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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Rudolstadt
Map of Germany, position of the city of Rudolstadt highlighted

Coordinates: 50 ° 43 '  N , 11 ° 20'  E

Basic data
State : Thuringia
County : Saalfeld-Rudolstadt
Height : 195 m above sea level NHN
Area : 135.17 km 2
Residents: 24,943 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 185 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 07407
Area code : 03672
License plate : SLF, RU
Community key : 16 0 73 076
City structure: 24 districts

City administration address :
Markt 7, 07407 Rudolstadt
Website :
Mayor : Jörg Reichl (BfR, citizen for Rudolstadt)
Location of the city of Rudolstadt in the Saalfeld-Rudolstadt district
Allendorf Altenbeuthen Bad Blankenburg Bechstedt Cursdorf Deesbach Döschnitz Drognitz Gräfenthal Hohenwarte Katzhütte Kaulsdorf (Saale) Königsee Lehesten Leutenberg Meura Probstzella Rohrbach Rudolstadt Saalfeld/Saale Schwarzatal Schwarzburg Sitzendorf Uhlstädt-Kirchhasel Unterweißbach Unterwellenborn Thüringenmap
About this picture
View from Heidecksburg to Rudolstadt

Rudolstadt ( Thuringian Rudelstadt , dialect: Rolscht) is a town in the district of Saalfeld-Rudolstadt in the Free State of Thuringia , Germany . The former princely residence of Rudolstadt is nestled in a forest-surrounded valley and stretches like a ribbon along the wide arch of the Saale river.

The city was first mentioned in a document in 776 and has had city ​​rights since 1326 . Its landmark, visible from afar, is Heidecksburg Castle , which towers over the city. Rudolstadt is known for the Anker stone building sets from the Richter company and its porcelain factories ( Volkstedt ). From 1599 to 1920 it was the capital of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt .


Rudolstadt lies in the valley of the Saale , which here at the "Saaleknie" forms an arc from south to east. In addition to the Saale valley, the landscape is determined by three other factors: the arid, sparsely populated shell limestone formation of the Ilm-Saale-Platte extends to the north and west of the city , the Thuringian Slate Mountains begin in the south , and the Hintere Heide lies east of the Saale , which is dominated by the local mountain, the 481 meter high Kulm . On the Ilm-Saale-Platte, forest and meadow areas alternate, the rest of the surroundings of Rudolstadt are predominantly forested. The Saale valley with its alluvial areas enables profitable agriculture. While the core city is about 200 meters above sea level in the valley, some districts are located much higher in locations between 300 and 400 meters above sea level. NN. In the district Schwarza which opens Schwarza in the hall. Rock types in the north are mainly shell limestone and red sandstone, as well as slate in the south.

Due to the low altitude in the Saale Valley, the climate in Rudolstadt is milder than in the surrounding areas. In Rudolstadt dialect is Ilmthüringisch spoken.

City structure

Rudolstadt is divided into twenty-four districts. In addition to the core city, the following villages belong to the city:

The first documentary mention is given in brackets.

Volkstedt, Schwarza, Mörla and Cumbach form an urban unit together with the core city, while the other places are spatially separated.

Neighboring communities

Neighboring communities are, from the north clockwise, Blankenhain , Uhlstädt-Kirchhasel , Unterwellenborn , Saalfeld , Bad Blankenburg , Königsee , Stadtilm , Rittersdorf and Bad Berka .


Early history

There was a fortified hilltop settlement on the vineyard in Oberpreilipp. The recovered finds come from the end of the Urnfield Age and the beginning of the Iron Age . A Celtic was followed by the Germanic settlement and membership of the Thuringian Kingdom . From the time after 500 a partial settlement of Slavs is proven through archaeological finds.

In 776 the place was first mentioned as Rudolfestat (settlement of Rudolf) as a gift from Charlemagne to the Hersfeld monastery .

middle Ages

The residential palace Heidecksburg in Rudolstadt, one of the most magnificent baroque palaces in Thuringia

At the beginning of the 13th century, Rudolstadt was owned by the Counts of Orlamünde , from whom it passed partially to the Counts of Schwarzburg around 1300 and completely in 1334 . Between the years 1264 and 1334 the "Niedere Burg" and the "Obere Burg" ( Heidecksburg ) are documented in Rudolstadt . The former probably stood in the area of ​​today's Ludwigstrasse and Burgstrasse, the other on the later palace terrace. In 1217 a pastor Heinrich who was active at the former parish and later city church of St. Andrew in the old town is recorded.

In the 14th century the place underwent a decisive expansion. A settlement that was built at the foot of the castle hill along the road from Schalbach to Andreaskirche was granted city rights by the Counts of Orlamünde . This resulted in the construction of the town hall, market and fortifications with the old gate and church gate. The oldest surviving document with the statutes dates to the year 1326. Council masters are first attested in 1378.

In the same century the lords of Schaala were named. They probably had an influence on the design of the defensive character of the church and the churchyard. Both the church and the churchyard were fortified until the middle of the 15th century to protect the citizens.

From around 1340 Rudolstadt was owned by the Grafschaft Schwarzburg , whose capital it later became and remained until 1920. In 1345 the two castles and the town (town hall and a large part of the old and new town) suffered considerable destruction by an Erfurt army as part of the Thuringian Count's War . In the course of the reconstruction from 1345 to 1437, the city got a completely new face (extension of the city fortifications). Between 1434 and 1448 the Upper Castle was expanded into a three-wing complex. In 1573 the successor building partially burned out, whereupon the three-wing renaissance castle was built. In 1548 there were free settlements of fiefs of the Schwarzburg counts on the site of the lower castle.

Rudolstadt around 1900

Modern times

After the Thirty Years' War , the original “Neustadt” became the “Old New Town” and the “New New Town” was built on. The 18th and 19th centuries brought the city a cultural heyday, when numerous artists lived and worked here. Even Friedrich Schiller often stayed in the city. He met his future wife Charlotte von Lengefeld here and first met Goethe in the Beulwitz house , which is now a Schiller Museum, on September 7, 1788.

In the course of the March Revolution in 1848 , the democrats under Friedrich Carl Hönniger in Rudolstadt became the leading political force. In 1848, Hönniger took over the office of President in the Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt state parliament for a short time before he was elected by the Democrats as a member of the Frankfurt National Assembly. Until 1918, when the last prince abdicated, Rudolstadt belonged to the Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt ( suzerainty ). The last prince had no biological descendants, so that the residential palace Heidecksburg passed into the possession of the state of Thuringia.

In the period up to 1932 the SPD was the strongest party in the Rudolstadt city council. As early as December 1932, the NSDAP received as many seats as the SPD and KPD (four of 19 seats each). After the transfer of power to Hitler in 1933, the self-governing organs of the communities and districts created in the Weimar Republic were effectively wiped out. From 1936 to 1945 Rudolstadt was a garrison town of the Wehrmacht . In 1938 the meeting of the German Hitler Youth took place in Rudolstadt.
In 1918 at least 80 Jews were still living in what was then the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt . The Rudolstadt Jews who were unable to escape were deported and murdered after 1938. In 1935 the Jewish cemetery, which was located at the northern foot of the castle hill, was leveled.

The persecution of opponents of Hitler claimed numerous victims, such as the life of the KPD city councilor Werner John, who died in the 999 penalty battalion . A street and a residential area remind of him. Paul-Herger-Strasse has been commemorating the city councilor and chairman of the KPD local group Volkstedt Paul Herger, who died as a result of his imprisonment in Buchenwald concentration camp , since 1949. A street name has also been a reminder of the resistance from Catholic circles around Pastor Caspar Schulte since 1949. In the period between 1933 and 1944, 597 people were victims of forced sterilization in the state hospital . 126 inmates of the Rudolstadt- Cumbach care house were murdered in Zschadraß and Pirna-Sonnenstein in 1940 as part of the “euthanasia” program Action T4 . A memorial inaugurated in 1947 on the square of the victims of fascism commemorates all victims of resistance and persecution . During the Second World War , 953 women and men, mainly from Poland, had to do forced labor in the war-essential Thuringian Zellwolle AG in Schwarza . A grove of honor and other graves in the north cemetery on Weimarische Strasse commemorate victims of forced labor from the Soviet Union and other nations. Steles in Volkstedt and Schwarza have been commemorating the victims of the death marches since 1985 . Three prisoners who had been shot by the SS and found on Mönchshügel near Groschwitz were buried in the Lichstedt cemetery .

In the last days of World War II, the Volkstedt district was bombed by American aircraft on April 10, 1945. 35 people and 165 houses, including the church, were killed. Until his escape in 1941, the future French President François Mitterrand was housed as a prisoner of war in the Schaala district .

After the Second World War, Rudolstadt-Schwarza developed into a center of the chemical industry in the GDR . More than 6,000 employees found work in what was then the “Wilhelm Pieck” chemical fiber combine, and several thousand more in the supply industry.

In 1952 the district of Rudolstadt was transformed into the district of Rudolstadt and its layout was changed. The state of Thuringia was also dissolved and the Rudolstadt district assigned to the Gera district . Shortly before that, the industrial town of Schwarza (1939: 3233 inhabitants) bordering on Rudolstadt was incorporated.

On August 15, 1992, on the 5th anniversary of Rudolf Hess' death, the Rudolf Hess memorial march took place in Rudolstadt , in which the members of the NSU core group also took part. Together with the neo-Nazi Andreas Rachhausen from Saalfeld, Thomas Dienel organized the event, to which almost 2,000 neo-Nazis from all over Germany traveled. According to the authors of the book Heimatschutz about the NSU complex, Stefan Aust and Dirk Laabs , the then 17-year-old Tino Brandt from Rudolstadt helped organize the demonstration.


Volkstedt was incorporated in 1921 and Cumbach in 1929. On July 1, 1950, the towns of Mörla, Pflanzwirbach, Schaala and Schwarza followed. On October 1, 1993, Keilhau was incorporated into the city of Rudolstadt with Eichfeld, which was incorporated on July 1, 1950. Lichstedt, Oberpreilipp and Unterpreilipp followed on January 1, 1997. On January 1, 2019, the city of Remda-Teichel was incorporated.

Population development

Population development of Rudolstadt from 1834 to 2016

Development of the population (from 1960 December 31) :

1834 to 1960

  • 1834: 05.929
  • 1890: 11.398
  • 1925: 15.711
  • 1933: 16,863
  • 1939: 19.331
  • 1946: 22,100 1
  • 1950: 28.234 2
  • 1960: 27,678

1970 to 1997

  • 1970: 31,683
  • 1981: 31,547
  • 1984: 32.232
  • 1985: 32,408
  • 1994: 29.118
  • 1995: 28,691
  • 1996: 28,438
  • 1997: 28,521

1998 to 2005

  • 1998: 28,241
  • 1999: 27.996
  • 2000: 27,528
  • 2001: 26,940
  • 2002: 26,549
  • 2003: 26.010
  • 2004: 25,793
  • 2005: 25,397

2006 to 2013

  • 2006: 25.131
  • 2007: 24,650
  • 2008: 24,285
  • 2009: 24,033
  • 2010: 23,762
  • 2011: 23,998
  • 2012: 22,811
  • 2013: 22,739

since 2014

  • 2014: 22,667
  • 2015: 22,855
  • 2016: 22,704
  • 2017: 22,560
  • 2018: 22,283
  • 2019: 24,943
Data source from 1994: Thuringian State Office for Statistics

1 October 29th
2 August 31st


Local elections 2019
Turnout: 58.4% (2014: 46.9%)
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
 % p
+1.0  % p
+ 22.1  % p.p.
-7.8  % p
-3.3  % p
-9.1  % p
-0.5  % p
+1.0  % p
-3.3  % p
Template: election chart / maintenance / notes
a citizen for Rudolstadt
h Free community of voters
The Rudolstadt town hall

City council

The city council has 30 members and has been composed as follows since the local elections on May 26, 2019 :

Political party Seats G / V
BfR * 8th ± 0
AfD 7th + 7
CDU 5 - 2nd
SPD 4th - 1
LEFT 3 - 2nd
GREEN 1 - 1
FDP 1 ± 0
FWG 1 - 1

* : Citizens for Rudolstadt
P / L: gains / losses compared to the 2014 election

coat of arms

The coat of arms was approved on July 15, 1993.

Blazon : "In green a golden crowned and armored double-tailed golden lion rising to the left."

Town twinning

Are sister cities of Rudolstadt

Culture and sights

The privately owned former villa of Friedrich Adolf Richters
Ludwigsburg Palace

In 1996, Rudolstadt received the culture award of the State of Thuringia for the preservation of cultural traditions on the one hand and for the courageous commitment to the development of new cultural projects on the other. In 2010 the city joined the German Language Association .

In addition to Heidecksburg Castle , the Ludwigsburg City Palace is one of the city's most important historical buildings, as is the magnificent Protestant St. Andrew's Church , which was built in the 15th and 16th centuries and was richly decorated in the Renaissance style in the early 17th century. Other churches are the Evangelical Luther Church by the important church architect Theodor Quentin , a neo-Gothic building from 1906, and the Catholic parish church from 1886 ( neo-Romanesque ).

Portrait sculpture of Charlotte von Lengefeld
Schiller quote on the wall of a house in western Marktstrasse
Former grammar school, today the city library

The old town hall in Stiftsgasse is a late Gothic building from 1524, to which a tower was added in 1603. The New Town Hall was inaugurated in 1912 on the market square.

The three Thuringian farmhouses in Rudolstadt are considered the oldest open-air museum in Germany. The houses from the 17th and 18th centuries were demolished in the surrounding villages in 1914/1915 and rebuilt in the Rudolstadt city park. The establishment of an old village pharmacy is particularly worth seeing.

The Lengefeld-Beulwitz property below the Heidecksburg was converted into a museum memorial for 1.8 million euros. Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe met here for the first time in 1788. In May 2009 the Schillerhaus was opened as a museum.

Near Rudolstadt is located in Großkochberg the Kochberg Castle , formerly owned by the Baron and from the stone and several times whereabouts of Goethe. Between Rudolstadt and Großkochberg is the small early Romanesque church in Weitersdorf, one of the oldest sacred buildings in Thuringia.

Artists have set up several sculptures in the pedestrian zone to the market, which are reminiscent of personalities who are connected to the city. These include Charlotte Freifrau von Stein , Charlotte von Lengefeld and Friedrich Schiller .


The Rudolstadt Theater , one of the most traditional theaters in Thuringia, is of particular cultural importance for the city . The seat of the Thuringian Symphony Orchestra Saalfeld-Rudolstadt is also located there .


The Protestant town church of St. Andreas is a three-aisled late Gothic hall church. It was built between 1463 and 1475 and resulted from the conversion of a church from the 12th century.

On the Zeigerheimer Berg is the 9.5 m high Bismarck Tower , inaugurated in 1899 , which was renamed the “Geschwister-Scholl-Turm” in 1950. Its establishment was an implementation of an idea of ​​the German student body to set up Bismarck fire pillars in Germany . The construction was carried out according to the design of the architect Gottwalt Schinzel from Schaala. The inauguration with 200 participants took place on April 1st, 1899. After the Second World War, the tower was damaged by vandalism and it was not until 1985 that it was renovated by the “Freundeskreis Geschwister-Scholl-Turm”. The entrance to the tower is locked all year round.


The city's sports clubs include the soccer club FC Einheit Rudolstadt and the third largest sports club in Thuringia with around 1500 members, SV 1883 Schwarza . The SAALEMAXX is a leisure and adventure pool. Rudolstadt is on the Saale cycle path .

Regular events

Rudolstadt Festival

Every year on the first full weekend in July, the Rudolstadt Festival , the largest Folk - Roots - World Music Festival in Germany, takes place. Musicians and guests from all over the world are drawn to Thuringia. It is the successor festival to the GDR International Dance Festival , launched in 1955 and last held in 1989. The Rudolstädter Vogelschießen (end of August) is one of the largest folk festivals in Thuringia. Every year at the end of May and beginning of June the city of Rudolstadt organizes an old town festival around the market square.

The extreme obstacle course Getting Tough has been taking place on the first weekend in December since 2011 .

Economy and Infrastructure

The cities of Rudolstadt, Saalfeld / Saale and Bad Blankenburg have been working together since 1997 as the city association "Städtedreieck am Saalebogen". A discussion about a merger of the three cities started by the local newspaper Ostthüringer Zeitung quickly fizzled out. At the administrative level, however, sensible possible partial cooperations are discussed further.

The Rudolstädter BKK Bio-Diesel GmbH was founded in the Rudolstadt-Schwarza industrial area in 2001 with a connection to the federal highway 88. The system is fully automatic and works on a 24-hour system. This operation is of great importance for the farmers in the region. They take advantage of the opportunity to have their rapeseed processed into vegetable oil or biodiesel and rapeseed cake. This means that the farmers are less dependent on imported feed and fossil diesel.


Rudolstadt is on the federal highways 85 ( Weimar - Saalfeld ) and 88 ( Ilmenau - Jena ). In the area between Rudolstadt and Schwarza, the federal highways run on a motorway-like route. Another important connecting road leads via Stadtilm to Arnstadt , Erfurt and the federal motorway 71 . Its expansion to the B 90n is already included in the federal transport route plan. Other motorways in the area are Federal Motorway 4 about 30 kilometers north and Federal Motorway 9, which runs about 40 kilometers to the east .

Rudolstadt has two stations on the Saalbahn from Naumburg to Lichtenfels, which opened in 1874 : Rudolstadt and Rudolstadt-Schwarza . The ICEs on the Berlin - Munich route also ran on this route until December 2017, with a stop in Saalfeld, about ten kilometers to the south. At the train station in Schwarza, a four-kilometer-long railway line to Bad Blankenburg branched off to the Arnstadt – Saalfeld railway line . It was opened in 1884 and closed in 2000.

Rudolstadt operates a joint city bus network with the neighboring cities of Saalfeld and Bad Blankenburg. There are regional bus routes to Erfurt, Weimar and Ilmenau as well as to the smaller towns in the area. The city is located on the Klassikerstraße , the Bier- und Burgenstraße, the Thuringian Porzellanstraße and the Feengrotten-Kyffhäuser-Weg . The Erfurt-Weimar Airport is about 50 kilometers away.

Established businesses

In addition to the traditional companies Aelteste Volkstedter Porzellanmanufaktur (since 1762) and Ankerwerk (manufacturer of the Anker stone construction kit ), BASF and the EPC Group (in Schwarza), Siemens Healthineers (formerly Siemens Medical Solutions ) and FunderMax are located in Rudolstadt . AEROPHARM GmbH (formerly Ankerwerk), a subsidiary of the NOVARTIS / Sandoz / HEXAL Group with over 330 employees, has been active at the Rudolstadt site since 1876.

The Jass paper mill and the Herzgut dairy are also located in the Schwarza district . In addition, the traditional Greifenverlag (first founded in 1919 in Hartenstein, since 1921 in Rudolstadt) was based in the city.

In Rudolstadt, the innovation and start-up center is also the headquarters of the joint business development agency founded in 2007 for the district of Saalfeld-Rudolstadt and the cities of Saalfeld, Rudolstadt and Bad Blankenburg. The innovation and start-up center itself is an instrument of municipal economic development .


The Ostthüringer Zeitung appears in Rudolstadt with a local edition. In addition, the privately operated local station Rudolstadt TV is fed into the cable network in the urban area . Rudolstadt belongs to the broadcasting area of ​​the SRB , which operates as a regional citizen media broadcaster on FM 105.2 MHz for the entire region.

Thuringia clinics

State institutions

The city is the seat of the Thuringian State Audit Office (seat in the Ludwigsburg City Palace ), the Thuringian Palaces and Gardens Foundation (seat on the Heidecksburg) and the Thuringian riot police .

The Thuringia clinics with the district as the sponsor have three locations, in addition to Rudolstadt there are Saalfeld and Pößneck in the neighboring Saale-Orla district .


The district of Keilhau has been the seat of the General German Educational Institute since 1817 .



  • Ludwig Friedrich Hesse : Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg and their surroundings, presented historically and topographically. Verlag der Hof-Buch- u. Art dealership, Rudolstadt 1816, ( digitized version ).
  • Hugo Trinckler: History of origins and chronicle of houses in Alt-Rudolstadt. Mitzlaff, Rudolstadt 1939.
  • Lutz Unbehaun, Reinhard Feldrapp : Rudolstadt. Gondrom, Bindlach 1993, ISBN 3-8112-0805-5 .
  • Richard Mader: Rudolstadt. Justus Pertes, Gotha 1994, ISBN 3-623-00708-0 .
  • Luise Grundmann (Ed.): Rudolstadt and the middle Saale valley. Results of the regional survey in the Remda, Rudolstadt and Orlamünde area (= values ​​of the German homeland . Vol. 58). Böhlau, Weimar 1998, ISBN 3-7400-0934-9 .
  • Erich Wagner: Rudolstadt. Historical images from 10 centuries. Hain, Rudolstadt et al. 1999, ISBN 3-930215-94-2 .
  • Jens Beger, Horst Fleischer (ed.): Rudolstadt and the Schwarzburger. A foray into cultural history. Freundeskreis Heidecksburg eV, Rudolstadt 2002.
  • Thomas Herfurth: Rudolstadt. Sutton, Erfurt 2006, ISBN 3-89702-860-3 .
  • Karl-Heinz Bommhardt: In the shadow of the Heidecksburg. Greifenverlag, Rudolstadt et al. 2010, ISBN 978-3-86939-462-6 .

Web links

Commons : Rudolstadt  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Rudolstadt  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Population of the municipalities from the Thuringian State Office for Statistics  ( help on this ).
  2. ^ Wolfgang Kahl : First mention of Thuringian towns and villages. A manual. 5th, improved and considerably enlarged edition. Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza 2010, ISBN 978-3-86777-202-0 , pp. 257, 300, 51, 184, 246, 218, 140, 65, 164, 208, 295.
  3. Michael Köhler: Thuringian castles and fortified prehistoric and early historical living spaces. Jenzig-Verlag Köhler, Jena 2001, ISBN 3-910141-43-9 , p. 270.
  4. Wolfgang Kahl, Hansjürgen Müllerott: The prehistory and early history of Rudolstadt with the annals from 775–786 to 1503 and an excursus from the history of Saalfeld . Thüringer-Chronik-Verlag HE Müllerott, Arnstadt 2002, ISBN 3-910132-73-1 , p. 128 .
  5. Michael Köhler: Thuringian castles and fortified prehistoric and early historical living spaces. Jenzig-Verlag Köhler, Jena 2001, ISBN 3-910141-43-9 , pp. 218-219.
  6. Thuringian Association of the Persecuted of the Nazi Regime - Association of Antifascists and Study Group of German Resistance 1933–1945 (Ed.): Local history guide to sites of resistance and persecution 1933–1945. Volume 8: Thuringia. VAS - Verlag für Akademische Schriften, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-88864-343-0 , p. 239 ff.
  7. Thomas Dörfler, Andreas Klärner: The "Rudolf-Heß-Gedenkmarsch" in Wunsiedel - Reconstruction of a nationalistic phantasm. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  8. ^ Matthias Quent : The extreme right in Thuringia: Development of the neo-Nazi scene. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  9. Stefan Aust , Dirk Laabs : Heimatschutz. The state and the NSU series of murders. Pantheon, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-570-55202-5 , pp. 88 ff. ( Limited preview in the Google book search).
  10. ^ Federal Statistical Office: Municipalities 1994 and their changes since 01.01.1948 in the new federal states. Metzler-Poeschel, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-8246-0321-7 .
  11. ^ StBA: Changes in the municipalities, see 1997
  12. ^ BfR Press 2: Merger of Rudolstadt and Remda-Teichel. In: Bürger für Rudolstadt eV March 16, 2018, accessed on January 21, 2019 (German).
  13. ^ Thuringian State Office for Statistics: Municipal Council Election 2019
  14. ^ Thuringian State Office for Statistics: 2014 municipal council election
  15. Rudolstadt website , accessed on October 24, 2018
  16. Rudolstadt has joined the German Language Association. City press release, July 5, 2010
  17. ^ International dance festival of the GDR. Retrieved May 30, 2016 .
  19. ^ Free State of Thuringia - Ministry of Agriculture, Forests, Environment and Nature Conservation: Bioenergy in Thuringia. Decentralized and sustainable in the regions. TMLFUN, Erfurt 2011, pp. 42–43.