The riot police (Bepo or BP) is a large association of federal and state police forces in Germany , whose units function as a closed unit . The term is also used in the entirety of all riot police organizations. Only the police at the German Bundestag and the Federal Criminal Police Office do not maintain any Bepo. There are around 16,000 police officers available.
The main task is to provide support in large-scale situations and to perform key tasks (e.g. accident blackspots and the fight against crime ). Further tasks are laid down in Article 35, Paragraph 2, Clause 2, Paragraph 3, and Article 91 of the Basic Law . In order to be able to react quickly to special situations, these police units are housed in shared accommodation and are trained for these missions. In addition to deployments in their own federal state , the units can also be deployed in other federal states for special occasions.
The establishment of the riot police in the federal states can be traced back to an administrative agreement between the federal government and the states of October 27, 1950 on the establishment of riot police. The management and operational resources are procured by the federal government and are standardized.
The riot police consists of officers of the middle, upper and higher service in management positions e.g. B. Training officers, class leaders, group, squad, Hundred leaders or similar.
A coordination of all riot police takes place by the inspector of the riot police of the federal states . This is a member of the Federal Ministry of the Interior .
In addition to Berlin, Brandenburg, Hamburg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Thuringia, the riot police provide training for law enforcement officers in the middle and occasionally, at least in training phases, in the higher service.
The training units are separate from the operational units. The training units will also be training seminars; in Baden-Württemberg called the Police School . They are often divided into classes.
The operational units are divided into departments, hundreds , trains and groups across the country . At the level of the hundreds and trains there are technical units in the individual countries, which z. B. are responsible for special vehicles and water cannons , as well as evidence preservation and arrest units (abbreviated BFE), which in Bavaria are called the support command (USK) .
In the countries in which the young professionals are trained by the riot police, they are kept there for a while after their training for these closed operations. In the other federal states, too, mostly young professionals are employed.
The security police formed from 1919 during the Weimar Republic are considered the forerunners of the German riot police . The term police readiness was already in use by various police forces in the federal states in the 1920s, e. B. at the Bavarian State Police or the Oldenburg Order Police . As a rule, it was used to describe a training unit that could be used to support individual service if necessary.
The term riot police was officially used in Germany for a police force for the first time on April 30, 1926, when the barracked protection police in the Free People's State of Württemberg were renamed the riot police as part of a police reform. The term individual police service was also officially introduced in the Württemberg reform of 1926 to distinguish it from the riot police . The Württemberg riot police were transferred to the Wehrmacht in June 1935 .
The term riot police was continued after the end of the Second World War both in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the GDR ( people's police readiness ).
The riot police of the states were founded on October 27, 1950 by an administrative agreement between the state governments and the federal government as paramilitary groups. The establishment of the riot police ran almost parallel to the establishment of the Federal Border Guard . The background was the Cold War , which had come to a head since mid-1950 with the start of the Korean War . By setting up the riot police, the three Western occupying powers Great Britain, the USA and France were relieved of personnel, as they were responsible for maintaining public safety and order in the event of major unrest.
As early as the summer of 1950, the Adenauer government had plans to mobilize 30,000 and then 60,000 men either via a federal border police or a federal riot police. This was described by the SPD police expert Walter Menzel , the son-in-law of the former Prussian interior minister Carl Severing , as "a remilitarization by cold means". There were serious constitutional concerns against the establishment of a federal riot police, which were raised primarily by the states with the SPD government in Hamburg, Bremen and Lower Saxony. The most determined opponent, however, was the Bavarian state government .
At the beginning of 1951 the following concept was discussed by the federal government:
- A riot police on a country basis of 10,000 men.
- A federal riot police of 10,000 men.
- The Federal Border Guard with a strength of 10,000 men.
Since the establishment of a federal riot police only seemed possible through a constitutional amendment, this variant was dropped. The Bavarian Minister of the Interior Willi Ankermüller on this, according to Der Spiegel :
- “ The Bavarian state government must reject the establishment of a federal police force for legal and political reasons. "
It remained with the establishment of the Federal Border Guard and a concept for the riot police of the states, which should now be gradually increased to 30,000 men. Of these 30,000 men, a quarter should be on standby at all times. In internal crises or in the event of a defense , the riot police should be subordinate to the inspector of the riot police in the federal states .
The federal government therefore undertook to procure armaments, telecommunications equipment and vehicles. The states were responsible for the accommodation, clothing and consumables as well as for the maintenance of the material supplied by the federal government. Structurally, the riot police of the Security Police (Sipo) were aligned with the Weimar Republic , which had also been established in 1919 at the state level, but largely financed by the Reich. The Sipo had to be restructured again in 1920 due to Allied pressure, but retained its paramilitary character and was renamed the Schutzpolizei (Schupo in Prussia) or Ordnungspolizei (Orpo in the Free State of Oldenburg ) depending on the country .
As early as 1948, despite a ban by the British military government , police reserves were set up in Lower Saxony , which operated in so-called emergency trains and in Salzgitter-Watenstedt , Wolfenbüttel , Bad Harzburg , Dedelstorf near Uelzen and Hann. Münden were stationed. They were used to monitor illegal traffic and to combat capital crimes on the demarcation line to the Soviet Zone and GDR .
The riot police of Lower Saxony played a special role until 1955 . Lower Saxony had not acceded to the agreement between the federal government and the states of October 27, 1950, ostensibly for fiscal reasons, but in accordance with a decree of the Ministry of the Interior of June 18, 1951, on July 1 of that year in Hanover, the so-called 1. National Police Hundreds. The II. LBPN was set up on October 1, 1952 in Braunschweig and subordinated to the Braunschweig Police Department . The decisive organizational change occurred on October 1, 1954, when both LBPN were subordinated to a group staff and directly to the Ministry of the Interior. On April 1, 1955, Lower Saxony joined the administrative agreement between the federal and state governments. The Lower Saxony riot police have now also been paramilitary equipped with machine guns, hand grenades and grenade launchers and trained according to federal regulations. Only once, in 1955, did the Lower Saxony state riot police take part in a large-scale exercise with riot police units from Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen and North Rhine-Westphalia.
The structure of the riot police still follows the military model of the units :
|military||Riot Police (previously Sipo, Schupo, Orpo)|
|regiment||Group (group staff, later riot police headquarters)|
The establishment of the riot police was relatively slow. Schleswig-Holstein, which was in an extremely poor financial situation at the time, made the first 300 riot police available at the beginning of 1951 in order to siphon off federal funds. Lower Saxony also set up its riot police in 1951, but it was only in 1955 that it accepted partial federal funding.
The question of armament was also initially unclear. In 1951, the manufacture of even small arms was still prohibited in the Federal Republic of Germany; Weapons could therefore only be acquired abroad with scarce foreign exchange. France agreed to lend the "national riot police " 98k German carbines from booty stocks. Since motor vehicles were also in short supply, the West German automotive industry offered to help the Federal Ministry of the Interior with a loan of two million DM .
Responsible for coordinating the riot police in the Federal Ministry of the Interior was the former police major and later general of the Wehrmacht, Anton Grasser , who had already joined the Baden police in 1920 . He was accompanied by Interior Minister Robert Lehr in November 1950 "to the provisional exercise of police special tasks within the jurisdiction of the federal" in the Interior Ministry appointed. Grasser denied any suspicion of building up the new riot police as the "Wehrmacht" and pointed out that he had been appointed as a police officer.
Until 1972 the riot police had been continuously expanded. This year there were six group staffs nationwide with 27 departments and 113 hundreds with around 17,500 officials.
The service period was originally seven years, but was then reduced to three years. From 1956, parallel to the formation of the Bundeswehr , service in the riot police was considered military service . As a result of the establishment of the Bundeswehr, the riot police initially suffered considerable personnel losses, according to the Bavarian riot police, as the pay in the Bundeswehr was more attractive and the new troops offered good opportunities for promotion. Until well into the 1970s, it was now possible to do his military service as a three-year service with a riot police, which in turn offered the police candidate great financial advantages over other conscripts. This regulation also applied to the Federal Border Guard ( border guard duty ).
The main task of the riot police at the time was to ward off civil unrest and acts of sabotage and terrorism. The KPD , which was to receive logistical help from the GDR , was viewed as a potential rebel . Apparently the SED had made corresponding statements at the July party conference in 1950 . In the training guidelines of the riot police, therefore, reference was repeatedly made to the communist unrest in the Weimar Republic , especially the March fighting in Central Germany in 1921, in which Max Hoelz was also significantly involved, and the Hamburg uprising of 1923. The authors of these guidelines pointed out hence the standard police work by Walter Drobnig The Central German Uprising 1921: Its Fighting by the Police , Lübeck 1929, on this subject. In the event of a defense , enemy commandos, e.g. B. Spetsnaz of the Soviet Army or Einsatzkommandos of the GDR State Security Service , which operated behind the front, are fought. The riot police were prepared for this scenario through their paramilitary structure as well as their armament and training.
The armament of the riot police consisted of the following weapons, among others, until the mid-1960s:
- Pistols (cal. 6.35, 7.65 and 9 mm)
- Carabiner (cal. 7.9 mm)
- FN rifle ( rapid-fire rifle, Belgian production, cal. 7.62 mm)
- Submachine guns (MP, various models)
- Tear gas thrower TW 53
- Egg grenade (a fragmentation grenade)
- Light machine gun (leMG, MG 42 from Wehrmacht stocks )
- Heavy machine gun (sMG, MG 42 on mount)
- Grenade launcher (launcher 55, cal. 60 mm)
- Medium grenade launcher (cal. 81 mm)
- Special car ("Polizeipanzer", SW M8 Greyhound , SW I, II and III)
The armament initially consisted partly of American M 1 carbines and Italian Beretta submachine guns . The special car M 8 from Ford came from the US Army and was originally a lightly armored armored car. It weighed 6.5 tons, was armed with a light machine gun and was introduced to Hamburg, Bremen and the Federal Border Police, among others.
The training / orientation of the riot police was, at least until about the mid-1970s, based on the so-called ASOD (Extraordinary Security and Order Service, see police fight ). This includes all operations that require the use of closed forces from group strengths.
These include B. the protection of
- Open air rallies and elevators
- Sports and other events (sports events make up around a third of the stakes)
- The fight against armed gangs (applies to the initial / founding period based on experiences in the immediate post-war period)
- The use against armed lawbreakers z. B. in bank robberies, until these tasks were taken over step by step by the special task forces (SEKs) and mobile task forces (MEKs)
The use against
- Armed insurgents in the Federal Republic
- Terror and sabotage commands from the Federal Republic
- Terror and sabotage commands from an area outside the FRG, for example the GDR
- Foreign commands that, in the event of war, would carry out acts of sabotage and terrorism behind their own front.
The tactical training of the riot police was therefore based on military norms and terms, as they were already used in the police officers of the Weimar Republic or the Wehrmacht, which was already recognizable in terms such as main battle line , hunting command , rifle chain , raiding party or partisan . The uniform was also geared towards this. The riot police wore field service uniforms of the police with a modified steel helmet of the Wehrmacht in field green gray / gray blue color, as it was also introduced at the Federal Border Guard (BGS M35 / 53), often the original M35 was also used, since the M35 / 53 was not oversized was produced. In Hessen z. B. the Bundeswehr combat helmet was used. A uniform national uniform based on the uniform and rank badges of the Federal Border Guard was provided for the case of defense and possibly for large-scale operations in the event of civil unrest. These uniforms were apparently stored decentrally and usually not used. However, the Bremen riot police wore this uniform in regular service and therefore clearly differed from the Bremen state police, which wore dark blue uniforms based on the pattern of the US occupation forces .
Since the riot police themselves did not have tanks and artillery, it was still assumed in the concepts of the 1950s that the Bundeswehr should be deployed in the event of the most serious riots that would necessitate the use of these funds. In this case, the riot police should be subordinate to the Bundeswehr.
At the end of the 1960s, the riot police were restructured and the focus of training shifted, due to the unrest of 1967/68 , to work on inconvenient elevators. Hand grenades and machine guns and other “special weapons” were segregated in most countries at the end of the 1970s or at least put into storage when training was discontinued.
The field training was discontinued in many cases because it was assumed that a security situation as previously assumed would no longer occur. The fight against terrorist groups was no longer the task of the riot police, but of the special task forces of the federal states that were gradually set up from 1972 and of Border Guard Group 9 of the Federal Border Guard.
In addition to the main task of training / service in the GSOD, training and deployment also took place within the framework of the so-called Small Security and Order Service (KSOD), later General Security and Order Service (ASOD). This is to be understood as the area of responsibility of the security police in daily individual duty, i.e. primarily patrol duty, patrol duty, radio car patrol duty, traffic monitoring. Depending on the time and state, different concepts were followed. In Berlin it was z. For example, it is common for subordinates (group and deputy platoon leaders) of the Bepo to be seconded to a district, later section, for at least three months in order to acquire practical knowledge from normal police service. Later, during the so-called regular duty time, i.e. when no closed operations were foreseeable, complete radio patrol cars with crew were subordinated to the locally responsible management during one shift and included in the operations as normal.
Although the riot police of the federal states and the BGS as paramilitary units are part of West German military history in the 1950s and 60s, there is no serious historiographical research on this.
The terms ASOD / GSOD have been obsolete since around the mid-1970s. The term "operational level" was introduced.
To relieve the command of organizational and technical details, deployment levels (ESt) can be determined. The deployment levels do not apply to supply measures. From them only the respectively valid regulations of clothing, equipment and armament can be taken. Individual regulations of a deployment level can be combined with individual regulations of other deployment levels.
- ESt A = the daily police enforcement service to fulfill the police tasks;
- ESt B = The police operation for a predominantly peaceful cause, which goes beyond the normal tasks of daily duty and requires the use of closed units or combined police forces (at least 5 officers!) Under uniform leadership;
- ESt C = The police operation in the event of a threat to the constitutional order, but also operations on other occasions that require arming and / or equipping of the forces beyond the usual scope of operational levels A and B.
The structure is different depending on the federal state. However, the following framework is stipulated uniformly across the country: Riot Police Department (BPA) - Riot Police Hundreds (BPH) - Train - Group - Semi- Group (partially) - Troop.
Since the police reform in 2014, the riot police in Baden-Württemberg have been led by the police headquarters in Göppingen . The units of the riot police, the special units, the police helicopter squadron and the waterway police are brought together in this presidium.
The Bavarian police have twelve deployment units , seven USK trains (Bavarian term for evidence preservation and arrest unit) and three technical operations units (TEE) in seven departments.
The riot police of the Berlin Police (West) was founded in 1952 (three departments, one per sector). At that time, Berlin (West) did not join the administrative agreement because of the Allied reservations. At the same time, there were thirteen special police units (one for each police inspection). On the occasion of the police reform in 1974, the entire authority was restructured. The thirteen inspections became five directorates. The districts and police posts were combined into large-scale areas, the so-called sections.
The riot police and the task forces were united (with parts of the EKdos switched to individual duty), five task forces (EA 1–5) each with four operational readiness (EB) were set up. Special wagons and water cannons were used by the 4th "heavy" trains. There was also a Technical Operations Department (TEA) with three standby units (one standby per sector, TEB 1-3). These belonged to the Directorate for Public Safety and Road Traffic, but were only managed by it for joint interdepartmental operations. Otherwise they were run by the respective local directorates.
The operational departments as riot police no longer carried out their own (basic) training. This took place in the training department of the police for the middle service. After that, the first point of use was basically an operational readiness. Exception: The female members of the police force born between 1980 and 1984 were transferred directly to the sections.
Since 1992 there has been a riot police within the meaning of the administrative agreement with currently three riot police departments at three locations:
- 1. Riot Police Department, Kruppstraße (5 EHu, 1 TEE, central service dog handler)
- 2nd riot police department, Schulzendorf (5 EHu, 1 TEE)
- 3rd Riot Police Department, Eiswaldtstrasse (6 EHu)
At the Brandenburg Police , the state deployment unit (LESE) was also renamed BePo as part of the police reform in 2012. The name LESE no longer exists.
It is divided into four deployments, each with an attached evidence preservation and arrest unit (BFE), and is housed in four locations. Locations are in Potsdam-Eiche , Oranienburg , Cottbus and Frankfurt (Oder) .
The LESE was a police establishment in the country without its own local jurisdiction. It consisted of the staff, the riot police, the technical operations unit (TEE), the personal protection (PS) and the police helicopter squadron (PHuSt).
The state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen has set up a riot police department, which is made up of two deployments, a BFE and a TEE. In addition, police custody, the dog squadron and property protection belong to Bepo in Bremen.
The state riot police of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg consists of the (administrative) staff and the four operational hun- dreds as well as a technical hundred (TEE). The deployment hun- dreds are each divided into four platoons and the supply service / management group. The technical hundred consists of two evidence preservation and arrest units (BFE) as well as two technical operations units (TEE and water cannon / special car). The police's property protection (LBP10) is an essential part of the structures of the Hamburg state riot police.
The Hesse Police Department has four departments:
- 1. Mainz-Kastel with 3 operational units, 1 BFE
- 2. Lich with 3 operational units, 1 BFE
- 3. Mühlheim am Main with 3 operational units, 1 BFE, 1 TEE
- 4. Kassel with 1 mission unit, 1 BFE
The Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Police have the 1st Riot Police (BPH) and the Technical Operations Unit (TEE) located in Schwerin as well as the 2nd BPH and the Evidence Preservation and Arrest Unit (BFE) located in Waldeck (near Rostock).
From November 1995 to May 2003, the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania riot police had a third location for an emergency number in Anklam. It was a hundred without a train. The creation of a location for the riot police in the eastern part of the country took place against the background of increasing right-wing violence, which reached its peak in 1995 and 1996. The 4th deployment train of the 2nd riot police with 38 officers has been stationed in Anklam since 2018.
The police chief trainee was trained in the riot police in the 1990s. The training location was the Waldeck location. The group leaders were also trained there. Group leaders were trained in the middle service as group leaders for the deployment hun- dreds or as trainers in the training hun- dred. A group leader course lasted up to 15 weeks and included the subjects of leadership, operational training, training in behavior in the emergency room, weapons knowledge, sport and basic operational training / training on management and operational equipment. A lifeguard course was part of the group leader course. After the group leader course, they were then used in the riot police or in the training hundreds.
The riot police of the Lower Saxony police are part of the Central Police Directorate based in Hanover .
- 1. Riot police in Hanover
- 2. Riot police in Hanover
- 3. Riot police in Braunschweig
- 4. Riot police in Lüneburg
- 5. Riot police in Göttingen
- 6. Riot police in Oldenburg
- 7. Riot police in Osnabrück
- Technical operation unit Lower Saxony in Hanover. This is where the management group, the ICT train and the WaWe / SW train are located. The technical train consists of three T-groups, which are based in Hanover, Braunschweig and Oldenburg. The BPH have 3-4 trains.
There are two specialized forces from the Evidence Preservation and Arrest Units (BFE) in Hanover, as well as one BFE each in Braunschweig, Oldenburg and Göttingen.
The riot police of the North Rhine-Westphalia police force consists of 18, from 2021 expected to be 15 riot police hundreds. Unlike in other federal states, they are decentrally assigned to the 14 police headquarters.
The willingness of police forces in the Bureau Bochum , Bureau Cologne and Bureau Wuppertal have outstanding significance u. a. as the seat of the department management and technical operational units (TEE). Starting in 2018, evidence preservation and arrest hundreds (BFHu) will also be created at these three locations. Each Evidence Preservation and Arrest Hundred will consist of two Evidence Preservation and Arrest Units (SFOE). As a result, the number of riot police in North Rhine-Westphalia will be reduced by three by 2021, but this is to be compensated for by increasing the number of hundred remaining at the locations by one platoon each.
The following police headquarters of the North Rhine-Westphalia Police have riot police forces:
- Aachen , 11th BPH
- Bielefeld , 4th BPH
- Bochum , 2nd BPH, 1st TEE, 1st BFH
- Bonn , 13th BPH
- Duisburg , 6th BPH
- Düsseldorf , 5th BPH
- Dortmund , 3rd BPH
- Essen , 7th BPH
- Gelsenkirchen , 16th BPH
- Cologne , 12th, 14th and 15th BPH, 3rd TEE
- Mönchengladbach , 8th BPH
- Münster , 17th BPH
- Recklinghausen , 18th BPH
- Wuppertal , 9th and 10th BPH, 2nd TEE
Since a structural reform implemented in 2017, the organizational units of the riot police department have been affiliated to the newly created police headquarters for operations, logistics and technology (PP ELT) of the Rhineland-Palatinate police . As before, there are four wagering hundreds.
- Mainz , 1st bet 100
- Enkenbach-Alsenborn (near Kaiserslautern), 2nd deployment hun- dred as well as management, information and training units
- Koblenz , 3rd service hundred shank
- Wittlich- Wengerohr , 4th deployment centurion and technical deployment unit
- Koblenz-Winningen airport , police helicopter squadron
In Saarland there is a riot police, one of which is equipped as an evidence preservation and arrest unit (BFE). In addition, a technical deployment unit (TEE) is available.
The Saxon police have three riot police departments:
- 1. Dresden with 11th to 13th BPH
- 2. Leipzig with 21st and 22nd BPH
- 3. Chemnitz with 31st and 32nd BPH
BFE is in all departments; since January 2008 only the 2nd department has had a TEE.
The state riot police of Saxony-Anhalt has the 1st evidence preservation and arrest hundred, the 2nd and 3rd operational hundred and a technical operational unit (TEE) at the Magdeburg location. The second location in Halle / s is currently occupied by a train. The TEE has two WaWe.
The state riot police are assigned the police helicopter squadron, the state police orchestra, the police medical service and other central services.
The state police Schleswig-Holstein has a riot police department with its location in Eutin, which comprises 3 deployment hundred units. The first team of employers has a BFE and a TEE.
The Thuringia police have the following Bepo locations:
- 1. BPH Rudolstadt
- 2. BPH in Erfurt
- 1 evidence preservation and arrest hundred (BFHu) in Erfurt
- TEE is also stationed in Erfurt.
The police college and the education center of the Thuringian police (BZThPol) is based in Meiningen , where the training for the middle and upper level police service takes place. The PÄD (police medical service) is also located in Erfurt, and a branch office has been set up there because of the training in Meiningen (BZThPol).
The Federal Police since the reorganization from 1 March 2008 a total of ten federal police departments (BPOLABT). The responsible federal police department in Fuldatal manages and coordinates the federal police departments. The federal police departments are distributed nationwide at the following locations according to police tactical and strategic aspects:
- BPOLABT Ratzeburg (3 emergency service units (EHu), 1 technical service unit (THu) with 2 technical service units and 2 water cannons (WaWe) unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Uelzen (2 EHu, 1 evidence preservation and arrest hundredth (BFHu), 1 BFE + , 1 light technical operation unit, 1 support unit (UE) with evidence preservation and documentation (BeDo) unit, 1 reconnaissance (A) unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Blumberg (4 EHu, 1 BFHu, 1 BFE +, 1 THu with 2 technical operational units and 1 WaWe unit, 1 UE with BeDo unit, 1 A unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Bad Düben (4 EHu, 1 light technical operation unit, 1 UE with BeDo unit, 1 A unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Duderstadt (3 EHu, 1 light technical operation unit, 1 UE with BeDo unit, 1 A unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Sankt Augustin (2 EHu, 1 BFHu, 1 BFE +, 1 THu with 2 technical operations units and 1 WaWe unit, police medical service, 1 international operation unit)
- BPOLABT Hünfeld (1 EHu, 1 BFHu, 1 BFE +, 1 THu with 2 technical operations units and 1 WaWe unit, 1 UE with BeDo unit, 1 A unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Bayreuth (2 EHu, 1 BFHu, 1 BFE +, 1 light technical operation unit, 1 UE with BeDo unit, 1 A unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Bad Bergzabern (3 EHu, 1 light technical operation unit, 1 UE with BeDo unit, 1 A unit, police medical service)
- BPOLABT Deggendorf (3 EHu, 1 THu with 2 technical operational units and 1 WaWe unit, 1 UE with BeDo unit, 1 A unit)
The Rosenheim department was dissolved on March 1, 2008 as part of the reform. The employees at the site were transferred or seconded to the mobile control and monitoring units (MKÜ) as well as to other offices.
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- Police. He who commands must pay . In: Der Spiegel . No. 10 , 1951, pp. 5-7 ( online ).
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- Riot police in the FRG . In: Dictionary of German military history , 2 vols. Berlin (GDR) 1985, vol. 2, p. 81.
- Thomas Auerbach: Task Force on the invisible front. Terrorism and sabotage preparations by the Stasi against the Federal Republic of Germany . Berlin 2001.
- Heiner Busch u. a .: The police in the Federal Republic . Frankfurt am Main / Berlin-West 1985.
- Udo Behrendes (editor): 40 years of riot police , Hilden (Verlag Deutsche Polizeiliteratur) 1991.
- Riot Police Bremen (Ed.): Riot Police Bremen: 50 years 1952–2002. A chronicle in words and pictures , Bremen (riot police, editor: Peter Blumenau) 2002.
- Falco Werkentin : The Restoration of the German Police - Internal Armament from 1945 to Emergency Legislation , Frankfurt / Main 1984, ISBN 3-593-33426-7 .
- Brandenburg riot police
- Baden-Württemberg riot police (police headquarters deployment)
- Bavarian riot police
- Berlin riot police (Operations Directorate)
- Hessian riot police
- Riot Police North Rhine-Westphalia
- Riot Police Rhineland-Palatinate (Police Headquarters ELT)
- Saxony riot police
- Thuringia riot police
- Overview of the Bepo vehicles in the individual federal states
- Federal riot police ( Memento from July 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal police location map with task forces (as of 2008)
- ↑ Information on a page from the Federal Ministry of the Interior from June 25, 2013 , accessed on August 4, 2014
- ↑ Paul Sauer : Württemberg in the time of National Socialism. In: Meinrad Schaab , Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History . Volume 4: Die Länder since 1918. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-608-91468-4 , pp. 231-319, here p. 248.
- ↑ NRW wants to reduce the police presence in the Bundesliga. faz.net, August 4, 2014, accessed August 4, 2014
- ↑ https://www.polizei-bw.de/polizeireform/Organisation/Seiten/Polizeipr%C3%A4sidium-Einsatz.aspx "Organigram of the Presisium Deployment"
- ^ NDR: Anklam location of the riot police again. Retrieved February 8, 2019 .
- ↑ a b NRW introduces evidence preservation and arrest hundreds (BFE). In: SE News. News about the special forces, police & customs. SEK-Einsatz.de, Tomas Moll, Berlin, March 2, 2018, archived from the original on September 22, 2018 ; accessed on September 23, 2018 .
- ↑ Axel Spilcker, Tim Stinauer: NRW introduces new special police forces. In: Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger. Prof. Alfred Neven DuMont †, Christian DuMont Schütte, Isabella Neven DuMont, February 18, 2018, archived from the original on September 22, 2018 ; accessed on September 23, 2018 .
- ↑ Police Rhineland-Palatinate, Riot Police Department. In: polizei.rlp.de. Ministry of the Interior of Rhineland-Palatinate, accessed on March 16, 2018 .
- ↑ New Presidium increases efficiency. Ministry of the Interior of Rhineland-Palatinate, accessed on March 16, 2018 .