List of concentration camps in the German Reich
The list of concentration camps of the German Reich contains concentration camps and concentration camp extermination camps during the time of National Socialism . It also lists the killing centers to which concentration camp prisoners were deported for murder.
To distinguish it from the strictly defined Nazi concentration camp system, the extermination camps of "Aktion Reinhardt" as well as youth detention centers, transit camps and other Nazi camps are listed.
The prehistory of the concentration camps was what historians call the early concentration camps . You will today u. a. also known as "wild" concentration camps. These were the camps that were set up unsystematically from 1933 after Adolf Hitler came to power in the German Reich , mostly provisionally at existing locations. They had the goal of imprisoning arrested political opponents of the NSDAP and thereby disempowering them, mostly existed for up to three years and were under the direction of the SA , SS , Gestapo , Ministry of the Interior , etc.
The early concentration camps were not under the control of the ICL , as this was only founded later. Some were later accepted into the large camp system of the SS.
Early concentration camp
|Ahrensbök||Germany||early concentration camp of SA - went out of the camp Eutin out||October 1933 to May 1934||300||0|
|Alt-Daber||Germany||early SA concentration camp||April 1933 to July 1933|
|Bad Sulza||Germany||early concentration camp of the SA / Ministry of the Interior||November 1933 to July 1937||800|
|Benninghausen||Germany||early SA concentration camp||March to September 1933||344||unknown|
|Börnicke||Germany||early SA concentration camp||May to July 1933||at least 10|
|Bredow||Germany (Poland)||early SS concentration camp||October 20, 1933 to March 11, 1934||40|
|Brandenburg on the Havel||Germany||Early concentration camp, later the T4 killing facility||August 1933 to February 1934||1,000-1,200||3 (at least)|
|Breitenau||Germany||early concentration camp, later " labor education camp "||June 1933 to March 1934
|470 or 8,500|
|Breslau-Dürrgoy||Germany (Poland)||early concentration camp, "private camp" Edmund Heines||April to August 1933||200-400|
|Colditz||Germany||early concentration camp of the SA and SS||March 21, 1933 to August 18, 1934
from March 31, 1934 satellite camp of Sachsenburg concentration camp
|Columbia house||Germany||early Gestapo concentration camp||December 1934 to December 1936||10,000|
|Dachau||Germany||First SS concentration camp , prototype||March 1933 to April 1945||200,000||about 41,500|
|Emsland camp||Germany||early KZ (more parts store: KZ Börgermoor , KZ Neusustrum , KZ Esterwegen ), from 1936 Strafgefangenenlager||June 1933 to 1945||80,000 concentration camp prisoners and prisoners,
100,000–180,000 prisoners of war
|30,000 mostly Soviet prisoners of war|
|Eutin||Germany||early SA concentration camp||circa July 1933 to May 1934||259||0|
|Heuberg||Germany||early concentration camp||March to December 1933||3,500-4,000||at least 1|
|Mockery||Germany||early SA concentration camp||March 1933 to August 1934||5,600||unknown|
|Kemna||Germany||early concentration camp||June 1933 to January 1934||4,500|
|Kislau||Germany||early concentration camp of the Baden Ministry of the Interior||April 1933 to April 1939||1|
|Koenigstein-Halbestadt||Germany||early concentration camp of SA - went later in the concentration camp Hohnstein on||March 10 to May 1933||215||unknown|
|Cool||Germany||early concentration camp||July to October 1933||200||0|
|Leschwitz||Germany||early concentration camp||March to August 1933||1,000-1,500||unknown|
|Lichtenburg||Germany||Men, then women, concentration camps||June 1933 to May 1939|
|Meisnerhof||Germany||early concentration camp||February 1933 to June 1933|
|Failure||Germany||early concentration camp of the SA and SS||March to September 1933||148
|Neustadt an der Haardt||Germany||early concentration camp ("protective custody, labor and internment camp")||March to June 1933||against 500||no|
|Ulm, Upper Kuhberg||Germany||Early concentration camp||November 1933 to July 1935||about 600||0|
|Oranienburg||Germany||Collective warehouse||March 1933 to July 1934||3,000||16 (at least)|
|Osthofen||Germany||"Re-education camp" collective camp||March 1933 to July 1934||3,000||no|
|SA prison in Papestrasse||Germany||early SA concentration camp||March 1933 to December 1933||approx. 2,000||approx. 30|
|Pearl Mountain||Germany||early concentration camp of the SA and SS||May to June 1933||34||no|
|Plaue||Germany||early concentration camp of the SA and SS||March 9 to June 10, 1933||600||no|
|Sachsenburg||Germany||early SA concentration camp||June 1933 to July 1937||2,000||11 (at least)|
|Sonnenburg||Germany (Poland)||early concentration camp||April 1933 to April 1934||1,000|
|Senftenberg||Germany||early concentration camp||June 1933 to August 1933||265|
|Water tower Berlin-Prenzlauer Berg||Germany||early SA concentration camp||March 1933 to June 1933|
|Vechta||Germany||Protective detention camp||July 10, 1933 to July 1934||100||0|
|Wittmoor||Germany||early SA concentration camp||March to October 1933|
Concentration camps of the IKL and the WVHA
The concentration camps, which were founded by the Inspection of the Concentration Camps (IKL) and mostly lasted until the end of the war, are meant in the narrower sense when the term “concentration camps” is used.
According to Himmler's orders , only those camps were officially allowed to be designated as concentration camps that were subordinate to the IKL (later to the Main Economic Administration Office, WVHA ).
In addition to the subordination relationship (IKL / WVHA), the structure of the later concentration camps based on the “Dachau model” is characteristic of this type of camp. The concentration camp regulations developed by Theodor Eicke in Dachau applied .
|Arbeitsdorf Fallersleben||Germany||concentration camp||April to October 1942||approx. 1,200|
|Auschwitz main camp||Poland||concentration camp||May 1940 to January 1945||see Birkenau|
|Auschwitz-Birkenau||Poland||Concentration and extermination camps||October 1941 to January 1945||400,000||1.1 to 1.5 million|
|Auschwitz-Monowitz||Poland||concentration camp||Late 1942 to January 1945||see Birkenau|
|Bergen-Belsen||Germany||concentration camp||April 1943 to April 1945||120,000||70,000|
|Beech forest||Germany||concentration camp||July 1937 to April 1945||250,000||56,000|
|Dachau||Germany||Concentration camp ( prototype )||March 1933 to April 1945||200,000||about 41,500|
|Flossenbürg||Germany||concentration camp||May 1938 to April 1945||at least 100,000||30,000|
|Big roses||Germany (Poland)||concentration camp||August 1940 to February 1945||125,000||40,000|
|Gusen||Austria||concentration camp||May 1940 to April 1945||44,602|
|Herzogenbusch-Vught||Netherlands||concentration camp||January 1943 to September 1944||749|
|Down||Germany||SS special camp, transit camp, 'Germanization camp'||July 1940 to March 1945||14,000||at least 302|
|Riga Imperial Forest||Latvia||concentration camp||March 1943 to September 1944|
|Kaunas||Lithuania||concentration camp||September 1943 to July 1944||18,500-30,000|
|Majdanek-Lublin||Poland||Concentration and extermination camps||July 1941 to July 1944||78,000|
|Mauthausen||Austria||concentration camp||August 1938 to May 1945||195,000||at least 95,000 (with Gusen)|
|Mittelbau||Germany||concentration camp||August 1943 to April 1945||60,000||at least 20,000|
|Moringen||Germany||Women concentration camps||June 1933 to March 1938|
|Natzweiler / Struthof , continuation in Guttenbach / Neckarelz||France||concentration camp||May 1941 to September 1944, then a nominal continuation in the Neckarelz concentration camp until March 1945||52,000||22,000|
|Neuengamme||Germany||concentration camp||December 1938 to May 1945||106,000||55,000|
|Niederhagen / Wewelsburg||Germany||concentration camp||September 1941 to spring 1943||3,900||1,285|
|Plaszow||Poland||concentration camp||December 1942 to January 1945||(at least 150,000)||8,000|
|Ravensbrück||Germany||Women concentration camps||May 1939 to April 1945||150,000||20,000-30,000|
|Sachsenhausen||Germany||concentration camp||July 1936 to April 1945||at least 200,000||at least 30,000–40,000 (20,500 known by name + 10,000–13,000 Soviet prisoners of war + other victims)|
|Stutthof||Free City of Gdansk (Poland)||concentration camp||September 1939 to May 1945||110,000||65,000|
|Vaivara||Estonia||concentration camp||September 1943 to March (?) 1944||20,000||950|
|Warsaw||Poland||concentration camp||July 1943 to July 1944||40,000||20,000|
Concentration camp under the Gestapo
- Hohenbruch concentration camp near Hohenbruch (until 1938 Lauknen, since 1946 Gromowo / Гро́мово) in what was then East Prussia was a concentration camp that existed from August 1939 to January 1945 and was subordinate to the Gestapo in Königsberg .
Overview of the concentration camp subcamps and concentration camp external commands
The following lists contain both permanently established satellite camps (camps with prisoner dwellings and SS watchtowers) and temporary external commands. External concentration camp units were mobile concentration camp prisoner units operated by the SS. B. were used in bomb clearance (e.g. concentration camp external command SS construction brigade ).
- List of satellite camps of Auschwitz I (main camp)
- List of the Buchenwald subcamps
- List of satellite camps of the Dachau concentration camp , approx. 169 external commands and camps
- List of the subcamps of the Flossenbürg concentration camp
- List of the subcamps of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp
- List of the subcamps of the Hinzert concentration camp
- List of the Majdanek subcamps
- List of the Mauthausen subcamps
- List of the subcamps of the Mittelbau concentration camp
- List of the subcamps of the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp
- List of the Neuengamme satellite camps
- List of the subcamps of the Ravensbrück concentration camp
- List of satellite camps of the Riga-Kaiserwald concentration camp
- List of satellite camps of Sachsenhausen concentration camp
- List of the satellite camps of the Stutthof concentration camp , approx. 39 external commands and camps
- List of the subcamps of the Plaszow concentration camp
Camps that served the industrialized extermination of people are now called extermination camps by historians .
Extermination camp (within the concentration camp system)
The term “extermination camps” includes the concentration camps Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek (Lublin) , which were subordinate to the ICL . In these two concentration camps, the criterion of factory-organized mass murder was in the foreground.
|Name / designation||Location (current country)||Type||Installation||Closure / Liberation||Estimated number of dead|
|Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp , (also called Auschwitz II)||Poland||Concentration, prisoner of war and extermination camps||October 1941||January 1945||1.1 to 1.5 million|
|Majdanek concentration camp (Lublin)||Poland||Concentration and extermination camps||July 1941||July 1944||78,000|
Extermination camp (not within the concentration camp system)
The above-mentioned concentration camp extermination camps Auschwitz and Majdanek had cremation ovens for the corpses. In contrast, those extermination sites that had not been built in the concentration camp system did not have the basis of the existing crematoria.
During these extermination campaigns, which did not take place in the concentration camp system, the corpses were first buried in pits, later these mass graves were reopened and the decayed corpses were then cremated (e.g. special campaign 1005 ).
Another difference was that there were no selections on the ramp, but instead all prisoners deported there were murdered. The places were pure death factories.
|Kulmhof extermination camp||Poland||Extermination camp||December 1941 to April 1943
April 1944 to January 1945
|at least 160,000|
|Maly Trostinez extermination camp||Belarus||Extermination camp||May 1942 to July 1944||40,000-60,000|
Action Reinhardt extermination camp
More people were murdered in the "Aktion Reinhardt" camps than in Auschwitz.
|Belzec extermination camp||Poland||Extermination camp
|March to December 1942||434,508 Jews
|Sobibor extermination camp||Poland||Extermination camp
|May 1942 to October 1943||250,000|
|Treblinka extermination camp||Poland||Extermination camp
|July 1942 to November 1943||at least 713,000
up to 1.1 million.
Special case: killing centers
The killing centers to which concentration camp prisoners were deported and murdered there are a special case.
Action T4 (murder of disabled people), 1940 to 1941
→ Main article: Action T4
The murders of the sick took place in the killing centers under National Socialism . Between 1940 and 1941 the Nazi regime murdered more than 70,000 people with mental and physical disabilities. After protests in the population, "Aktion T4" was discontinued, but with "Aktion Brandt" it was continued on a decentralized basis.
A document from the Berlin Euthanasia Center that has survived gave these exact figures. The NS camouflage language referred to the six Nazi killing centers as “establishments”. From 1940 to September 1, 1941, a total of 70,273 people were killed by gas, (camouflage language: "disinfected").
From 1940 to 1941 Herbert Lange was in charge of the Lange Sonderkommando , which murdered at least 6,219 Polish and German patients in other killing centers by means of gas vans, then referred to as the 'evacuation of sanatoriums'. Subsequently, from December 1941, he was appointed commander of the Kulmhof extermination camp .
Similar to Herbert Lange, more than 100 people who were involved in the euthanasia murders were taken on as "specialist staff" for later extermination camps.
Action 14f13 (murder of “unfit for work” concentration camp inmates), 1941 to 1944
After the murder of disabled people had been stopped for the time being, “inmate euthanasia” was carried out. Between 1941 and 1944, SS doctors examined the work performance of concentration camp prisoners . The SS could now classify prisoners as "disabled" as soon as they were sick, old or even disliked. The prisoners were simulated that they would come to a sanatorium to recover by means of “invalid transports”. However, they were deported to killing centers (Bernburg, Sonnenstein, Hartheim). About 20,000 prisoners were killed.
Aktion Brandt (decentralized murder of inmates of sanatoriums and nursing homes), 1943 to 1945
In order to free up beds in sanatoriums and nursing homes for soldiers wounded in the war, their patients were relocated from around 1943, but were also murdered on a decentralized basis on a large scale. Karl Brandt , General Commissioner for Sanitary and Health Care, had a leading role in this action . The most well-known reception and killing centers in this context were included
- At the Steinhof in Vienna,
- Eichberg , Eltville on the Rhine
- Heil- and nursing home Großschweidnitz , Großschweidnitz ,
- Hadamar Killing Center
- Kalmenhof near Idstein ,
- Irsee Monastery near Kaufbeuren ,
- Remedial and nursing home Obrawalde , Meseritz ,
- Gauheilanstalt Tiegenhof near Gnesen .
The number of victims is uncertain due to the lack of files; it is assumed that at least 30,000 were killed.
Concentration camp-like camps, the problem of demarcation
Other concentration camp-like camps comprise in principle almost all prison camps in the German Reich during the Hitler dictatorship. These include, for example, labor education camps , prisoner of war camps or forced labor camps . These camps are difficult to classify due to the ethnic (“racial”) hierarchy of the prisoners of the National Socialists. What they have in common is that the prisoner status is usually not based on a court judgment (see protective custody, Gestapo, RAD). Western Allied prisoners of war, as members of the "Nordic race", were treated much better in Wehrmacht prisoner camps than soldiers of the Red Army . It could also play a role that initially higher numbers of German prisoners were suspected in the hands of the Western Allies, whose status as prisoners of war should not be endangered. The Soviet soldiers, on the other hand, were imprisoned in alleged prison camps under conditions that were no different from a concentration camp. Even when the Auschwitz II concentration camp was founded, the issue was the accommodation of Red Army soldiers. Towards the end of the war, the labor education camps subordinate to the Gestapo only differed in name from a subcamp camp. The judgments passed there as punishment by the police courts did not arise from a regular jurisdiction. The names and responsibilities of the camps concerned often changed here.
Some of the other Nazi detention centers that were not extermination camps are listed below. However, the number of those who were murdered or fatally due to the prison conditions could have been enormous. According to an American Holocaust study from 2013, the total number of Nazi camps was over 40,000.
Transit camps were collective camps in which prisoners were locked, who were mostly to be deported to the extermination camps on the basis of race . The term collective camp also used for this is linguistically just a translation of the term concentration camp.
|Fort Breendonk||Belgium||Transit camps, some of them long-term prisoners||September 1940 to August 1944||3,500-4,000||300?|
|Mechelen||Belgium||Collection and transit camps||July 1942 to September 1944||25,300||1,221|
|Drancy||France||Collection and transit camps|
|Five wells (Pafemillen)||Luxembourg||“Jewish old people's home”, then a transit camp||July 1941 to April 1943||300||over 20|
|Nováky||Slovakia||Collection and transit camps|
|Risiera di San Sabba||Italy||Collection and transit camps, StaLag, police camps||October 1943 to April 1945||20,000-25,000||3,000-5,000|
|Sereď concentration camp||Slovakia||Collection and transit camps|
|Theresienstadt (also known as Theresienstadt concentration camp)||Czech Republic||Gestapo prison
assembly and transit camp
|June 1940 to May 1945
November 1941 to May 1945
|Westerbork||Netherlands||Collection and transit camps||October 1939 to April 1945||102,000|
|Innsbruck-Reichenau||Austria||Transit camp||August 1941 to 1945||8,500||130|
|Pruszków||Poland||Transit camp||August 1944 to January 1945||650,000||?|
|"Jewish reservation" in Nisko , planned under the direction of Adolf Eichmann as a transit camp for a huge "Jewish reservation"||Poland||SS camp||October 1939 to April 14, 1940||5,000||? (Return transport of 501 prisoners)|
|Protective custody camp Welzheim||Germany||Gestapo camp||1935 to April 1945||at least 2,000||(7)|
|Forced camp Berlin-Marzahn||Germany||May 1936 to 1937|
- Cottbus women's concentration camp , from 1936
Juvenile detention centers
|Moringen||Germany||Youth concentration camp for boys||1940 to April 1945||1,400||at least 89|
|Uckermark||Germany||Youth concentration camps for girls and young women||June 1942 to April 1945||unknown||unknown|
|Litzmannstadt (Łódź)||Poland||Youth concentration camp for Polish and Czech children and adolescents||December 1942 to January 1945||unknown||500?|
Other Nazi camps
- In the separate list of assembly camps / ghettos during the Nazi era , camps, city districts or places are usually listed that were already temporarily used as assembly camps, e.g. B. were planned as part of the Reinhardt campaign as part of the so-called final solution to the Jewish question . There are at least another 600 or 950 collective camps.
|Fort Goeben||France||"SS special camp"||October 1943 to August 1944||1,500–1,800 resistance fighters and others||at least 36|
|Bolzano||Italy||"Police transit camp"||July 1944 to April 1945||15,000 "political", Jews and others||at least 20|
|Chaidari||Greece||"Concentration and transit camp"||October 1943 to 1944||20,000 resistance fighters and Jews||at least 1,800|
|Lemberg-Janowska||Ukraine||Forced labor camp; Mass murder site||September 1941 to November 1943||100,000–200,000, mostly Jews|
|Lackenbach||Austria||“Police transit camp”, forced labor||November 1940 to 1945||Roma, Jews|
|Hodonín||Czech Republic||Gypsy camp ( Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia )||July 1940 to 1945||Roma|
|Lety||Czech Republic||Gypsy camp ( Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia )||December 1939 to 1945||Roma|
|Gurs||France||Internment camp ( Vichy - France)||1939-1944||Various|
|Le Vernet||France||Internment camp ( Vichy - France)||1939-1944||Various|
|Jasenovac||Croatia||Labor, extermination and concentration camp complex, including three children's camp ( Ustasha -Croatia)||Late 1941 to 1945||a total of approx. 1,000,000, of which a maximum of 3,000–5,000 at the same time||at least 80,000 and up to several 100,000 Serbs, Jews, Muslims, Roma and Orthodox-Catholics (Croats)|
|New Bremm||Saarbrücken, Germany||Labor camp; "Extended Police Prison" (Gestapo)||1940-1945||20,000||several 100|
|Pavlos Melas||Greece||Police detention center of the SD||1941-1944||Hostages ( Jews, communists )|
|Schirmeck-Vorbruck security camp||France||"Security camp" or "education camp" for Alsatians and Lorraine people||August 1940 to 1944||15,000-25,000||at least 76,
estimates up to 500
|Skrochowitz Internment Camp||Czech Republic||Internment camp ( Reichsgau Sudetenland )||September 1939 to?||Poles, Jews|
- Identification of prisoners
- Ghetto , list of ghettos
- List of memorials for the victims of National Socialism
- Foreign children care facility (Velpke) - (place of death and killing for children of forced laborers)
In addition to detailed monographs on individual camps, there are various multi-volume book series on the history of the concentration camps, which provide an overview of the history of individual camps based on abstracts. This includes:
- Wolfgang Benz , Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror. History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps. CH Beck, Munich 2005 f., ISBN 978-3-406-52960-3 (9 volumes).
- Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (ed.): History of the concentration camps 1933–1945. Metropol Verlag, Berlin 2001–2005. The aim of this series of books is to create an overall history of the National Socialist concentration camps. The first volumes deal with the early camps up to the beginning of World War II .
- Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel (eds.): Dachauer Hefte. Verlag Dachauer Hefte, Dachau 1985–2006. A new volume has been published every year since 1985. Each volume has a specific focus on which different authors contribute articles. As a rule, these are scientific or monographic contributions, but also memory reports, unpublished manuscripts and translations from works in other languages.
- International overview of Nazi memorials and institutions
- Directory of the concentration camps and their external commands. Federal Ministry of Justice (Germany)
- Federal Ministry of Finance: Detention sites as part of the recognition of the Article 2 Agreement with the Jewish Claims Conference (JCC) (PDF)
- Map of the concentration camps in the Third Reich (PDF; 45 kB)
- Figures for the Dachau memorial
- Wolfgang Benz and Barbara Distel (eds.): The Place of Terror: History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps . B. 2. CH Beck oHG, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52960-7 , p. 127 .
- Neustadt Memorial
- Figures from the Documentation Center Oberer Kuhberg, Ulm: The prisoners. Retrieved September 21, 2018 .
- The Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp was founded on August 28, 1943 under the name Dora labor camp as a satellite camp of the Buchenwald concentration camp and became an independent concentration camp on October 28, 1944; see. Jens-Christian Wagner (ed.): Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp 1943–1945. Göttingen, 2007, pp. 45, 53 f.
- Kopka B .: Warsaw Concentration Camp . 1st edition. Instytut Pamięci Narodowej , Warszawa 2007, ISBN 978-83-60464-46-5 , p. 120 .
- Thomas Sandkühler : The perpetrators of the Holocaust. In: Karl Heinrich Pohl : Wehrmacht and extermination policy. Göttingen 1999, p. 47.
- Robin O'Neil: A Reassessment: Resettlement Transports to Belzec, March-December 1942. on: jewishgen.org/
- P. Burchard: Pamiątki i zabytki kultury żydowskiej w Polsce . 1st edition. "Reprint" Piotr Piotrowski, Warszawa 1990, p. 174 .
Frank Golczewski in Wolfgang Benz: Dimension of the genocide. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-423-04690-2 , p. 468.
Estimation of the number of victims in the Treblinka trial at least 700,000, According to Rachel Auerbach: 1,074,000, this is considered probable by Golczewski.
- Ernst Klee (Ed.): Documents on "Euthanasia" . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-596-24327-0 , pp. 232 f .
- More than 40,000 Nazi forced camps in Europe . Zeit Online , March 2, 2013.
- Änder High Garden: The National Socialist Jewish policy in Luxembourg. on behalf of the Memorial de la Déportation in Luxemburg-Hollerich. 2nd, change Edition. Luxembourg 2004, p. 52 ff.
- Marek Getter: straty ludzkie i materialne w Powstaniu Warszawskim . In: Biuletyn IPN . No. 43-44 , 2004, ISSN 1641-9561 , pp. 69 .
- Dulag 121