Bavarian State Police (1920–1935)

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The Bavarian State Police was a paramilitary police association that existed in Bavaria during the Weimar Republic until the early years of the Third Reich . The officers had military ranks (lieutenant, etc.), the lower ranks police ranks (auxiliary sergeants, etc.). The basic cloth of the uniform was steel green , the badge color black. The symbol of the Bavarian State Police was a seated panther .


From 1919 onwards, paramilitary police associations were formed in the so-called security police in the German Reich. Due to the restrictions of the Versailles Peace Treaty, they were also intended as military replacements and were the forerunners of the later riot police .

The Bavarian State Police was created in November 1920 from the 1,919 formed police Wehr Bavaria , in turn, to military units under the command of the city commandants of Munich fell and Nuremberg. It was essentially shaped by its first boss, Hans Ritter von Seißer , until 1930 .

Barracked police on standby emerged primarily as a reaction to the increased demands placed on the German police after the First World War and the revolution of 1918 , which now had to perform tasks (control of problematic political meetings and demonstrations, fight against major unrest up to and including situations similar to civil war) , for which the military was still intended at the time of the monarchy . Accordingly, she was mainly trained for police combat.

The best-known deployment of the Bavarian State Police took place in November 1923 against the Hitler putsch in Munich. Four police officers were killed. Her tough intervention against a demonstration in Coburg in September 1921 was also known.

The Bavarian State Police was expanded to over 17,000 men by 1923/24 and reduced to around 14,000 men by the end of the 1920s. Their barracked departments were in all government districts on the right bank of the Rhine and, since 1930, also in the Bavarian Palatinate . The state police were initially hired for twelve years of service in accordance with the Reich Framework Law on the Federal Police of the States of 1922 - as with the Reichswehr . Under pressure from the victorious powers who, in connection with Article 162 of the Versailles Treaty, demanded the demilitarization and disarmament of the barracked police forces (cf. disarmament note from 1925), this mode was abandoned. The Police Officer Act of 1928 then brought about a closer connection to the other uniformed Bavarian police forces ( protective police in the major cities of Munich, Nuremberg-Fürth and the gendarmerie in the countryside) and the transition to employment as a probationary and lifetime officer. The state police should become a personnel reservoir for individual service. In addition, the intention was to reduce the burden of supplies as well as to increase police motivation and professionalise the association. Although the state police were now officially referred to as the Schutzpolizei according to the Police Officials Act of 1928 , the previous term remained in use.

After the overwhelming majority of the state police officers and especially the officers were former soldiers and members of the voluntary corps, especially in the early years , the association - like the Reichswehr - was, if loyal, inwardly reserved towards the republican form of government. There were close contacts with the Reichswehr, and the internally cultivated corps spirit and cult of masculinity and camaraderie were accordingly .

In 1935 the state police were transferred from the state of Bavaria to the Reich and, in the course of the armament of the Wehrmacht, joined the army .

Outline (1928)

[Bodies and authorities in the portfolio of the State Ministry of the Interior]

  • National Police
  • State Police Office in Munich:
  • Local state police departments and their command chiefs:
    • Amberg: Josef Lobinger Police Captain;
    • Ansbach: Georg Haberl, police major;
    • Aschaffenburg: Arthur Schmitt, police captain;
    • Augsburg: Friedrich von Tumma, police lieutenant colonel;
    • Bayreuth: Hermann Siegert, police captain;
    • Coburg: Johann Bernhardt, Police Major;
    • Yard: Fritz Schade, police captain;
    • Ingolstadt: Max Berthold, police captain;
    • Lindau: Ernst Schlemmer, police captain;
    • Munich: Karl Schnitzlein, Police Colonel;
    • Nuremberg-Fürth: Georg Häublein, Police Colonel;
    • Passau: - - -
    • Regensburg: - - -
    • Rosenheim: - - -
    • Straubing: - - -
    • Würzburg: Philip Hoepffner, Police Lieutenant Colonel.
  • Police preschools :
    • Bamberg: Alfred Wanka, Police Lieutenant Colonel;
    • Eichstätt: Wilhelm Kretzer, Police Lieutenant Colonel.


According to the State Police Officer Act of August 26, 1922, the state police officers were divided into police officers, police secretaries and police sergeants.

  • Police officers : police lieutenant, police first lieutenant, police captain, police major, police lieutenant colonel, police colonel. - Police Assistant Doctor / Police Veterinarian, Police Senior Physician / Police Senior Veterinarian, Police Medical Council / Police Veterinary Council, Police Medical Council 1st Class / Police Veterinary Council 1st Class, Police Chief Medical Council.
  • Police secretaries: police secretary, police chief secretary
  • Police sergeant: Police auxiliary sergeant, police sub-sergeant, police rotting master, police sergeant, police chief sergeant, police chief sergeant.


Relevant laws

  • Reich Law on the Protective Police of the Länder of July 17, 1922 (Reichsgesetzblatt 1922 I, p. 597), repealed by the law of July 10, 1926 (RGBl. 1926 I, p. 402)
  • State Police Officer Act of August 26, 1922 (GVBl., P. 427) link
  • Police Officer Act of April 12, 1928 (GVBl., P. 193) link
  • of April 12, 1928 (GVBl., p. 197)
  • Law on the State Police of March 29, 1935 (RGBl. 1935 I, p. 460)
  • Law on the transfer of members of the state police to the Wehrmacht of July 3, 1935 (RGBl. 1935 I, p. 851)

See also


  • G. Sagerer: The Bavarian State Police from 1919–1935 , Munich (Schuler) 1954.
  • Emil Schuler: The Bavarian State Police 1919–1935. Brief historical overview , Aschau (self-published) 1964.
  • Johannes Schwarze: The Bavarian police and their historical function in maintaining public security in Bavaria from 1919–1933 , Munich (Wölfle) 1977. ISBN 3-87913-081-7

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Bayerisches Jahrbuch 1929, Munich, Gerber 1928, p. 339.