte , the Ischlerhütte and the Wildenseehütte . The most famous hiking option in the municipality is a tour around the Altausseer See (7.5 km, two hours walking time).
Local council and elections
The municipal council, as the highest body of the municipality, has 15 seats and is elected every five years in the course of Styria-wide municipal council elections; the last election took place in 2020. With a turnout of 69.5%, the number of invalid votes was 1.4%. Three parties competed in the election: the ÖVP , the SPÖ and the first-time candidate for the citizens' list Dialog Lebenswerte Altaussee (DLA). The distribution of mandates was as follows: the ÖVP received seven mandates with 43.7%, the DLA citizens' list with 28.5% and four mandates with the SPÖ with 27.8%.
The ÖVP lost 32.6% compared to the 2015 municipal council elections. The DLA citizens' list, which opposes the tourist sell-out of the municipality, made it to second place with 28.5% off the stand, thus overturning the absolute majority of the previous mayor's party. The third-placed SPÖ was able to gain 4.2% compared to 2015.
Gerald Loitzl has been mayor since 2015.
Due to the mining population, the Social Democrats were traditionally deeply rooted in Altaussee. From 1945 to 2010 they uninterruptedly provided the mayor and the majority in the local council. In the local council elections in 2005 , the SPÖ received 9 and the ÖVP 6 mandates. The municipal council elections in 2010 brought a turning point. For the first time, the ÖVP now had a majority with 9 mandates, the SPÖ received 6. The main reason for this trend reversal towards the ÖVP was the controversy about the new building of the LKH Bad Aussee, against which the SPÖ spoke out. In 2015 , the ÖVP was able to expand its lead and achieved 12 mandates, the SPÖ only 3. Another turnaround was the 2020 municipal council election (see above), when a third political force appeared for the first time in the second republic with the independent citizens' list DLA. The new list of citizens wants to increase the quality of life in the community and is fighting against over-marketing to tourists under the slogan “Altaussee must not become Hallstatt”. Her candidacy was supported by numerous prominent Altaussee residents such as Klaus Maria Brandauer and Barbara Frischmuth as well as the Greens . The decisive factors in the 2020 election were the classic topics of Altaussee local politics: the rising housing and property prices, triggered by numerous non-local investors and many second home owners , the reallocation of building land and the problems associated with overtourism such as road traffic noise and congestion , the destruction of the Nature and the rising cost of living .
coat of arms
“In a silver shield above a golden shield base with the blue mining symbol, a blue mountain that climbs into a blue rock face. A golden bowl rests on the base of the shield, from which a silver spring rises. Mallets and irons in the base of the shield indicate salt mining, which has been practiced here since the 12th century, the bowl with the spring spring on the medicinal brine, the predominant blue color on the lake. The mountain stylizes the silhouette of the Loser and at the same time indicates the Pflindsberg Castle , which has been preserved as a ruin. "
Born in Altaussee
In the field of art and culture, the court jester of August the Strong Joseph Fröhlich (1694–1757) should be mentioned. The photographer Michael Moser (1853–1912), the director Karin Brandauer (1945–1992) and the composer and music teacher Hermann Markus Preßl (1939–1994) also come from Altaussee . The writer Barbara Frischmuth was also born in the community and lives there again. From the field of sport, the alpinist and co-founder of the free climbing style Paul Preuss (1886–1913) should be mentioned, from the political field the home bloc politician Hans Tanzmeister (1892–1955), the ÖVP politician Hermann Gaisbichler (1899–1970) Resistance fighter against National Socialism Marianne Feldhammer (1909–1996) and the SPÖ politician Adolf Schachner (* 1941).
Connected to Altaussee
The most important people associated with Altaussee and who worked there have already been mentioned in the sections on history and art . The current personalities living and working in the community are the industrialist and former politician ( SPÖ ) Hannes Androsch (ring of honor of the Altaussee community), the actor and director Klaus Maria Brandauer (honorary citizen of Altaussee), the painter Horst K. Jandl , the actor Walter Langer , the publicist Paul Lendvai , the German writer and director Hans Neuenfels and the actress Elisabeth Trissenaar should be emphasized.
Well-known people who are buried in the Altaussee cemetery include the geologist and anthropologist Ferdinand Leopold von Andrian-Werburg (1835-1914, honorary citizen of Altaussee), the writer and diplomat Leopold Andrian (1875-1951), the National Socialist writer and Editor Bruno Brehm (1892–1974), the German novelist, screenwriter and director Eberhard Frowein (1881–1964), the Austrian SS officer Wilhelm Höttl (1915–1999), the Italian doctor and psychoanalyst Alice Ricciardi (1910–2008) , the German-Jewish writer Jakob Wassermann (1873–1934) as well as his son Charles Wassermann (1924–1978).
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According to the list of fallen soldiers of the Altaussee war memorial
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