Concentration camp regulations

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Prisoner index card with a note on punishments in the camp

The camp regulations , also known as the catalog of punishments , were a series of regulations for concentration camp prisoners at the time of National Socialism . It applied from 1934 uniformly in the SS - concentration camps on German territory. The SS guards were instructed to report violations of the camp regulations to the camp administration. The central office for inspection of the concentration camps (IKL) regulated the course of the so-called criminal proceedings . The punishment took place without reviewing the accusations or without the possibility of justification (see procedure of criminal proceedings ).


In almost all early, wild camps , camp regulations were created that were derived from the current regulations of police and judicial prisons. There were only minor differences: in some camps smoking was prohibited, in others food parcels could be received and family members could come to visit. Major deviations from applicable law were not recorded in these camp regulations. Attempts were made to use the character of normal prisons in the camps.

The difference between the early, provisional camps and the Dachau camp is the duration of the camps and the camp systematics. According to the historian Wolfgang Benz , Dachau was the first permanent concentration camp. “The early camps had the task of interning political opponents, there you could easily take revenge on the opponents of yesterday. Dachau, however, has a special role, because Dachau was not only one of the very earliest concentration camps, it was also the only one of these early camps to exist until the end of April 1945. ”The earlier camps differed greatly from one another. Be it in terms of sponsorship, security teams, degree of brutality or administrative structure. Corporal punishment was also not listed in the punishment regulations of the early camps. Dachau, however, became the model for all later concentration camps. The historian Benz described Dachau as the model and the retort in which the entire concentration camp system was developed and where the personnel for the other camps were trained. “In Dachau the binding camp regulations for all concentration camps have been developed, Dachau was, so to speak, the training camp for the guards. The concentration camp system as a whole is inconceivable without Dachau. ”The camp regulations introduced by the concentration camp commandant Theodor Eicke in October 1933 in the Dachau concentration camp were implemented with minor deviations in all the existing camps at that time and lasted until the war years. This led to the first systematisation of the camps. The establishment of a uniform concentration camp system then began when the SS took over responsibility for the concentration camps in 1934.

The control of the early camps was mostly held by the SA or Gestapo . The Dachau camp, however, was under the control of the SS. Around May 1933, the SS camp commandant Hilmar Wäckerle drafted the first camp regulations for the concentration camp. This gave full jurisdiction to the office of the camp commandant in §18 “special provisions”, which brought him legal sole power and was thus the most far-reaching change. When the death penalty was imposed in the camp, it was now sufficient to include the verdict of two SS men whom the commandant himself was allowed to appoint. A defense of the accused was not recorded in writing. The executive, judiciary and legislative branches were now aligned, the separation of positions of power and their mutual control were thus abolished for this place. In this camp, the state of emergency should deliberately reign at all times, through permanent threats of the death penalty.

In no other early camp were so many political murders committed as in the Dachau camp ; the first legalized murders took place here. Due to an investigation by the public prosecutor regarding the first murders in Dachau, Himmler was forced to recall Wäckerle. Instead, he appointed Theodor Eicke to this position: a fanatical SS-Oberführer whom Himmler had shortly before, in March 1933, sent to a clinic for psychiatric examinations for violent activities.

Centrally valid version

The whipping ram of the Dachau concentration camp

Six months later, on October 1, 1933, Commander Eicke wrote a second version of the camp regulations, as well as the compulsory posting . This second version of the camp regulations introduced corporal punishment ( corporal punishment ). If Wäckerle had previously created the state within the state, Eicke has now created a document that made violence and murder of political opponents a matter for the NSDAP, carried out by its SS.

In the early years of the Nazi government, the SS had hardly any camps. The first SS concentration camp was Dachau. It was spatially very close to the capital of the movement , as Hitler called Munich. The improvised operation of the initially small, “wild” camps was under the control of the SA, the Gestapo or state authorities. Only after the SA was ousted in the summer of 1934 did the SS become an independent organization.

Now they could without competition from SA, headed by its Reichsführer SS Himmler built the systematic building of new, start large concentration camps. All SS concentration camps, like the tried and tested Dachau model, were to become a “ state within a state ”: shielded places of terror, with their own laws and judges, without defense, with their own executable powers.

From 1934 the following camp regulations became valid for all SS concentration camps.


Dachau concentration camp

Headquarters, October 1, 1933

Disciplinary and Penal code for the prison camp


As part of the existing camp regulations, the following penal provisions are issued to maintain discipline and order in the area of ​​the Dachau concentration camp. All KLD prisoners are subject to these regulations from the time they are brought in until the time they are released. The enforcement authority lies in the hands of the camp commandant, who is personally responsible to the political police commander for the implementation of the camp regulations. Tolerance means weakness. Based on this knowledge, there will be ruthless access where it appears necessary in the interest of the fatherland. The decent, agitated national comrade will not come into contact with these criminal provisions. The politicizing agitators and intellectual burglars - no matter what direction - but be careful not to get caught, otherwise they will grab your necks and silence according to your own recipe.


The following is punished with three days of strict detention:

1. Whoever does not leave the bed immediately after the wake-up call or does not put the bed or living room in order.


The following is punished with five days of strict detention:

1. Whoever knowingly tells the untruth during questioning and interrogation.

2. Anyone wearing civil clothes in the camp without authorization.


The following is punished with five days of strict detention and several weeks of detention:

1. Anyone who stays away from a roll call or an appeal for work allocation without a reason or approval from his station leader.

2. Anyone who reports to the doctor for no reason or who does not visit the doctor immediately after reporting sickness, and whoever reports to the doctor or dentist or visits the area without the knowledge of the station leader.


The following is punished with 8 days of strict detention:

1. Who collects signatures for the purpose of complaints.

2. Whoever submits or submits a wrong report, a materially incorrect report or an unfounded complaint.

Prisoner postcard

3. Whoever writes more than 2 letters or 2 postcards a month or writes under a false name to achieve this purpose.

4. Anyone who, as a room elder, allows prisoners from other stations or rooms to stay within a workforce.

5. Anyone who is unauthorized in a strange hall, even within their own ward.

6. Anyone who does not comply with the general ward order, hoots, shouts or behaves improperly.

7. Anyone who, as a room elder, allows vermin (bed bugs, lice, pubic lice, etc.) to appear within his or her control area: if this condition is consciously brought about or transferred to other ward rooms, then sabotage comes into consideration.

8. Anyone who is afflicted with an infectious or communicable disease and does not file a complaint upon posting.

9. Anyone who deliberately damages, does not clean and keeps items of clothing and equipment in order; he will also be used to pay damages.

10. Anyone who, as an agent, prefers fellow prisoners or discriminates against politically different-minded prisoners.


The following is punished with 8 days of strict detention and with penal labor lasting several weeks:

1. Anyone who shuns work or pleads physical infirmities or illnesses for the purpose of doing nothing.

2. Anyone who leaves a workplace or workshop without orders, moves in early, fails to de-register with the supervising SS man, or de-registers with a fellow prisoner when leaving.


The following is punished with 8 days of strict detention and with 25 lashes with the stick at the beginning and at the end of the sentence:

1. whoever makes derogatory or derisive remarks to an SS member, deliberately omits the prescribed honorary testimony, or shows through his other behavior that he does not want to submit to the compulsion of discipline and order,

2. Anyone who, as a prisoner sergeant, as a prisoner corporal leader or as a foreman, exceeds the authority of a steward, presumes the rights of a superior over other prisoners, gives like-minded prisoners advantages in their work or in other ways, harasses politically different-minded fellow prisoners, wrong ones Reports about them or otherwise disadvantaged.


The following is punished with 14 days of strict detention:

1. Whoever swaps his or her designated accommodation for another without an order from the company commander, or incites or seduces fellow prisoners to do so,

2. whoever adds items that are forbidden or produced in the warehouse to leaking laundry packages, hides them in them, or sews them into laundry items, etc.,

3. Whoever enters or leaves barracks, accommodations or other buildings outside the prescribed entrances, crawls through windows or existing openings,

4. Whoever smokes in the accommodations, toilets and in inflammable places, or keeps or lays down inflammable objects in such places. If a fire breaks out as a result of neglecting this prohibition, sabotage is assumed.


The following are punished with 14 days of strict detention and with 25 lashes with the stick at the beginning and at the end of the sentence:

1. Whoever leaves or enters the prison camp without an accompanying person, who joins an unauthorized group of workers,

2. whoever expresses derogatory remarks about National Socialist leaders, about the state and government, authorities and institutions in letters or other communications, glorifies Marxist or liberalist leaders or November parties, reports events in the concentration camp,

3. whoever keeps prohibited items, tools, cutting and thrusting weapons in his accommodation or in straw sacks.


The following is punished with 21 days of strict detention:

Anyone who transports government-owned objects of any kind from the prescribed location to another, deliberately damaged, destroyed, squandered, reworked or used them for any other than the prescribed purpose; Apart from the punishment, the individual or the entire prisoner company is liable for the damage caused, depending on the circumstances.


The bunker in Dachau concentration camp - custody in solitary confinement

The following is punished with 42 days of strict detention or permanent detention in solitary confinement:

1. Anyone who accumulates amounts of money in the camp, finances prohibited efforts inside or outside the camp, or makes fellow prisoners compliant with money, or obliges them to remain silent,

2. whoever has sums of money that come from forbidden collections of the Red Aid, sent to him or distributed to fellow prisoners,

3. Whoever makes messages to clergy that are outside the scope of pastoral care, slips letters or messages to be passed on, tries to win the clergy for forbidden purposes,

4. Despises, insults or otherwise disregards the symbols of the National Socialist state or the bearers of them.


Anyone who politicizes in the camp, at work, in accommodation, in kitchens and workshops, toilets and resting places for the purpose of incitement , makes provocative speeches, gets together with others for this purpose, forms cliques, or drives around, true or false news for the purpose the opposing atrocity propaganda about the concentration camp or its facilities collects, receives, buries, passes on to foreign visitors or to others, smuggled out of the camp by means of cash register or in any other way, gives released or transferred persons in writing or orally, hidden in clothing or other objects , throws stones etc. over the camp wall, or writes ciphers, and anyone who climbs onto the roofs of barracks and trees for the purpose of incitement, gives signs by means of light signals or in other ways, or seeks contact with the outside world, or who induces others to flee or to commit a crime to give advice on this lt or supported by other means, will be hanged by virtue of revolutionary law as an agitator!


Anyone who physically assaults a post or SS man, refuses to obey or to work at the workplace, encourages or induces others to do the same for the purpose of mutiny, as a mutineer leaves a marching column or a place of work, encourages others to do so during the march or at work hoots, yells, rushes or gives speeches, is shot as a mutineer on the spot or hanged afterwards.


Anyone who deliberately causes a fire, explosion, water or other property damage in the warehouse, accommodation, workshops, workplaces, etc., as well as anyone at the wire obstacle, on a power line in a switching station, on telephone or Performing actions on water pipes, on the warehouse wall or other safety devices, on heating or boiler systems, on machines or motor vehicles that do not correspond to the given order will be punished with death for sabotage. If the act occurred out of negligence, then the culprit is kept in solitary confinement. However, in cases of doubt, sabotage is assumed.


Anyone who offers gifts to an SS man or post, tries to win him over with gifts, money or other means, undertakes actions for the purpose of dismantling the SS troops, engages in political discussions in the presence of a post or SS man, discusses Marxism or glorifies another November party or its leader, makes derogatory remarks about the SS, SA, the National Socialist state, its leader and its institutions, or is otherwise recalcitrant, as well as anyone who manufactures prohibited items in the camp for the purpose of smuggling cashiers or for the purpose of attack, or to others passes on, is kept permanently in solitary confinement because of the danger to the community. Dismissal for such persons is out of the question.


Anyone who repeatedly shirked from work, stayed away from appeals for work allocation or roll calls despite previous warnings, reported to the doctor or dentist continuously for no reason, pretended not to show physical ailments or ailments, kept lazy and lazy, was complained about, offensive letters writes, steals from fellow prisoners, beats, bullied, ridiculed or ridiculed because of their convictions, is punished with permanent detention, with arrest, with punitive exercises or with beating for incorrigibility.


Anyone who moves outside of his accommodation after the tattoo has started, forms a heap with others, does not leave immediately at the request of an SS man, does not go to his accommodation immediately after the alarm has occurred, or leaves the station or opens the windows while the alarm is ongoing , is shot at by the nearest SS man or guard.


Arrested in Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Anyone who is prohibited from carrying objects (tools, knives, files, etc.) or wearing unauthorized civilian clothing can be kept in solitary confinement because they suspect they have escaped.


Anyone who, as a room elder, as a foreman or as a prisoner, becomes aware of the plan or suspicion of incitement, mutiny, sabotage or other criminal act, will be punished as a perpetrator if he does not report his knowledge immediately. The notifying party will not be held responsible for submitting a false report if he has been misled by special circumstances.


Arrest is carried out in a cell, with a hard bed, with bread and water. Every fourth day the prisoner receives hot food. Detention involves hard physical work or particularly dirty work that is carried out under special supervision. As additional penalties are: punitive, Spanking, post lock, food deprivation, hard bed, pile binding , reprimand and warnings. All penalties are recorded. Arrest and detention extend protective custody by at least 8 weeks; an imposed secondary penalty extends protective custody by at least 4 weeks. Prisoners kept in solitary confinement will not be released in the foreseeable future.

The commandant of the concentration camp

signed Eicke SS-Oberführer.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. The camp regulations of the concentration camps Neustadt an der Haardt, Moringen, Kislau, Kuhberg, Hainichen, Hammerstein, Fuhlsbüttel, draft of the camp regulations for the moorland camps, and the decree of the State Criminal Police Office in Dresden for the camps in Saxony were considered. - Source: Zámečník: That was Dachau. Luxembourg, 2002. p. 35.
  2. a b c Kathrin Zeilmann: KZ Dachau: The killer School of Nazi thugs . FOCUS-Online. March 22, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  3. a b The concentration camp system . In: Sandhofen Concentration Camp Memorial . Sandhofen concentration camp memorial. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 13, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. a b Directory of detention places of the Foundation EVZ: Concentration camps and satellite camps . In: Foundation Remembrance Responsibility Future . Foundation Remembrance Responsibility Future. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  5. The only exception was the unrealized draft by Lutze, President of Hanover: This contains provisions on flogging "up to 10 blows on the buttocks". However, the document is dated January 1934, i.e. already according to Eicke's camp regulations. Source: Zámečník: That was Dachau. Pp. 35-36.
  6. ^ Reymer Klüver: Dachau - 1933: The first concentration camps, p. 58. In: GEO EPOCHE No. 57 - 10/12 - Germany under the swastika - Part 1 . September 27, 2012, accessed January 15, 2013 .
  7. Reymer Klüver: Dachau - 1933: The first concentration camps, pp. 65–66. In: GEO EPOCHE No. 57 - 10/12 - Germany under the swastika - Part 1 . September 27, 2012, accessed January 15, 2013 .
  8. Reymer Klüver: Dachau - 1933: The first concentration camps, pp. 65–66. In: GEO EPOCHE No. 57 - 10/12 - Germany under the swastika - Part 1 . September 27, 2012, accessed January 15, 2013 .
  9. ^ Zámečník: That was Dachau. Pp. 35-43.
  10. Cf. " A louse - your death "
  11. See standing bunker
  12. See. Whipping bench
  13. IMG XXVI, Doc. 775-PS, pp. 291-296. Text and source taken from: Stanislav Zámečník: (Ed. Comité International de Dachau): That was Dachau. Luxembourg, 2002. pp. 406-411.
  14. The camp regulations became valid for all concentration camps in 1934. Because no complete document has been preserved from KL Dachau, the Lichtenburg camp regulations were used for sections 1 to 5 and 14 to 18. The main differences here are different naming of the accommodations or different naming of the prisoner functions. Source: Stanislav Zámečník: (Ed. Comité International de Dachau): That was Dachau. Luxembourg, 2002. p. 406.


  • Stanislav Zámečník: (Ed. Comité International de Dachau): That was Dachau. Luxembourg, 2002.