World Music (English World music ) is the one the name for the progresses in the course of globalization resulting hybrids of Western and non-Western music practices. On the other hand, it denotes the sum of the different types of music in the world. According to this, "the term is vague and multidimensional and is accordingly controversial," writes Max Peter Baumann in his MGG article. One of the vagueness of the term is that on the one hand it names forms of music in which musicians from different cultures come together and communicate with one another in a very elementary manner in the sense of a musical conversation, and on the other hand it means expressions of intercultural further development, as they are in the sense of "transculturality" can result from such forms of conversation that are initially non-binding. It is also difficult to distinguish it from the term “global music”, which is often used synonymously.
As far as can be seen, the term was first used in 1905 by the German music theorist Georg Capellen , who understood it to mean an “exotic music style” in the sense of a “music of the future” or a universal metamusic. However, the question of how far Capellen was committed in his ideas to the usurpatory colonial thinking that prevailed in the Wilhelminian age has not yet been answered. The term "World Music" established itself in the academic environment at the beginning of the 1960s, when the American musicologist Robert E. Brown introduced a completely new course of study at Wesleyan University (USA) and the Center for World Music in San Francisco began its activities .
“World Music” became a fashionable term after several operators of mostly smaller, independent record labels met in a London pub in 1987 and searched for a suitable “label” for their productions that did not fit into any of the common areas of the market and turned to “World Music “Had agreed. Since then, the term has become a trademark for a commercially successful branch of music, in which pop music and stylistic elements derived from ethnic music have been combined to create something new, with both the success of the WOMAD festival initiated by Peter Gabriel (since 1982) and the Real World label and the activities of the harpist Rüdiger Oppermann also played a role. He had used the terms “world music” and “world music” in his self-published publication The Flying Carpet in 1983 and was of the opinion that he had invented them. In this context, Oppermann's general definition that world music is "music that brings together different traditions from around the world" is instructive.
The genre became fashionable in the 1980s , and the term became the umbrella term for several traditional styles of music. It lost its definition and was now often used as a synonym for "traditional non-European music". Since for many western musicians of "world music", in addition to their musical interest in the strange, aspects of spirituality also play a role, it is difficult to draw the line from the New Age music that emerged in the late 1970s . The term came under increasing criticism, with political aspects not infrequently also playing a role, because the interplay of western pop stars and non-European tribal musicians usually took place under financially unbalanced conditions and musically was based on a strongly Eurocentric understanding of music. For classical music , the term seems to have been problematic from the start, although it is entirely appropriate. Despite their artistic importance, the compositions that were created after the Second World War and characterized by cross-over thinking and an intercultural spirit of awakening are numerically marginal compared to popular music and jazz, and it is only recently that compositional approaches based on mutual understanding of different cultures have also increased individual representatives of so-called "serious music" . However, rejected by them for reasons of delimitation from the arbitrariness of multicultural music, the term “world music” thus primarily designates a style that has emerged in the sense of borderlines and syntheses from Western popular music and traditional, mostly non-Western forms of music. Recently, individual branches of “world music” have come into the focus of social and cultural-political institutions as a measure to deal with the refugee crisis and as a means of cultural integration .
The European music of the Middle Ages , viewed as a whole, can only be understood as a symbiosis of Central European and Near Eastern elements. The influences that came from the Orient to the knightly courts and late medieval cities of Central Europe as a result of trade relationships and armed conflicts range from the upgrading of instrumental play compared to the predominantly spiritual oriented vocal music to individual singing and playing styles. However, when musical polyphony emerged and developed to the heyday of the written polyphony , the music of non-European cultures received the stamp of the "bizarre", "primitive" and "wild". Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, however, knew how to exploit this exotic charm in a virtuoso manner when he echoes Turkish janissary music in his compositions Rondo alla turca (3rd movement of the piano sonata KV 311; 1777) and the opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail (KV 384; 1782) built in. All in all, however, such sounds remained rather foreign bodies and were banned from cultural life and defamed by nationalist regimes, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries. A partial loosening only set in when the own folk song was "discovered" in the Romantic era . To the extent that such national songs and musicians served the goals of the rulers, they have now been ideologically upgraded and cultivated. Representatives of art music, on the other hand, continued to steer clear of the supposedly “simple” music of foreign cultures. - Since Napoleon's campaigns of conquest, there has been an intensive exchange between France and North Africa, which has had an effect on Parisian art in literature, painting and music in the form of a pronounced orientalism. In 1844 , the composer Félicien David , who had lived in Algeria for a long time, performed an ode symphony entitled “Le Désert” [The Desert], a mixture of program symphony , oratorio and melodrama. The muezzin call "Allahu Akbar" is used as a quote. Hector Berlioz , who was among the audience, noticed a "scale of intervals that are smaller than semitones and which was a great surprise for the audience". Influenced by this successful piece, Ernest Reyer wrote a “Symphonie orientale” in 1850 with the title “Le Sélam”.
Even outside of the European cultural area, different forms of music were mixed up again and again in earlier centuries. Peter Frankopan describes the Central Asian cultural area as the cradle of early high cultures. “At this interface between East and West, large metropolises were founded almost five thousand years ago,” and from here religions, languages and forms of music spread to the west and far into the east. The effects of the Great Migration (4th – 6th centuries) on music have so far been largely unexplored, so more details can only be found in later times, when detailed historiography is available. For example, in the 14th century, after violent armed conflicts in the area of today's Iran, the great empire of the Timurids emerged, whose characteristics included cultural openness and the integration of Central Asian as well as Near and Far Eastern arts and religious practices. The Persian music writer Hafez-i Abru reports on the music practice at the Timurid court in the 14th century: "They sang and played motifs in Persian style on Arabic melodies according to Turkish custom with Mongolian voices and followed Chinese singing principles and meters from the Altai."
As one of the most popular mixed forms of different styles in the USA towards the end of the 19th century, jazz draws on harmonics and western sense of form developed in Europe, with European instruments such as trumpet , double bass and banjo being played. The traditional western elements are subjected to a rhythm that refers back to the musical perception of African musical cultures and a special, rough tone formation. Improvisation , which is rather underdeveloped in western music, also plays a major role. Spontaneous interaction such as call and response break up the regularity of the musical processes and create a feeling of spontaneity in both the musicians and the listeners. “The presence of a kind of basic musical attitude of African character was essential for African-Americans to grapple with European music.” Jazz has remained lively as a form of music and has gained artistic depth since the 1950s, so that it overlaps with Western music Avant-garde art music and mutual influence are among the essential characteristics of modern jazz . Since then, the original characteristics of jazz as an Afro-American form of music have given way to thinking shaped and influenced by global-ethnic musical styles.
1900 to 1960
At the end of the 19th century, compositions with oriental elements had become fashionable in Western concert halls . In 1896, Camille Saint-Saëns wrote his 5th Piano Concerto , which was nicknamed the “Egyptian Concerto” because the composer processed the auditory impressions of a trip to Egypt in it. As a sign of an attitude towards life marked by prosperity, pieces like Sheharazade by Nikolai Andrejewitsch Rimski-Korsakow (1888) reflect a worldview shaped by colonialism. “Impressionism” and the music by Claude Debussy influenced by it were discussed in the Paris salons . At the world exhibition in Paris (1889) he got to know the sounds of a Sundanese gamelan orchestra and was able to discover convergences between his own and foreign tonal language. There are numerous accounts of this in the literature, but so far only correct studies of what was actually heard in Paris can be found in Jean-Pierre Chazal. Deep gongs in the orchestra, gong sounds in the piano and harmonics freed from Western cadence thinking were some of the new stylistic devices that shape the sound in compositions such as the ballet Khamma (1911/12), developed according to ancient Egyptian ideas . Influenced by this, the Polish composer Karol Szymanowski composed a cycle of four love songs based on texts by Rabindranath Tagore ( op.41 ) and the song cycle Songs of a Muezzin in Love based on poems by Jarosław Iwazskiewicz ( op.42 ). As in the love songs of Hafez (op. 24 and op. 26) based on texts by the Persian mystic Hafis from 1914, Szymanowsky is inspired by the music of the Near East. The Far Eastern echoes in the symphonic song cycle Das Lied von der Erde (1907/08) by Gustav Mahler can also be seen in the same context .
At the beginning of the 20th century, the German-Italian Ferruccio Busoni developed bold ideas for overcoming the traditional conception of music and for expanding sound sources and sound systems . Above all, more precise studies of traditional music from non-European cultures came into focus. Grown up cosmopolitan and world citizen in spirit, Busoni a. a. Connections also to North America. In 1910, on one of his trips to the USA, he was given The Indians' Book by Natalie Curtis (1907), a comprehensive study of the culture of the Indians with 200 transcriptions of Indian songs. Without explicitly using the term “world music”, Busoni was committed to this culture, which had been marginalized by official politics, and planned to incorporate some of these melodies into a play in which entire Indian ceremonies were to be performed realistically on the stage. The transfer of the melodies into an overall context shaped by Western thinking turned out to be difficult. Busoni's plans finally resulted in an “Indian Fantasy” for piano and orchestra (1914) as well as the “Indianische Tagebuch I” for piano and the “Indianische Tagebuch II” for orchestra (both 1915). Like Busoni, Maurice Ravel was steeped in compassion for threatened peoples with anti-colonial and anti-capitalist ideas. In 1925/26 he set three poems by Évariste de Parny , who was born on the island of Réunion , to music , in which he addressed the fate of the indigenous people. In the resulting chansons madécasses [Madagascar songs], Ravel found a new kind of tonal language, the proximity of which to the ethnic music of the Indian Ocean, however, does not come to light and can rather be found in the percussive ornamentation of the piano and the statics of the harmonic processes. The Hungarian composer Béla Bartók is one of the pioneers of world music insofar as he removed the boundaries between art and folk music and found ways to merge both genres. In the years before World War I, Bartók began researching the music of the Carpathian region and expanded folklore studies to include the entire Balkans as far as Libya (1913) and Turkey (1936). He succeeded in developing a tonal language that includes elements of what he calls “peasant music” as well as the highly developed techniques of classical music, and which is a model for integrative composition techniques. In the 1930s, the Canadian Colin McPhee transferred Balinese ceremonial music to the piano. In Tabuh-Tabuhan (1936), a "Toccata" for orchestra and two pianos, he merges classical European and Balinese stylistic devices into a unique new tonal language. Influences of Southeast Asian musical traditions can also be demonstrated in the concerto for two pianos and orchestra by the Frenchman Francis Poulenc from 1932. The latter had heard such music during the Exposition Coloniale de Paris (1931) and then found his own new style. Otherwise, the French Olivier Messiaen is to be regarded as the most influential composer in this field, who has seriously studied traditional non-European music and has thus developed his own style. In 1945, under the influence of a mythology from the South American Andes, he wrote the song cycle Harawi for soprano and piano, after having spoken about the meaning of Indian rhythms in his work “Technique de mon langage musical” the year before. Research has now corrected the fact that Messiaen did not adapt the Indian tala system, as previously assumed, but only used it in the sense of inspiration for numerical procedures in dealing with rhythm. An approach to Indian music can at most be spoken of in the case of the 10-movement “Turangalîla” symphony (1946–1948) by Messiaen. Here, the link between the cultures is not just any compositional technique, but rather the religious theme that is close to Indian spirituality. - In 1956 the English composer Benjamin Britten studied the native form of gamelan music during a stay in Bali . Britten's ballet music The Prince of the Pagodas (1954–1957) achieved a previously unknown effect by using a true-to-note transfer of original Balinese music . - In the course of the national consciousness awakened in the course of the 19th century, approaches to mixing Central European and local musical practices can also be registered on the edges of Europe. The opera Leyli va Majnun (Leyla and Majnun), composed by Üzeyir Hacıbəyov , was premiered in Baku (Azerbaijan) in 1908 , in which “the oriental intervals and stringed instruments are woven into the European symphonics surprisingly well”.
The trend in Germany ran counter to this. While ideas such as the futuristic visions presented by Busoni in his key work Draft of a New Aesthetics of Music (1906) and von Capellen's concept of a “future music ” (see above) were possible up to the First World War, at the end of the war, at the latest, critics of national thinking sat down shaped ideas of demarcation towards everything foreign. Politically influential even before 1933, they soon had the say with the victory of National Socialism and tried to prevent any foreign influence, especially in the cultural field. Architecture, music, art and literature were made into instruments of politics to convince the Germans of the size and purity of their race. Those who did not follow this ideology were massively persecuted. Isolated from all approaches to “world music”, Germany only experienced something like a new beginning after 1945 through institutions for intellectual “retraining” such as the British Information Center Die Brücke , the Amerika-Haus and the Institut français . Especially jazz , which the Nazis called nigger music and whose performance in Germany was more or less consistently prevented, was now able to prevail. Other American fashion dances quickly came into fashion, as did the Americanization of Germany in general .
With the newly created possibilities of communication and travel, a new era of world music thinking and acting had dawned. Above all, it was the media of sound recording and storage that ensured cultural networking and made the music of foreign peoples available and accessible worldwide. This new type of globalization naturally also had consequences in terms of artistic expression, but not infrequently led to rather superficial encounters and to artistically unconvincing forms of mixing. Due to the ethnic diversity of the population in the USA, interest in the different kinds of music around the world arose relatively early. Mostly it was easily catchy music that was suitable for partying and dancing, but academic interest in the origins of such music had also increased and the question of its authenticity had come into focus. The “Center for World Music”, founded in San Francisco in 1963, tried to meet the demand for non-European instrumental and vocal teachers and has been a concert organizer ever since. As early as the 1950s, musicians in the USA had enriched popular music with South American, especially Brazilian elements. Since the 1960s, the musicians of jazz have expanded their musical language in the direction of specifically Indian and African sounds, melodies and rhythms. One of the first world musicians in this sense is the American jazz clarinetist Tony Scott who, after a five-year stay in Asia, recorded the album "Music For Zen Meditation" together with the koto player Shinichi Yuize in 1964. In 1961, John Coltrane explored the roots of Indian and African music with "Olé Coltrane", "African Brass" and "India". Rock bands like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones also began to experiment with Indian and Arabic sounds in the second half of the 1960s . The Indian sitar player Ravi Shankar was very popular in the West at the time. He taught the sitar to George Harrison of the Beatles , recorded two LPs with violinist Yehudi Menuhin in 1967 and performed at the Woodstock Festival in 1969 . His appearance at the UN General Assembly in 1967, where he played Raga Piloo with Menuhin, attracted particular attention . With his so-called Mahavishnu Orchestra and later with his Shakti project, the English fusion musician John McLaughlin aroused interest in traditional Indian music in his audience. In the early 1960s, a new type of " Exotica " music had developed in the USA, combining jazz, pop with Latin American , African and Hawaiian elements. However, little emphasis was placed on authenticity . The disco music that was emerging at this time was also strongly influenced by African sounds. Incidentally, this was the time when more and more musicians from non-European countries came to Western countries as political refugees or labor migrants. With the increased interest in non-European music, they also gained influence. Interest in African music was particularly strong during the US civil rights movement . In this context, the South Africans Miriam Makeba and shortly afterwards Hugh Masekela became stars in the West.
In post-war Germany all kinds of jazz and some of the Latin American musical styles had become popular. The music journalist Joachim Ernst Berendt advocated a hitherto largely unknown form of global jazz in his radio broadcasts on the then Südwestfunk , in his books and in record editions, with the aim of promoting the opening up to the new and the foreign . With the help of the Goethe Institute, he also brought German jazz musicians (including the Albert Mangelsdorff Quintet) together on Asian tours with local musicians. In 1983 he organized the “Jazz and World Music” festival in New York, at which groups such as “Codona” and the “ Art Ensemble of Chicago ” presented their experimental mix of jazz and world music . All of these approaches were characterized by an open-minded attitude on the part of the musicians and a genuine interest in what is different and strange. It remains to be seen whether the result is music that is sustainable in the sense of transculturalism.
Basically, when elements from traditional music of foreign ethnic groups are taken over in the context of composed so-called art music, the problem arises that such music is predominantly handed down in non-written and improvised form. The character of an artistically designed work and the conception of music on which tribal music is based do not go well together. Above all, the playing techniques of non-European instruments require a thorough study in order to gain access to notated forms, as Western musical notation in general presents great difficulties with the easily readable and playable representation of foreign, non-tempered tone systems. In the case of the composers who can be assigned to art music, a distinction was usually made between them and all forms of improvised music. Not least because of the lack of definition, “e-composers” prefer to avoid the term “world music” and instead speak of a “music museum of the earth” ( Karlheinz Stockhausen 1973) or “integral world music between the worlds” ( Peter Michael Hamel 1976). Early examples of the use of world music in the European new music scene are the electronic composition Telemusik (1966), based on recorded music from all over the world, and the Indian songs Am Himmel wandre ich (1972) by Karlheinz Stockhausen.
Occasionally, representatives of so-called “serious music” began to break up the self-image that had been narrowed by traditions of thought, whereby socially critical ideas came into play, which can be seen in connection with the 1968 movement . Out of political conviction, Hans Werner Henze held a visiting professorship in Havana , Cuba in 1969/1970 and took up the theme of the slave problem in a work premiered there. In his recital “ El Cimarrón ”, which has the subtitle “Autobiography of the escaped slave Esteban Montejo”, he also uses a traditional Yoruba rhythm as an indication of the African origin of most of the slaves . The Swiss composer Tona Scherchen, who emerged from a mixed marriage and who spent many years of her youth in her mother's home country (China) and who has been writing pieces since the late 1960s, is one of the pioneers of world music Avant-garde were committed, but on the other hand were rooted in their ideas in Chinese philosophy. The Italian composer Giacinto Scelsi is to be seen in the same context , whose works were created under the influence of Indian religion and philosophy, but sound European in their diction. "The trips to India and other Asian countries changed Scelsi's perception of sound and time, influenced his search for a different musical expression and radically renewed his music."
As early as 1961, the American Lou Harrison wrote compositions for Southeast Asian gamelan instruments such as the Concerto in Slendro and used medieval dances, rituals of the Navaho Indians, early Californian mission music and the court music of Korea in his works. Open to the influences of foreign cultures, he learned to play the Chinese zither Guzheng himself and, together with his partner William Colvig, built an American gamelan set of instruments. Artistic testimonies such as the concert for the Chinese pipa and orchestra (1997) and his playing on the tack piano he invented , as well as his whole concept of life, show the extent to which Harrison realizes the principle of transculturality. - In the early 1960s, the Korean composer Isang Yun had begun to use Western “avant-garde” spelling in works such as Loyang for chamber ensemble (1962), Gasa for violin and piano (1963) and Garak for flute and piano (1963) To expand stylistic elements and forms of performance of the traditional music of his homeland. Yun achieved his international breakthrough and worldwide attention with the world premiere of the orchestral work Réak (1966) at the Donaueschinger Musiktage (1966). Here the sounds of the Korean mouth organ Ssaenghwang are reproduced in an orchestral setting that at first glance appears to be typically avant-garde. In later years, too, Yun repeatedly used Korean elements and content in his music.
Since the early 1970s, there has been a noticeably strong interest in non-European music throughout the western world. In general, with increasing openness, politically and socially relevant questions are now being seen and discussed in a global context, and socially viable forms of growing together of world cultures are sought. The basis of this new openness to topics such as “world music” is the 1968 movement .
In Germany, the jazz rock band “Embryo” formed from a Munich music collective in the early 1970s . One of the special features of this group, which still exists today, is that they have repeatedly opened up to the music of the host countries on their tours and their typical intercultural style in interaction with musicians such as Shoba Gurtu , TAS Mani , RA Ramamani , Mahmoud Gania and Okay Temiz has found. Typical of the profile of this group is the CD "Embryo's Reise" (1979), where, in addition to the regular musicians, a number of instrumentalists from the Indian subcontinent play. - Stephan Micus , a musician with a wide range of interests, brought back an arsenal of instruments from his trips around the world, most of which he had local teachers instruct him on. In 1976, as a result of studying the Indian sitar, he wrote As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams . To date, he has released over 20 records and CDs on which Micus picks up the instruments and sounds of the most diverse world cultures and reflects them compositionally. According to his own statement, it is "above all a matter of removing the instruments from their original context and creating a completely new world of sound for them." - How ambiguous the term "world music" is can be seen, among other things, from the fact that a The Story of I (1976) album published by Patrick Moraz , partly in South America, partly in Switzerland (with bassist Jeff Berlin among others ) and Brazilian rhythms with pop music , progressive rock , romantic neoclassical music , musical elements and jazz connects, was called "the first album of world music" due to this stylistic breadth.
The “ Olympische Spielstrasse ”, which was brought into being by the composer Josef Anton Riedl as part of the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich , brought the hitherto little-known sounds of African and Latin American rhythm groups to an astonished audience. On the same occasion, the piece "Exotica" composed by Mauricio Kagel for non-European instruments was performed. - The “Metamusik” festival in Berlin, organized every two years between 1974 and 1978 by Walter Bachauer, also had a signal effect. Here, “a new type of festival was created by combining the European avant-garde with American and non-European influences”. "The prefix meta stood for a boxless and boxless musical awareness."
In the area of so-called “serious music”, the German pianist and composer Peter Michael Hamel should be mentioned first, who played with musicians from all over the world and developed a mixed style of classical-avant-garde piano playing and non-European improvisations. Long periods of study in India and careful listening to concerts with South American musicians and gamelan groups resulted in compositions such as Balijava (1971), Mandala and Dharana (both 1972). Spiritual influences as well as stylistic elements of Latin American, North African and Far Eastern music shape the entire compositional work of Hamel. In this context, the “Intercultural Music Institute Aschau i. Chiemgau ”, which carries out concerts of music in loose succession, which the organizer defines as“ integrative ”. - For the German composer Hans Zender , the preoccupation with Japanese philosophy and religion led to a series of “Japanese” pieces (1975–2009) in which the Western thinking about development and progress is opposed to the aspect of a non-Western experience of time. The ones with Lo-Shu [jap. Magical Numbers Square] (1977–1997) has, as the composer says, “nothing at all to do with traditional Chinese or Japanese music” and should be understood as “building a bridge between East and West on the level of thought and design” become. Four Enso [jap. Kreis] for two instrumental groups (1997) use musical means to describe the image of emptiness shaped by Zen Buddhism. - Finally , the composer Dieter Mack , who came from pop music and was strongly influenced by Frank Zappa , should be mentioned, who made his first contacts with Balinese music in 1978 and developed an individual and independent musical language from the "subtle and respectful reception of Indonesian cultures" developed. For Mack, “the clash of cultures or their representatives” is one of the “fundamental realities of human existence” and “one's own musical language” is nothing more than “the cumulative result of a comprehensive transformation of all experiences that one has at any given point in time Bears life in itself. ”Although many of his compositions have Indonesian titles, such as B. Angin (indones. "Wind" / 1988/2003 ), Gado-Gado (indones. "Vegetable salad" / 2005), Balungan (indones. " Main melody" / 1993), or Preret (indones. Wind instrument / 1983) and non-European When instruments are used (e.g. the Japanese zither Koto together with oboe and violin in a trio from 2017), the listener experiences in these pieces less an appropriation of the sounds that Mack describes as “culturally immanent” (i.e. Asian) than music that is “authentic” in a transcultural sense.
In 1977, the Canadian composer wrote Claude Vivier with Pulau Dewata a work on musical experiences in Bali back. Vivier writes: “ Pulau Dewata , whose title means 'Island of the Gods' in Indonesian, is a composition that pays homage to the wonderful Balinese people. The whole piece is nothing but a melody, the rhythmic language of which is sometimes borrowed from the Balinese rhythm. A tribute full of memories of this island. The end of the piece is an exact quote from the 'panjit prana', the Legong's sacrificial dance. 'Intervalised' melodies alternate with complementary melodies in the style of Balinese music. ”- A year later, the English composer Michael Tippett wrote a concerto for three solo instruments and a western symphony orchestra. In doing so, he implements listening impressions of Balinese music that he had had a few weeks earlier.
The presentation of the classical sector of "world music" would be incomplete without taking account of e-composers from non-European countries. Increasingly, starting in Japan, then later in Korea and China as well as other countries, the representatives of the musical avant-garde, after having learned the contemporary Western techniques, turned to the traditional music of their home countries and discovered possibilities of a synthesis in the synthesis of styles who in turn influenced the composers of the western world. Mention should be made here of the Japanese Toru Takemitsu , who in his compositions November Steps (1967) and Autumn (1973) contrasts the Japanese instruments biwa and shakuhachi with the western symphony orchestra and with In an Autumn Garden (1973–1979) a work for traditional Japanese gagaku Orchestra created. - The Korean Younghi Pagh-Paan should also be mentioned in this context , who has worked in works such as Pa-Mun [korean] since the beginning of her music studies (first in Seoul, later in Germany with Klaus Huber ) . “Waves”] for piano (1971), Nun [korean. "Schnee"] for voice, percussion and 18 instruments (1978/79) or Madi [korean. "Knots"] for 12 instrumentalists (1981) reflects on their Korean roots. She made internationally known the performance of her orchestral work Sori [korean. "Ruf", "Schrei", "Klang" etc.] at the Donaueschinger Musiktage (1980). - The traditional art music of India is so highly developed and inherently stable and protected against changes that possible globalization approaches had to bounce off it for a long time without result. But from the 1970s onwards, composers such as Nikhil Ghosh , Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan began to modernize the "Indian art music practice, both in terms of sound conception and educationally and institutionally" on the subcontinent . - In the Indonesian cultural area, too, attempts were made to combine local traditions with Western ideas. Here it was above all the Javanese composer Slamet Abdul Sjukur (1935–2015), who had studied in Paris with Olivier Messiaen and Henri Dutilleux and then lived and taught in Jakarta and Surabaya, and with his compositions that were sometimes close to musical minimalism met with international interest. Works like Latigrak for gamelan instruments and tape (1963), Ronda Malam for Anklung ensemble (1975), Kangen for Japanese instruments (1986), the large-scale gamelan pieces GAME-Land I and II (2004/05) But above all, his compositions for western instruments reveal a high degree of transcultural thinking. With this approach, however, it must not be ignored that many of the non-European traditions per se tend to change and that there are developments inherent in culture that cannot be attributed to global influences.
1980s and 1990s
The euphoria that set in in many places at the beginning of the 1970s continued and “world music” experienced an enormous boom in the 1980s and 1990s. Significant for this trend is the book title “Dance of Cultures”, which the authors Joana Breidenbach and Ina Zukrigl put in front of the exploration of cultural identity in a globalized world. In this context, the name “Carnival of Cultures”, which the organizers have given their city festival that has been taking place in Berlin since 1996, is also revealing. Her motif: "During the Carnival of Cultures, the public space becomes a place for self-determined staging and playing with identity." A book publication from 1993 in which Paul Gilroy critically undercuts terms such as Eurocentrism and Afrocentrism is also revealing in this context takes the magnifying glass and sees the cultural area of the "Black Atlantic" as a whole with various influences from the four continents.
In Europe and North America in particular, the most varied of world music festivals and world music fairs have sprung up, including the WOMAD Festival (since 1982), which dates back to Peter Gabriel and his label Real World, and where many of the artists and bands from all over the world who are unknown in the West performed . So were Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan from Pakistan and Youssou N'Dour from Senegal in the west known. The World Music Institute, which emerged from the New York “Alternative Museum” in 1985, functioned under the direction of Robert and Helene Browning as a stock exchange and information center for all branches of non-Western music. Stars from all continents got performances here, but they often produced their music under western conditions, i. H. for the European and North American market, sometimes with western musicians and western equipment, which often led to the adaptation of their music to western musical tastes. In the 1990s, it became almost a fashion for Western musicians to “make use” of non-European musicians. The musicians of a Brazilian metal band such as Sepultura were accompanied by Indians of the Xavante tribe on their record "Roots" (1996). Bands like Cornershop , Transglobal Underground or Asian Dub Foundation , which a priori consisted of mostly British musicians with an oriental background, were looking for new ways of ethno-inspired indie pop . In the broadest sense, world music was also played by punk bands that were inspired by European folklore, such as Dropkick Murphys or Flogging Molly with Irish-Celtic folk elements or Gogol Bordello with (south) east European folk music. The multi-instrumentalist Amy Denio from Seattle also strived for the symbiosis of jazz, punk and indie rock with folk music traditions in her music. During these years so-called “world musicians” like Ofra Haza and Mory Kanté were also able to record “chart” successes in the West.
The album Crêuza de mä by the Italian cantautore Fabrizio De André (in collaboration with former PFM member Mauro Pagani ) from 1984 also played a role, which is characterized by non-European sounds but is sung in the old Genoese dialect . Thus the spectrum of world music was expanded to include traditional folk music and expanded from the exoticizing "ethno" to the repertoire of European music ethnography. From this emerged as an offshoot of world music New Folk Music , which, starting from the Alpine region, approaches local songs just as free of prejudice and “modern” as classical world music approaches non-European music. - In 1986 the American musician Paul Simon had great success with the album Graceland, which was produced together with the Senegalese singer Youssou N'Dour and the South African groups Ladysmith Black Mambazo and Stimela .
Another important project came into being in 1990. Under the name One World One Voice , the musicians Kevin Godley and Rupert Hine initiated a largely coherent piece of music on which over 50 different musicians and bands from all over the world worked together, including Afrika Bambaataa , Laurie Anderson , Mari Boine , Clannad , Johnny Clegg , Peter Gabriel , Bob Geldof , David Gilmour , Lou Reed , Ryuichi Sakamoto , Sting , Suzanne Vega and the Leningrad Symphony Orchestra . A music album and a film with the history and video of the music were produced at the same time. The project should show that music is a medium, a language that is "spoken" and understood worldwide.
In view of the abundance of new “world music” activities, in 1991 the most important of the broadcasting corporations in the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) came together to form a world music workshop . The favorite recordings from the world music scene, named at monthly intervals by the editors of the participating stations, are compiled into so-called World Music Data Charts . From this, the most popular titles are published in charts . This measure also has an impact on the CD market.
The history of classical music in the 20th century was mainly written from the perspective of the development and progressiveness of the sound material. A direct path seemed to lead from Wagner's chromatics via Schönberg's twelve-tone technique to seriality , with countless composers and their works being disregarded under the verdict of traditionalism. Characteristic for this point of view are terms such as “modern” music and “avant-garde”. But it seems that further development of the sound material beyond the long-exhausted possibilities of electronics is impossible. Towards the end of the 20th century there were increasing signs of a rethink under the label of postmodernism. In particular, the hope of many younger authors is directed towards world music with all its diversity and tradition. With a philosophical approach , the composer Wolfgang-Andreas Schultz takes a distance from the mainstream thinking of most e-composers and suggests “enriching and developing one's own tradition in exchange with other cultures.” For him, the occidental legacy is but not only the starting point and center point for a tonal language enriched with individual facets of the non-European. Rather, he sees the equality of all cultures in the world as an opportunity for a new humanity, and in his opinion “Western culture would then only represent one of many possible encounters.” Author of compositions such as “ Das Federgewand - a chamber opera based on a Japanese one Nô-Spiel ”(1978),“ Shiva - a dance poem for flute and orchestra ”(1990/91) or also“ Sawitri and Satiawan - an Indian legend for orchestra ”(2018/19), Schultz decidedly represents the position of a representative“ integral “thinking.
Since then, there has been more and more music that shows that European avant-garde composers are opening up towards non-European traditions. In 1990 the Japanese Mayumi Miyata introduced the traditional mouth organ Sho to the amazed composers at the Darmstadt Summer Courses for New Music . Among the audience was John Cage , who spontaneously decided to compose a piece for the Japanese musician. Cage, who had studied Zen Buddhism in the 1950s , sensed the artistic potential of the small instrument and wrote One9 for Solo-Shô and two³ for Shô and waterfilled conch shells (both in 1991).
For the German composer Gerhard Stäbler , the Sho means a connection to the world of ancient Japan. With Palast des Schweigens for Solo-Shô (1992/93) he wrote the core of his "Kassandra" project. In his opera Das Mädchen mit den Schwefelhölzern (1988–1996) Helmut Lachenmann used the instrument at a central point. With a long sho solo, an angel embodies the afterlife in the death scene. - The fascination of the Korean zither Gayageum for Western composers was just as great . For example, the Swiss Klaus Huber wrote a piece with Rauhe brush tip for Gayageum and Korean Buk (1992) as a symbol of overcoming the “enlightenment of Western musical thinking” and turning towards a “comprehensive humanism”. The work is based on old Korean traditions and is dedicated to the composer Isang Yun . Huber, who has also dealt with Arabic music , wrote the “Assemblage” The Earth Turns on the Horns of a Bull for four Arab and two European musicians and tape based on a text by Mahmud Doulatabadi (1992/93). - The German composer Karsten Gundermann was the first foreign student to study at the National Academy of Chinese Theater Arts in Beijing and composed the Beijing opera Die Nachtigall based on a fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen for a performance there . The piece, which was premiered in Beijing in 1993, is a combination of European and Chinese musical traditions.
Among all the works by György Ligeti , it is the Violin Concerto (1990/92) that clearly shows the composer's openness to European and non-European folk music. Constantin Floros describes this compositional approach as a “universalism” developed “beyond avant-garde and postmodernism” and explains: “As Béla Bartók once did from Hungarian peasant music, Ligeti today draws inspiration for his diverse work from the unconsumed music of many ethnic groups. The geographical keywords with ethnomusic significance that appear in the sketches for the violin concerto are particularly revealing. ”If you follow this note, you will find references to Hungarian, Trans-Danubian, Transylvanian, Romanian and Gypsy music, but also to music from Africa (Cameroon , Nigeria, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Madagascar) and from the Far East (Thailand, Vietnam, Bali, Cambodia etc.). Edu Haubensak describes Ligeti's works as “distillations from musical styles around the globe. Everything can resonate with Ligeti, everywhere we find rhythmic and melodic textures from non-European musical cultures that he has studied intensively. "
In the mid-1990s, the German composer Klaus Hinrich Stahmer performed his songlines, which were based on the traditional music of the Australian natives . Composed solo parts for Western instruments correspond with so-called soundscapes from nature recordings and ethnic music and create mythical sound rituals. In Tchaka for four drummers (1995), Stahmer attempted to recreate the rhythms of African tribal musicians.
Even more important than the interest of Western composers in non-European musical traditions is the "appearance of composers from other continents on the international stage" observed by Björn Heile. “Until then, the direction of cultural exchange was largely predetermined, but globalization has now developed a new geographic-cultural dynamic. Despite the continued dominance of the West, musical globalization can no longer be equated with the relationship between the West and the rest of the world. ”Heile favors Gilles Deleuze and Félix for this new phenomenon of the participation of non-European composers in modern serious music Guattari coined term of deterritorialization. It can hardly be overlooked that global action and interaction also harbors the risk of leveling out. With little artistic potency and a lack of criticism borne by euphoria, a kind of musical “mash” often arises that makes all regional specifics disappear and sounds the same or at least similar worldwide. Occasional composers counter this dissolution of the particular by using local musical styles and compositional peculiarities as a corrective. The term glocalization has become established for this.
Such tones became known in the western world when the American Kronos Quartet presented works by the Africans Justinian Tamusuza, Hamza El Din , Dumisani Maraire and Kevin Volans on their CD Pieces of Africa (1992) . In Germany people became aware of these and other names when Klaus Hinrich Stahmer performed the music of more than 20 African composers as part of his festival “Schwarzer Kontinent - Weiße Fleck” (Würzburg 1995) and in the edition series “New African Music Project “ Published professionally by Berliner Verlag Neue Musik . Above all, authors such as the Nigerian Akin Euba , the Egyptian Gamal Abdel-Rahim, the South African Stefans Grové and the aforementioned Justinian Tamusuza, who lives in Uganda, should be mentioned. Kwabena Nketia from Ghana had a decisive influence on a specifically African style . In 2009, at his instigation, the Nketia Music Foundation was brought into being, as the founding charter says, “to secure and develop Ghana's creative heritage in the sense of the present.” In Japan it was primarily Toshio Hosokawa , his musical Thinking from the start revolved around a fusion of old Far Eastern design criteria with Western-style avant - garde music. Worth mentioning here are his works for Western and Japanese orchestras such as Tokyo 1985 for Shômyô and Gagaku orchestra (1985) and Utsurohi-Nagi for Shô , string orchestra, harp, celesta and percussion (1996). The Japanese Keiko Harada melts suggestions from Japanese culture and in doing so achieves (in the western sense) stringent solutions in works such as The 5th Season II for Sheng, Daegum, Koto, Changgu and western string instruments (2012-2013).
In the People's Republic of China, after the storms of the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), a cultural activity gradually got back into motion, which also made exchange with Western countries possible. The composer Jia Guoping (* 1963) was able to study with Helmut Lachenmann in Stuttgart from 1987 to 1991 as a DAAD scholarship holder and brought with him a great interest in traditional Chinese instruments when he returned home. Since 2001 he has been writing modern music for Far Eastern and Western instruments, including The Wind sounds in the Sky for Sheng , cello and drums (2002) and Whispers of a gentle Wind for Pipa , Guzheng , Sheng and Banhu (2011).
For Xiaoyong Chen (* 1955) the way to the West was even more difficult than for Jia. He studied with György Ligeti from 1985 to 1989 and has lived in Hamburg ever since. With San Jie (1990/91), Chen wrote his first work for Chinese orchestra. A mixture of Far Eastern and Western instruments can be found in Invisible Landscapes for Zheng , (Western) drums, piano and ensemble (1998). Basics of the Chinese conception of music can be found in all works, but the interest in Chinese instruments can be seen in pieces such as Watermarks for Sheng and Ensemble (2009/15) and Talking through Distance for Pipa and (Western) Flute (2014).
The Chinese composer Chou Wen-chung , who has lived in the USA since 1946 , also strived for a synthesis of eastern and western elements. Works like Echoes from the gorge (1989) and Windswept Peaks (1990) show his compelling artistic response. East - Green - Spring is the title of a piece by the Japanese artist Maki Ishii , in which the old Chinese conception of music and Western composition techniques collide.
The classical music of India is a highly developed art music, which per se hardly has any affinity for change or fusion with non-Indian elements. But even here there are now intercultural processes. B. in the opera Ramanujan (1998) by the German-Indian composer Sandeep Bhagwati . This artist, who grew up in Germany, also curated projects that dealt with the encounter between Western and Indian composers (see and 2000s ). The internationally successful album Resonance by the Madras String Quartet is worth mentioning in this context . The Indian drummer and composer Ganesh Anandan is also open to intercultural cooperation. In his playing, elements of Indian classical music and techniques from other cultures have found fascinating hybrid forms.
In New Zealand, too, efforts were made to reconcile one's own musical heritage with the achievements of Western avant-garde music. Here it was above all Jack Body who in his opera Alley (1997) fused elements of Peking opera with ethno music and classical modernism. The Australian Rudolf Crivici combines the sounds of the Australian didgeridoo , an Indian tabla and a western string quartet in pieces such as Flat Earth (1996) and Interplanetary Dreaming (1998).
The Silk Road Project , launched in 2000 by the cellist Yo-Yo Ma , in which musicians and composers from all over Asia work together and put together programs that have now been performed in 30 countries around the world, has a prominent position . “The music we play is contemporary and old at the same time, it sounds familiar and yet also strange, it is both traditional and innovative, it refers to traditions from all over the world and is looking for a new language like that global society of our 21st century. ”In many cases there are world stars such as Rabih Abou-Khalil , Alim Qasimov or Hu Jianbing , but also masters of Western instrumental playing who, together with Yo-Yo Ma, are at the service of a musically convincing performance by Provide scores by composers from Mongolia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan or Tajikistan. In addition to knowledge of musical notes, the willingness to improvise also plays a major role. Far from serving exclusively the promotion of young talent or the presentation of younger composers, the project is about the performance of effective pieces, with the music of successful composers such as Zhao Jiping or Wache Scharafjan generating enthusiasm in the audience and in the press.
In 2000, composer and songwriter Roland Zoss created the world music project " Muku-Tiki-Mu " in Bern in collaboration with the Unesco commission . The 28 songs and musical styles revolve around endangered animals and peoples. In the "dance from baroque to rock" 50 musicians and sound masters play on 68 instruments. For the first time they combine the Bernese dialect with world languages and musical styles: jazz, reggae, rock, sirtaki, yodel, salsa, Cajun, Asian and African music with baroque and Indian raga. The project laid the foundation for a modern, multicultural children's song in Switzerland. Individual titles like Jimmy Flitz have become classics.
Global Ear is the name of a series of events in Dresden that was launched in 2001 by composer Klaus Hinrich Stahmer with the aim of presenting composers with a non-European background. In the first six years of its existence, the works of more than 100 composers from all over the world were heard, with many non-musical instruments such as B. Sheng , Kayagum , frame drum and oud were used. - In England it was Damon Albarn , a member of the band Blur , who created a connection between the African music scenes in particular (especially Mali ) and the British music scene. Albarn brought various musicians to England and used African sounds on his albums. In 2008 he produced the successful album Welcome to Mali by the Malian duo Amadou & Mariam .
The “Global Music Contest” organized by the Creole since 2006 also contributes to the establishment of this type of music, which the organizer calls “global music” . From May 17 to 20, 2007, the finals took place for the first time in Germany at federal level. The groups Ulman , Äl Jawala and Ahoar won prizes from the 21 bands that had been elected by seven sponsors at the state level ; Äl Jawala also received the audience award.
In September 2015, the Popakademie Baden-Württemberg was the first university institution in Germany to introduce an official bachelor's degree in world music. Since 2015, the organization “Bridges - Music connects” has been pursuing the goal of “giving refugee musicians a face and voice and bringing them together with musicians from Germany”. Bridges would like to be a living example of a peaceful coexistence of people with different backgrounds and life stories - "an example of how it can be possible to meet at eye level, to learn to understand each other and to create new things together." Musicians and over 50 concerts per year, the project has become an integral part in the Rhine-Main area. Eight permanent intercultural ensembles now appear on the Frankfurt theaters as well as throughout Hesse and, depending on the line-up and origin of the musicians, offer "a great variety of styles: from classical Afghan or Syrian music to folklore to world music, European classical music, jazz and film music." the motto “Music! One language for everyone ”has been offering since 2014 as part of a model test by the Tonkünstlerverbads Bayern e. V. the Theater am Neunerplatz in Würzburg offers courses for joint music-making by asylum seekers and refugees who are willing to integrate. - The Landesmusikrat Berlin also sees an opportunity in efforts to integrate with the help of music: “In 2014, two young Syrian refugees played in the Landesjugendensemble Neue Musik Berlin for the first time. Together with the German ensemble members, they rehearsed the works of new music and were the focus of an improvisation with singing and Syrian sounds. "
In response to current events, the German Music Information Center , an institution of the German Music Council, has set up the information portal “Music and Integration”, which lists integration projects nationwide in an extensive project database, presents individual projects and provides information on the topic in various specialist articles.
Since the beginning of the new millennium, a somewhat looser relationship to non-European sounds and to “popular music” seems to have established itself in so-called “serious music” . Crossings of stylistic devices and forms of performance have meanwhile become a matter of course and natural and reflect the new self-image of many composers. This development towards a global understanding of music now also encompassed instruments such as the baglama lute , which is widespread in Turkish folk music and played by the musician Taner Akyol, who has been living in Berlin since 1997, in pieces such as An die Liegegebiegenen for baglama , alto flute, violin, viola and cello ( 2005) and Hatirlamarlar for Bağlama and String Quartet (2006). It is also due to his initiative that the baglama is now one of the instruments approved in the “Jugend musiziert” competition. - Even the oriental frame drum has found its way into classical venues. Thanks to the commitment of musicians like Murat Coşkun , who has had master drummers from all over the world perform regularly since 2006 as part of his festival “Tamburi Mundi” in Freiburg (Brsg.) And composers like Klaus Hinrich Stahmer , who performed “Aschenglut” (2009/2013) probably created the first notated composition for frame drum and piano, the instrument , which comes from folklore and has so far only been played in improvisations, has made its entry into art music . The performance of such music is made possible by the willingness of individual instrumentalists to deal with Western musical notation and special notations. Originally and by nature more at home in improvised music and in non-written forms of transmission, musicians such as the aforementioned drummer Murat Coşkun become border crossers and pioneers of a hitherto unknown genre of music. One of the most experimental musicians is the Chinese Wu Wei , who was able to inspire a large number of contemporary musicians to create modern works for the traditional mouth organ Sheng . The most important pieces from this collaboration include works such as Šu for Sheng and orchestra by Korean Chin Un-suk (2009), Changes for Sheng and orchestra by Enjott Schneider (2002/03) and the chamber music pieces Ming for Sheng , accordion and violoncello ( 2015) by Klaus Hinrich Stahmer. The Finnish composer Jukka Tiensuu wrote Hehkuu for sheng and ensemble (2014), Teston for sheng and orchestra (2015) and Ihmix for Chinese orchestra (2015). The Dutchman Guus Janssen with Four Songs for Sheng and Metropol Orchestra (2008) and Stefan Schultze with his CD Erratic Wish Machine (2015) prove that jazz also sounds good on a Chinese mouth organ .
In works like Chinese Seasons (3rd Symphony) for alto, Sheng (Chinese mouth organ) and symphony orchestra (2008), African Patchwork for organ and the African hand drum Djembé (2012) or Yi Jing (Chinese oracle book I Ching ) for Sheng and Chinese Orchestra (2015), Enjott Schneider took an individual path of intercultural encounter at eye level. "In terms of sound, it is largely committed to western symphonic music", his music has "many Chinese features" and is intended to be understood as the result of a "communicative exchange".
In the course of globalization, composers are increasingly appearing from countries that have hitherto been neglected. Representatives of the composers from India are mentioned here, above all Param Vir, trained by Peter Maxwell Davies and Oliver Knussen , and his work Raga Fields for the Indian lute Sarod and Ensemble (2015). In addition to composers such as Ashok Ranade and Naresh Sohal, Param Vir took part in the "Rasalîla" festival (2003) curated by Sandeep Bhagwati and carried out by Ensemble Modern in collaboration with the House of World Cultures (Berlin). It was about the development of new forms of performance and compositions that combine “Indian tradition with avant-garde musical language”. "The compositions of the project react to the complex emotional states of today's world and bring novel elements into Indian art music."
"World Music 2.0"
Thomas Burkhalter (see literature) often viewed the term “world music” in the sense of “World Music 1.0” - according to Burkhalter - with a critical eye, as it suggests a Eurocentric understanding of non-European musical cultures, which western musicians use only to “orientalize” theirs existing sounds are used. Nevertheless, music like that of Damon Albarn or Amadou and Mariam from Mali is very successful in the western world. At the beginning of 2011, Burkhalter brought up a new term for today's world music, what he called “World Music 2.0”: “World music, long ridiculed in the pop world and the club scene, sets trends today. It is now called Global Ghettotech, Ghettopop, Cosmopop, Worldtronica or simply World Music 2.0 - the world music of the interactive Internet platforms [...] World Music 2.0 can no longer be forced into a corset, it is contradictory and ambiguous. It sounds like the chaos of the world, the hectic pace of everyday life, the anger about world politics and the economy, and the hope of securing an existence through music. "
Styles of music
- Masala , annual world beat festival in Hanover
- Creole , German competition for world music at federal and state level
- TFF Rudolstadt , annual folk and world music festival in Rudolstadt
- Wilde Töne , festival for folk and world music in Braunschweig
- Horizons World Music Festival at Ehrenbreitstein Fortress in Koblenz .
- Folklore Festival, annual festival for folk and world music in Krefeld
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- Wilfried Gruhn (Ed.): Music of other cultures . Gustav Bosse, Kassel 1998, ISBN 3-7649-2516-7 .
- Simon Broughton, Kim Burton, Mark Ellingham: World Music. From salsa to soukous. The ultimate guide ("World Music. The Rough Guide"). Metzler, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-476-01532-7 .
- Peter Fletcher: World musics in context. A comprehensive survey of the world's major musical cultures . Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-816636-2 .
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- Database of global music in Germany of the German Music Information Center MIZ in cooperation with the State Music Council of North Rhine-Westphalia , not maintained or updated since the end of 2014
- Homepage world music for children
- Homepage of the Center for World Music at the University of California, Los Angeles
- World music web radio multicult.FM , Berlin
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- rbb radiomultikulti Berlin. (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; accessed on April 20, 2017 (broadcasting discontinued). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Website of the program COSMO by Westdeutschem Rundfunk Köln and Radio Bremen in cooperation with Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg , until December 31, 2016 under the title “Funkhaus Europa”.
- Global Music | World music magazine . Online magazine for music from all over the world
- Website of the World Music Expo (WOMEX), a world music fair that takes place annually at different locations in Europe
- Norient , the magazine for local and global sounds, reports on new trends in world music
- multicult.fm: world culture radio
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- Quoted from: Mathias Enard: Kompass. Novel . Berlin (Hanser) 2016, ISBN 978-3-446-25315-5 , p. 132.
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See also Dorothea Krawulsky: Horasan zur Timuridenzeit (= supplements to the Tübingen Atlas of the Middle East, series B 46/1 (1984)). Reichert, Wiesbaden, 1984, ISBN 978-3-88226-218-6 .
The Cambridge History of Iran , Volume 6. University Press, Cambridge, 1986, p. 105.
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- Released on the LP Implosions (JAPO Records) JAPO 60017 (1977).
- Review On the Wing (Memento from November 15, 2007 in the Internet Archive),
- Barbara Barthelmes and Matthias Osterwold in a program booklet published by the Berliner Festspiele in 2014.
- From the booklet accompanying the CD cpo 999 771-2 (2001)
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- Claude Vivier: Pulau Dewata . Boosey & Hawkes website, accessed April 19, 2017.
- See Evocations of the Gamelan in Western Music . n: Jonathan Bellman: The Exotic in Western Music. Northeastern University Press, Boston, 1998, p. 349.
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- Paul Gilroy: The Black Atlantic Modernity and Double Consciousness; New York (Verso Books) 1993; ISBN 978-0-86091-675-8
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- See Silkroad Music . Silkroad project website, accessed April 19, 2017.
- Popakademie receives unique center for world music . dpa article on Focus Online , February 7, 2015, accessed on April 19, 2017.
- Bridges - Music connects . ( Memento of the original from November 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Website of the “Music Initiative Bridges - Music Connects”, accessed on April 19, 2017.
- Music for Refugees in Berlin. Landesmusikrat Berlin , archived from the original on November 13, 2016 ; Retrieved April 19, 2017 .
- Music and Integration , website of the German Music Information Center
- WhyPlayJazz (RS017)
- Enjott Schneider in the booklet of the CD "China meets Europe". Wergo, WER 5111-2. Schott Music & Media, Mainz, 2014, .
- Press information from the “House of World Cultures” Berlin (2003).