Treblinka extermination camp

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Railway sleepers made of concrete are reminiscent of the former railway track that led through a dense forest into the extermination camp.
Treblinka extermination camp (Poland)
Treblinka (52 ° 37 ′ 53 ″ N, 22 ° 3 ′ 8 ″ E)
Warsaw (52 ° 13 ′ 0 ″ N, 21 ° 2 ′ 0 ″ E)
Map of present-day Poland

The Treblinka [ trɛˈblinka ] (also Treblinka II ) extermination camp near the village of Treblinka in the Małkinia Górna municipality in the Masovian Voivodeship , northeast of Warsaw , was the last and soon the largest Nazi extermination camp built during the Second World War as part of Aktion Reinhardt in the German Government General occupied Poland . The total number of people murdered in the Treblinka extermination camp between July 22, 1942 and August 21, 1943 is well over 700,000 and is estimated at over 1 million people.


Station sign from the train station in the nearby village of Treblinka

The building order for the construction of the extermination camp was given by the Reichsführer SS , Heinrich Himmler , the SS and police leader in the Warsaw district , SS-Oberführer Arpad Wigand , in an oral meeting in Warsaw on April 17, 1942.

Its establishment was part of the Reinhardt campaign for the systematic murder of all Jews in German-occupied Poland between July 1942 and October 1943. This also resulted in the extermination of people from other European countries. Construction work began at the end of May 1942 with Jewish concentration camp prisoners from the area, from Warsaw and from the Treblinka I labor camp . Some German companies took part in the construction. The barbed wire was supplied by the Deutsche Seil- und Drahtfabrik Freiberg in Saxony. SS-Hauptsturmführer Thomalla had construction supervision . In addition, a siding was laid from the Treblinka train station to the extermination camp. Some of the building material came from the Warsaw Ghetto and was brought in via this platform.

The initially three gas chambers with an area of ​​48 m² were set up by "specialists" from Aktion T4 based on the model of the Sobibor extermination camp . Initially, only a barbed wire fence surrounded the camp. Pine branches woven into the fence should block the view. Later, an outer area of ​​iron tank barriers reinforced with barbed wire was added. At the corners of the camp and in the actual extermination area, wooden watchtowers about eight meters high had been erected. The camp gate consisted of two tall pillars and a narrow roof. The pillars were each decorated with a metal flower. A sign attached to it read "SS Sonderkommando Treblinka". The guardroom next to it was built in the style of a Tyrolean farmhouse.

The whole camp was divided into three roughly equal areas: the so-called residential area for the guards (" Max Biala barracks") and the prisoner barracks, the reception camp and the death camp or "upper camp", which was located on the sloping terrain.

A 100 × 100 m area in the residential area was the actual prison camp with three large sleeping barracks and workshops; next to it was the roll call area and the latrine. Everything was fenced in separately with barbed wire.

The transport trains were able to enter the reception camp through a gate in the camp fence camouflaged by a small wood and stop at the approx. 200 m long ramp. There was a building that simulated a train station with the name "Obermajdan" invented by the SS. Next to it was a smaller barrack in which the women had to undress. Another barrack served here as a storage room for the stolen luggage. In the initial phase of the extermination campaigns, the Jewish work detachment slept in this barrack.

Timetable arrangement for the so-called resettlement to the east of August 25, 1942

In the death camp, the actual mass murder took place on an area of ​​approx. 200 m × 250 m, surrounded by high earthen walls. The gas chambers were located here, the mass graves were laid and later the cremation grates were installed. The Jewish special detachment with kitchen, toilet and laundry was housed in two barracks, which were later additionally fenced. An additional watchtower and a sentry box stood in the middle.

According to a report on July 22, 1942, Treblinka was ready to receive deportation transports . This enabled the “Great Resettlement” from the Warsaw Ghetto and the eastern parts of the Warsaw District to begin. The first transport of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto arrived on July 23rd. Between August and October 1942, the SS had ten more gas chambers built with a total area of ​​320 m². This allowed the number of people from 20 railroad cars to be murdered at the same time. The main extermination times in Treblinka extended from July 1942 to January 1943 with transports from the city and district of Warsaw , from the districts of Radom and Lublin , the district of Białystok and the Bohemian Theresienstadt , from February to mid-March 1943 from the district and city of Białystok , from the end of March to the beginning April 1943 with transports from the previously Greek part of Thrace ( Western Thrace ) and Greece, which was occupied by Bulgaria , and from the city of Białystok in mid-August 1943.

After the uprising on August 2, 1943, the SS gassed prisoners from two trains from Białystok on August 21, 1943 (with the numbers PJ 207 and PJ 208). Then the camp was dismantled. Parts of the barracks were transported by train to the SS labor camp Dorohucza near Trawniki . The last transport with residual materials left the site on November 17, 1943. In the period that followed, a farm was built on the site as a camouflage.

Extermination process

In the lower camp

General map of the camp (created in 2009)

The trains with the deportees, mostly coming from the ghettos of the Generalgouvernement , waited in the Treblinka station until the ramp in the camp was free and further victims could be brought into the camp. Then up to 20 wagons were uncoupled from the train and pushed up to the ramp. Trawniki and SS men urged those who had arrived to get out of the car quickly, with the aim of maintaining the illusion of an arrival in a transit camp - followed, for example, by appropriate instructions and speeches. In the first few weeks of the camp, this was almost entirely possible. However, from mid-August 1942 the number of victims arriving in Treblinka per day increased significantly, so that the SS and Trawniki men also regularly used lashes, blows with rifle butts and shots to speed up getting off the trains and emptying the ramp.

People who, due to their age, injuries or other physical weakness, were noticeably unable to make the way to the gas chambers were singled out at the ramp and taken to the "hospital" by inmates. There they waited on benches next to the entrance until one of the inmates assigned there brought them to undress, citing an imminent examination by a doctor. In the early days of the camp, the victims were thrown into the pit and shot at until they stopped moving. With the replacement of the camp commandant Eberl by Stangl, Christian Wirth also modified the method of execution in the "military hospital": The victim now had to face the previously shot dead on the earth wall at the edge of the pit, or if it was no longer there was able to walk, put there. An SS man - more rarely Trawniki - then killed it with a shot in the neck . From around the end of 1942, there was also a constant fire in the pit of the "hospital", so that the newly arrived corpses were burned immediately. The perpetrators in the "military hospital" included, among others. the SS-Unterscharführer Willi Mentz , August Wilhelm Rent and the SS-Unterscharführer Möller, who took turns working there. If the number of individuals to be shot became too large, they also called in Trawniki for the shootings.

The guards drove the victims, who were still able to walk, through a gap in the wooden fence that shielded the ramp from the rest of the camp and onto the space between the dressing barracks ("Umschlagplatz"). A sign informed those arriving in Polish and German about the alleged purpose of their stay:

“Attention Warsaw Jews!
You are here in a transit camp, from which the onward transport to the labor camp will take place. To prevent epidemics, both clothes and luggage must be handed in for disinfection.
Gold, money, foreign exchange and jewelry must be handed over to the cash register against a receipt. They will be returned later on presentation of the receipts.
In order to clean their bodies, all those arriving have to bathe before they are transported on. "

Men and women were separated at the “Umschlagplatz”: women and children undressed naked in the left (north) of the two barracks, men in the open air. In the early days of the camp, the men were able to use the right (southern) of the two barracks to undress, later this was only used to sort and store the belongings of the murdered. In a room at the far end of the women's dressing barracks, the “hairdressing squad” worked, cutting off the women's hair and collecting it in suitcases and bags provided. In the first days after cutting the hair in September or October 1942, the hairdressing unit still worked in the building of the gas chambers.

In the upper camp

From the space between the sorting barracks, Trawnikis and SS men drove the victims in rows of four and five with raised hands through the "hose" to the gas chambers. The victims had to hand in all valuables and documents at the “small cash register” in the “hose” on the way to the gas chambers on the border between the lower and upper camp. Due to the narrow width of the "hose", the victims had no chance of avoiding the blows of the guards, so they tried to make the way to the gas chambers as quickly as possible.

The Trawnikis - i.a. Ivan Marchenko (called "Ivan the Terrible"), who also tortured prisoners, and Nikolai Shalayev - drove the victims into the gas chambers. An internal combustion engine stood in an adjoining room, and its toxic exhaust gases were directed into the gas chambers. The doors were closed and the order to start the engine was given. After a while, a Trawniki or an SS man checked the doors to the gas chambers to see whether there were still signs of life from the victims. If this was not the case, he gave the order to open the doors, the doors of the chambers leading to the outside were opened and the prisoners began to remove the bodies. Because of the large number of people in the chambers and because the victims had touched each other, the bodies in the chambers were pressed together like a single block of meat, so that some of the prisoners had to force them out. Victims still alive who were not killed by the engine exhausts were shot dead by guards in front of the gas chambers, at the pits or cremation grates, or on the way there.

From the arrival of a train in the camp to the killing of the newly arrived victims, "as a rule no more than 1 1/2 hours" passed.

Elimination of the corpses

The inmates of the “Leichenkommando” had to fetch the corpses from the gas chambers and run them to the pits that were used as mass graves. The transport to the pits was initially carried out by light rail. When this turned out to be too prone to failure due to frequent derailments, the inmates dragged the bodies without aids. Finally, wooden stretchers in the shape of ladders with leather straps were handed out to the inmates, on which they - two at a time - laid a body and carried it to the mass graves.

On the way from the gas chambers to the pits, the porters stopped at the waiting "dentist command", whose relatives broke open the jaws of the dead and searched the oral cavity and other body orifices for artificial teeth, especially gold teeth and hidden objects of value, and removed artificial teeth with pliers. The prisoners had to clean the teeth extracted in this way and hand them over to the camp administration.

The porters threw the bodies into the pits that served as mass graves. The prisoner detachment deployed there laid the corpses one after the other, placing the head of one victim next to the feet of the previous one to reduce the space required. The corpses were sprinkled with sand or chlorinated lime. If a pit could not hold any more bodies, it was closed.

Exhumation and cremation of the corpses

Open mass grave, 1943

As early as the spring of 1942, Himmler decided that all traces of the murders of Jews and interned members of the Red Army on occupied Soviet territory and in the extermination camps should be destroyed by excavating and burning the victims (“ Sonderaktion 1005 ”). After attempts by Paul Blobel to cremate corpses as effectively as possible in Kulmhof , the SS to Sobibor in autumn 1942 and Belzec in November or December 1942 began in March 1943, also in Treblinka, with the systematic cremation of both those currently murdered and those already buried in mass graves . At this point in time, the bodies of over 700,000 people had already been buried in Treblinka. The temporal proximity between Himmler's visit to the camp at the end of February / beginning of March 1943 and the start of the cremation campaign also suggests that Himmler personally ordered the cremation of the corpses in Treblinka. The stench caused by the decomposition of the corpses also played a role in Treblinka. For example, a Wehrmacht unit stationed near the camp had already complained at the end of October 1942 about the smell emanating from the camp.

SS Oberscharführer Herbert Floß , who had previously worked in Sobibor, came to Treblinka specifically to set up and supervise the cremation . Another German responsible for directing the cremation was SS-Unterscharführer Otto Horn .

Symbolization of the facilities for cremation in today's memorial

At least two excavators were used for the excavation . The facilities used for combustion ( "grids") consisted of five or six 30-meter-long railway track (the first used Feldbahn seemed had proved insufficient heat-resistant), side by side each about 70 cm high concrete base were placed on three small distance . The exact number of incineration grates used could no longer be determined after the end of the war. However , in its judgment on the second Treblinka trial of September 3, 1965, the Düsseldorf Regional Court stated that “there must have been several such systems in the upper camp”, while Yitzhak Arad assumes the simultaneous existence of up to six incineration grates. The total number of corpses that could be burned at the same time was therefore 12,000.

The corpses from the gas chambers were now brought to the grates by the “Leichenkommando”, where two prisoners from the “fire column” stacked them on the rails. The inmates laid wood under the grates and set it on fire. Initially, corpses and wood were also doused with fuel to accelerate the burning process. However, since the cremation of the exhumed victims also worked without fire accelerators , the use of fuel was ultimately dispensed with. In order not to obstruct the “fire column” when loading the grates, the grates were loaded during the day and lit in the evening. Up to 3,000 corpses could be cremated simultaneously on each cremation grate, the piles of corpses reaching a height of two and the flames a height of up to ten meters.

The excavator, which was already used to dig the pits, was also used to open and empty the mass graves; after the cremation campaign had started, another excavator (two more according to other information) was brought in. The diggers lifted the bodies, some of which were already in a state of decay, from the mass graves and laid them down next to the pits. From there, inmates carried the bodies to the grates.

The inmates of the "ash column" cleared away the ashes from under the grates, crushed remaining bones on metal sheets and sieved the ashes to ensure that all evidence of human remains was minimized. The ashes were poured alternately with layers of sand and garbage into the emptied mass graves and these were covered with a two-meter-thick layer of earth. Attempts to hide the ash by mixing it with sand and dust had previously failed.

The complete exhumation and cremation of the buried victims lasted until the end of July 1943.

Uprising on August 2, 1943

Puffs of smoke from the burning Treblinka II during the uprising, 1943

After an uprising organized on August 2, 1943 with the aim of mass exodus and the destruction of the camp, during which almost 200 to 250 prisoners escaped at least for a short time, the SS abducted those inmates who had survived the subsequent measures or had remained in the camp. to the Sobibor extermination camp .

About 60 refugees who survived the Treblinka extermination camp are known by name. Many of them survived the end of the world war.

The Treblinka II part of the camp, the extermination camp of SS- Aktion Reinhardt , was demolished. After the uprising in Sobibór with subsequent mass exodus on October 14, 1943, this second extermination camp was also closed.

Number of victims

In 2000, a copy of a radio message was found in which SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle reported the number of Jews killed in the course of Aktion Reinhard (t) for 1942. According to this source , the so-called Höfle-Telegram , exactly 713,555 Jews were murdered in Treblinka by the end of 1942 . That corresponds to 56% of all Jews murdered in the four "Reinhardt" extermination camps mentioned this year . Around 2,000 Sinti and Roma were among the victims in Treblinka .

Treblinka , created in 1966 by Wadim Abramowitsch Sidur and installed in Berlin in 1979

In 2017, Stephan Lehnstaedt presented more recent research results, which assume a minimum of 780,863 to a maximum of 951,800 victims for Treblinka. Lehnstaedt himself considers an estimate of 870,000 to be realistic.

Known inmates, victims and survivors

Well-known prisoners included Ernst Arndt , Basia Liebgold , Edek , Richard Glazar , Martin Gray , Abraham Kurc , Solomon Liebgold , Jizchak Löwy , Richard Merländer , Abraham Ostrzega , Simon Pullman , Chil Rajchman , Dawid Rubinowicz , Abraham Schweizer , Armin Springer , Stefania Wilczyńska , Samuel Willenberg and Jankiel Wiernik . A later very famous victim was the Polish doctor and educator Janusz Korczak . Even Bruno Winawer and Artur Gold were in the camp. From Sigmund Freud's sister Rosa Graf is believed that she was murdered in Treblinka.

According to the latest information, only the names “of a little more than 60 survivors of the extermination camp are known”.

On February 19, 2016, the last known survivor of the Samuel Willenberg camp in Tel Aviv died at the age of 93. Willenberg had taken part in the uprising.

Camp commanders and their prosecution

All four of Treblinka's camp managers had held leading positions within the "euthanasia" killing of the sick, known as Aktion T4 , from the start. The first camp manager was the doctor Irmfried Eberl from May to September 1942 . Franz Stangl took his place (September 1942 to August 1943). Criminal Secretary Ernst Schemmel represented Stangl for a few weeks during his vacation at the end of September / beginning of October 1942. The last camp manager was SS-Untersturmführer of the Waffen-SS Kurt Franz , whose dog Barry was feared among the prisoners.

When Eberl was approached on February 15, 1948 by a fellow prisoner in Ulm prison about the recently published book by Eugen Kogon " The SS State " and the doctor of the same name mentioned in it, Eberl probably decided to commit suicide , which he did the next day, Executed on February 16, 1948, by hanging in his prison cell. At this point in time, the investigating authorities still had no knowledge of the dead remand prisoner's true identity.

Allied criminal proceedings

Stangl was arrested and charged by the US Army in Austria in 1945. He was able to escape, lived in Syria until 1951 and then in Brazil. In 1967 he was extradited to Germany and sentenced by the Düsseldorf Regional Court on December 22, 1970 to life imprisonment for the collective murder of at least 400,000 people . Stangl appealed against the judgment, but died on June 28, 1971 in the detention center of heart failure . Through the testimony of surviving prisoners, for example Richard Glazar , many details of the torture of the camp for which the defendants were jointly responsible became known to the public.

Proceedings 1964 and 1965

In the Treblinka trial, the Düsseldorf Regional Court sentenced Kurt Franz to life imprisonment for the collective murder of at least 300,000 people, for murder in 35 cases of at least 139 people and for attempted murder on September 3, 1965 . Because of his age and health reasons, Franz was released in mid-1993 and died on July 4, 1998 in Wuppertal. In addition to Franz, nine other accused were also indicted in the Treblinka trial, including Heinrich Matthes and Franz Suchomel .

The regional court in Munich sentenced SS-Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff (head of the personal staff of Himmler and liaison officer of the SS to Hitler ) to 15 years imprisonment for aiding and abetting murder in at least 300,000 cases (deportations to Treblinka). In 1971 he was granted exemption from prison for incapacity.

Treblinka labor camp

Two kilometers south of the Treblinka II extermination camp was the Treblinka labor camp from autumn 1941 to July 1944 , also called Treblinka I to distinguish it from the later extermination camp . There people were admitted who had actually or allegedly violating "against a law passed by a German authority of the General Prohibitions or bid", also Jews from the incoming in the extermination camp trains selected . The term of imprisonment was two to six months. In the labor camp, between 1000 and 1200 prisoners were constantly held as work detachments and used for forced labor in a neighboring gravel pit and various workshops on the premises . Of the total of around 20,000 prisoners, less than one in two survived imprisonment. On July 23, 1944, Trawniki men and SS men liquidated the camp because the front was approaching. More than 500 Jewish prisoners were shot. At the beginning of August, the 20 Polish inmates of the clean-up squad were shot.


The first plans to erect a memorial on the camp site already existed in 1947, when the Polish Ministry for Reconstruction and the Committee for Honoring the Victims of Treblinka (KUOT) initiated a tender for its design. The design by Władysław Niemiec and Alfons Zielonko selected at the beginning of 1948 saw, inter alia, a cemetery in the form of a Star of David , 25 meter high decalogue panels in the form of an obelisk with the inscription " Nie zabijaj " (German: "You shouldn't kill") and a mausoleum . However, this design was never realized for unknown reasons, and the planned design for the remembrance of the Holocaust practiced in Poland after 1949 may not have been heroic .

In 1955, the Polish Ministry of Culture and Art ( Ministerstwo Kultury i Sztuki ) put out to tender again . After the decision on one of the submitted designs on February 28, 1960, the site was redesigned according to the selected plans by the architect Adam Haupt and the sculptor Franciszek Duszeńko , who was himself a prisoner in the Groß-Rosen and Sachsenhausen concentration camps . The complex, which is partly based on a Jewish cemetery and largely unchanged to this day, was finally inaugurated on May 10, 1964. It is considered to be one of the most impressive places of remembrance of the Holocaust.

Along the route of the former siding that led from the Małkinia – Siedlce railway into the camp, as well as on the border line of the camp, two meter high, roughly hewn granite blocks were placed. On the last section of the route, concrete railway sleepers are modeled, which end at the rebuilt ramp. A 200 meter long cobblestone path also leads to the ramp, starting at the former main gate of the extermination camp, which is marked by two concrete walls. The words “ obóz zagłady ” (German: “extermination camp”) are engraved on one of the two walls at the main gate .

Central monument of the memorial

A paved path leads from the ramp, next to which there are stones in a group with the names of the countries of origin of the deportees - Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, France, Greece, Yugoslavia, Austria, Poland, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia - into the interior of the camp. At the approximate location of the gas chambers rises an eight-meter-high tower with a square floor plan, split in the middle on the side facing the ramp. It consists of large granite blocks and is finished with a cantilevered crown. In the crown, the human body and hands blessing above are indicated schematically in relief on three sides. On the fourth side, facing away from the ramp, a menorah is depicted on the crown . The words "Never again" are carved into a stone next to the tower in the languages ​​of the victims - Polish, Hebrew, Yiddish, Russian, English, French and German. Behind the tower, a rectangular, 14 meter long and 5 meter wide field of molten basalt symbolizes the cremation of the corpses in a shallow hollow .

Some of the 17,000 or so granite blocks in the Treblinka Memorial. More than two hundred of them bear the names of communities whose Jewish residents died in Treblinka.

A circle around the stone tower and parts of the site of the mass and ash graves - a total of around 22,000 m² - are covered with concrete slabs on which around 17,000 broken, uncut granite stones of various sizes are distributed, symbolizing Jewish gravestones ( Mazewa ). In 216 of them the names of places and communities of origin of the Treblinka victims are engraved. The only individual mentioned on the site is the doctor and educator Janusz Korczak (Henryk Goldszmit), who, since his hundredth birthday in 1978, together with the 200 or so children he accompanied on their way to Treblinka, a stone with the inscription Janusz Korczak - Henryk Goldszmit - i dzieci (German: "... and children") is dedicated.

The northern section of the site, which includes the “residential camp” (camp III), is forested. From the southern end of the camp grounds, a path leads to the former Treblinka I labor camp, which has also been converted into a memorial.

Since February 23, 2006, an exhibition in the administration building at the memorial car park has provided information about the history of the extermination camp. The Treblinka memorial and memorial has been part of the Muzeum Walki i Męczeństwa w Treblince (German: Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom in Treblinka ) with its seat in Kosów Lacki a few kilometers southeast of Treblinka, which in turn is part of the Muzeum Regionalnego w Siedlcach ( Regional Museum Siedlce ). Around 60,000 people visit Treblinka every year, half of the visitors come from abroad.

See also



Web links

Commons : Treblinka extermination camp  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Frank Golczewski In: Wolfgang Benz: Dimension des Genölkermordes. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-423-04690-2 , p. 468. Information in the so-called Höfle-Telegram already over 700,000 / estimate according to Rachel Auerbach 1,074,000, this is considered probable by Golczewski.
  2. During the period in which Treblinka was founded, a total of 56 "T4 men" worked there. See: Sara Berger: Experts of Destruction. The T4 Reinhardt network in the Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka camps. Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-86854-268-4 , p. 214.
  3. Mapping by Annika Wienert: Introducing the camp - the architecture of the National Socialist extermination camps . Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-95808-013-3 , pp. 72–81. The individual areas are shown on this map (
  4. Gabriele Nissim : The man who stopped Hitler. Dimitar Pesev and the Rescue of Bulgarian Jews, Siedler Verlag, 2000.
  5. ^ Ino Arndt, Wolfgang Scheffler: Organized mass murder of Jews in National Socialist extermination camps. A contribution to the correction of apologetic literature. In: Quarterly Books for Contemporary History . 2/1976, pp. 105-135. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt GmbH, Stuttgart.
  6. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 81.
  7. ^ Wolfgang Benz: Treblinka extermination camp . In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. Volume 8, p. 415.
  8. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 83 f.
  9. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 97, p. 121 f.
  10. ^ Wolfgang Benz: Treblinka extermination camp . In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. Volume 8, p. 411.
  11. ^ Samuel Willenberg: Treblinka. Camp, revolt, escape, Warsaw uprising. Unrast, Münster 2009, ISBN 978-3-89771-820-3 , p. 26.
  12. a b Judgment of the Düsseldorf Regional Court, September 3, 1965 (8 I Ks 2/64), Part Two, Section D II.
  13. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 122 f.
  14. a b c d e Judgment of the Düsseldorf Regional Court, September 3, 1965 (8 I Ks 2/64), Part One, Section E ( online ( memento of March 21, 2014 in the web archive ), accessed on March 22 2013).
  15. a b Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 83.
  16. ^ A b Wolfgang Benz: Treblinka extermination camp . In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. Volume 8, p. 416.
  17. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 109.
  18. Chil Raijchman: I am the last Jew. Treblinka 1942/43. Piper Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-492-05335-8 , pp. 45 f., 55-64.
  19. a b c Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 86.
  20. ^ Wolfgang Benz: Treblinka extermination camp . In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. Volume 8, p. 417.
  21. Murderous Eyes . In: Der Spiegel . No. 31 , 1993, pp. 103-105 ( online ). , accessed January 1, 2021
  22. ^ Wolfgang Benz: Treblinka extermination camp . In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. Volume 8, p. 417, see note 12 there.
  23. a b Judgment of the Düsseldorf Regional Court, September 3, 1965 (8 I Ks 2/64), Part One, Section D ( online ( memento of March 21, 2014 in the web archive ), accessed on March 22, 2013).
  24. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 111.
  25. Justice and Nazi Crimes - Third Treblinka Trial: Volume 34, serial. No. 746, p. 766.
  26. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 112.
  27. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 170 f.
  28. Jens Hoffmann: "You can't tell that". "Aktion 1005" - How the Nazis removed the traces of their mass murders in Eastern Europe ( Concrete - Texts 46/47). KVV Konkret, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-930786-53-4 , p. 242.
  29. Jens Hoffmann: "You can't tell that". “Aktion 1005” - How the Nazis removed the traces of their mass murders in Eastern Europe ( Concrete - Texts 46/47). KVV Konkret, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-930786-53-4 , p. 231.
  30. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 172.
  31. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 170.
  32. a b c d e Jens Hoffmann: “You can't tell that”. "Aktion 1005" - How the Nazis removed the traces of their mass murders in Eastern Europe ( Concrete - Texts 46/47). KVV Konkret, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-930786-53-4 , p. 234.
  33. a b Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 177.
  34. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 173 f.
  35. Chil Raijchman: I am the last Jew. Treblinka 1942/43. Piper Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-492-05335-8 , p. 114.
  36. Sara Berger: Experts of the destruction. The T4 Reinhardt network in the Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka camps. Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-86854-268-4 , p. 211.
  37. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 174.
  38. a b Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 175 f.
  39. Chil Raijchman: I am the last Jew. Treblinka 1942/43. Piper Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-492-05335-8 , p. 116 f.
  40. ^ Yitzhak Arad: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. P. 175.
  41. Jens Hoffmann: “You can't tell that”. "Aktion 1005" - How the Nazis removed the traces of their mass murders in Eastern Europe ( Concrete - Texts 46/47). KVV Konkret, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-930786-53-4 , p. 235.
  42. Dirk Rupnow : Destroying and remembering: traces of nationalistic memory politics. Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-871-X , p. 57.
  43. Stephan Lehnstaedt: The core of the Holocaust. Belzec, Sobibór, Treblinka and Aktion Reinhardt. Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-406-70702-5 , p. 84 with note 13 and p. 85 / see Sara Berger: Experts of Destruction. The T4 Reinhardt network in the Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka camps. Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-86854-268-4 , table 10, pp. 427-431.
  45. ^ Willenberg: Treblinka , p. 9 (foreword, Bildungswerk Stanisław Hantz ).
  46. Samuel Willenberg. Last survivor of the Nazi extermination camp Treblinka died ( memento from February 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), February 20, 2016, on Deutschlandfunk . Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  47. ^ Off Brochure Treblinka - Eva Budde-Felix, Hansen-Jonathan Sokolowski
  48. Ref .: 8 Ks 1/69.
  49. Excerpt from the judgment of Franz Stangl ( Memento from May 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  50. Düsseldorf Regional Court: Treblinka trial judgment of September 3, 1965, 8 I Ks 2/64 ( Memento of March 21, 2014 in the web archive ), accessed on September 27, 2009.
  51. Grossman, p. 823, see also the translator's footnote.
  52. Zofia Wóycicka: The Treblinka Memorial, designed by Władysław Niemiec and Alfons Zielonko. In: Wojciech Lenarczyk et al. (Ed.): Concentration Camp Crimes. Contributions to the history of the National Socialist concentration camps and their memory. Metropol Verlag, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-938690-50-5 , pp. 119-138.
  53. a b c Description of the memorial on the website of the Treblinka Museum; Retrieved April 3, 2013.
  54. a b James Edward Young: The Texture of Memory. Holocaust Memorials and Meaning . Yale University Press, New Haven / London 1993, ISBN 0-300-05383-5 , p. 186.
  55. ^ A b Wolfgang Benz: Treblinka extermination camp . In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps . Volume 8. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1 , p. 435.
  56. James Edward Young: The Texture of Memory. Holocaust Memorials and Meaning . Yale University Press 1993, ISBN 0-300-05383-5 , pp. 186-192.
  57. Monika Wagner et al. (Ed.): Lexicon of artistic material: materials of modern art from waste to tin . Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60674-8 , p. 31 f.
  58. James Edward Young: The Texture of Memory. Holocaust Memorials and Meaning . Yale University Press 1993, ISBN 0-300-05383-5 , pp. 188 f.
  59. ^ Wolfgang Benz: Treblinka extermination camp . In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps . Volume 8. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57237-1 , p. 436.

Coordinates: 52 ° 37 ′ 53 ″  N , 22 ° 3 ′ 8 ″  E