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The letter ß in different fonts
ſ, s, ſs and ſʒ in the imperial register of the ten imperial districts from 1532 ( Wikisource )

The character ( capital letter ) or ß (lower case letter) is a letter of the German alphabet . It is referred to as Eszett [ ɛsˈt͜sɛt ] or sharp S , colloquially also as “double S” (in this sense only sporadically in Switzerland), “Buckel-S”, “Rucksack-S”, “Dreierles-S” or sometimes also incorrectly called " Ringel-S ", but this designates a different S variant.

The ß is used to reproduce the unvoiced s-sound [s] . It is the only letter in the Latin writing system that is used nowadays exclusively to spell German languages ​​and their dialects , for example in the standardized spelling of Standard German and in some spelling of Low German , as well as in the past in some spellings of Sorbian .

Historically, the ß in the German language is based on a ligature made up of the long ſ (read: long s; originally another letter of the German alphabet) and z . However, a ligature made up of a long Antiqu and a round s, which was also used in other languages ​​until the 18th century, was important for the form of the ß in the antiqua fonts that are common today.

Today, the ß is only used when writing in German and Low German, but not in Switzerland and Liechtenstein . German native speakers in Belgium , Denmark ( North Schleswig ), Italy ( South Tyrol ) and Namibia use the ß in their written texts according to the spelling rules applicable in Germany and Austria . The same is done in Luxembourg .

The ß is also used in medieval and early modern texts as an abbreviation for the currency Schilling and “ßo” stands for the measure of shock .

Since June 29, 2017, the capital ß - ẞ - has been part of the official German spelling . Its inclusion in the German alphabet has been discussed since the end of the 19th century.

History of origin

Long s , z and ß in Deutscher Kurrentschrift (1866)

Origin of the ß in the German language

In the wake of the Second sound shift in the 7th and 8th centuries were of Germanic / ⁠ t ⁠ / and / t produced two different sounds / - a fricative and affricate - that initially both with zz have been played. Since Old High German there have been spellings such as sz for the fricative and tz for the affricate to make a better distinction .

The sound written with ss , which goes back to an inherited Germanic / s /, was different from the one written with sz ; the SS was as voiceless alveolar-palatal fricative [⁠ ɕ ⁠] pronounced the sz however, as voiceless alveolar fricative [s]. Even when these two sounds coincided, both spellings were retained. But they got mixed up because nobody knew where a sz had originally been and where an  ss .

With the introduction of letterpress printing in the late 15th century, fonts were created from the then common broken fonts . A ligature letter was cut for the frequently occurring letter combination consisting of a long ſ and z with an underling ("ſʒ") . This ligature was also retained in later-introduced publications such as Fraktur .

Possible influence of Tironic notes

The typographer Max Bollwage suspects that the origin of the sign can be traced back to the Tironic abbreviations "sed" and "ser". The typographer and linguist Herbert Brekle contradicts this thesis. The Es-Zett ligature can be traced back to the 14th century. The abbreviations were only "converted to represent the voiceless s sound" for a transitional period, while in print " the actual Es-Zett ligature prevailed in Schwabacher and Fraktur script from the early 16th century."

The ß in the Antiqua

The “ß” as the “ſs” ligature in an Antiqua font and as the “ſz” ligature in Textura and Fraktur .
ß in italic Italian text for ss or ſs : “preßo alla” instead of “presso alla”. Venice 19th century

In some of the antiqua typefaces that emerged from the 15th century, it is a ligature of a long ſ and a round  s . It was not until the 19th century that an antiqua counterpart was designed for the German eszett of broken fonts. In contrast, there is a ss much older citations ligature. The exact relationship of the Antiqua-ß to Eszett and ſs -Ligatur is controversial.

The ſs ligature in the Antiqua

Like the antiqua itself, an italic ligature consisting of a long ſ and a round s was created in Italy long before the long ſ went out of use in the course of the 18th century. The two letters were connected with a loose bow; this was a purely calligraphic and typographic variation without an orthographic function. It appeared both in manuscripts and in print until the end of the 17th century as an alternative for ſſ or ss in the word interior. The italic ligature appears primarily in works in Latin , Italian, and French .

The ß -Ligature in the Antiqua can be found for the first time in a font by Lodovico Vicentino degli Arrighi from around 1515. He also included it in his calligraphy textbook La Operina in 1522 . In the "Latin" everyday script of the 17th and 18th centuries in France, England and, to a limited extent , in Germany, the ligature form ſs appears as an equivalent to ß , with the long s given the loops. In print, the italic ß- ligature can be traced back to a few pages (f. 299v. – 302v.) Of a Livius edition from 1518, where it is available in free variation to the ſſ -ligature, which also occurs exclusively in the rest of the work . The edition bears the mark of Aldus Manutius , but appeared three years after his death as a collaborative work based on his basic idea.

In 1521 a German translation (Leonis Judae) of Enchiridion militis Christiani by Erasmus von Rotterdam was published in Basel . It is printed in an italic antiqua with ß ligatures, which can be found in word forms such as wyßheit, böß and closed .

Until well into the 17th century it was one of the typographical typesetting conventions in Italy, France and, to a lesser extent, in Germany, especially in Latin, but also partly in Italian and French works, to use the ß ligature for antiquarian cursive types. It also appears on some title pages of works by Johannes Kepler printed around 1620 .

It was only with the increasing pressure of German texts in Antiqua in the transition from the 18th to the 19th century that even Antiqua fonts received a ß-ligature, which was used alternately with ſs or ss sequences depending on the orthographic convention . Before that there were isolated occurrences of these types.

When the National Socialists in Germany abolished Fraktur and other broken fonts in 1941 and introduced the Antiqua as "normal font", the responsible ministries also decided to abolish the ß in Antiqua, since the letter is unknown abroad and rarely in Antiqua - Fonts was present. But Hitler intervened. From a letter from the Reich Minister of the Reich Chancellery: “The Führer has decided to keep the 'ß' in the normal script. But he spoke out against the creation of a capital 'ß'. When using capital letters, the 'ß' should rather be written as 'SS'. "

The German replacement spelling in Antiqua

Timing 1790-1920 based on three words from the Google - Ngram data, often the OCR software a long s a f holds. Shortly before 1800 broad introduction of the Antiqua with “„s” replacement (orange); Reinforcement of the fracture (blue) up to around 1830 and simultaneous increase in the “ss” spelling (red), which prevails in the recurring roman; after 1876 (conference) and 1880 (Duden recommendation) a small revival from "ſs" to the decisive conference in 1901. The "sz" attempts (green) after 1850 to 1880 and a small flare-up around 1900 are over-proportionally emphasized.
Claßen (above) in
Latin script by ſs and as a comparison Clahsen (below) in the sharp Kurrent script . You can see the similarity and thus the likelihood of confusion between the ſ (long-s) of the Latin cursive script and the lowercase h , as it is used in the same form in the sharp Kurrent script .
Antiqua typesetting

In German antiqua typesetting, either simple ss or the letter sequence ſs (no ligature) was normally used in place of ß until the 19th century . In addition, the Sulzbacher form of the ß and - especially in the historical spelling propagated by the Brothers Grimm - the sz . The use of ſs continued even after the common ſ had become uncommon in antiquity in the late 18th century. The recommendation of the Orthographic Conference of 1876 was that the letter sequence ſs should be used in antiqua typesetting .

The actual ß in antiquity typesetting did not appear until the late 19th century and was then elevated to the official norm with the Orthographic Conference of 1901 .

Latin script

Even in Latin script ( italics ), ß was often represented by ſs until the end of the 19th century . Since the long s italics graphically with the hours of Kurrentschrift agreed that was ss group of Latin script often called hs misinterpreted what was reflected in unusual spellings of family names, such as "Grohs" instead of "large", "Ziegenfuhs" instead of "Ziegenfuß", or "Rohs" instead of "Roß" (see also the picture on the right: "Claßen in Latin script") .

Name spellings like the variant White remained for legal reasons after 1901 received in this form and were adapted orthographically by no rule. In Germany in the interwar period, typewriters were only in use in the civil registry sector that contained ſs as a special type.

The German Eszett in the Antiqua

When, in the late 18th and 19th centuries, German texts were increasingly being set in Antiqua instead of the commonly used broken script , an Antiqua equivalent was sought for the Eszett of the broken script. The Brothers Grimm still used the Fraktur in the "Deutsche Grammatik 1st Volume" in 1819, but in 1826 the Walbaum antiqua. In later works they wanted to replace the eszett with their own form of the letter, but ended up using sz in the absence of the block letter they had in mind.

The Duden of 1880 recommends replacing the Eszett in Antiqua with ſs , but expressly also allows a ß-like letter. Lead antiqua typefaces were usually delivered without a ß, so that German texts from this period appear in Swiss typesetting . The standardization of the German spelling of 1901 also required the letter ß in the Roman alphabet. Type foundries were obliged to supply a ß with Antiqua typefaces in future or to replenish one for existing typefaces.

Letter shape
Glyph variants of the ß

There were various font design approaches for the shape of the glyph of an Antiqua Eszett. It was only after the 1st Orthographic Conference of 1876 that successful efforts were made to achieve a uniform format. In 1879 the Journal für die Buchdruckerkunst published a board with drafts. A committee of the Leipzig Typographical Society decided on the so-called Sulzbacher Form .

In 1903, after the decision in favor of uniform spelling, a commission of book printing and type foundry owners recognized the Sulzbacher form. In an announcement in the Zeitschrift für Deutschlands Buchdrucker they describe the characteristic features of this sz-form: “The so-called long Antiqua-ſ is connected at the top with a z, is inflected in the head and runs in a fine or semi-strong line or in a lower arc Point off. "

The Sulzbacher form was and is not accepted by all typographers. About four basic forms are more common:

  1. The single letters “ſ” and “s” are placed closely together
  2. Ligature from "ſ" and "s"
  3. Ligature from "ſ" and z with sub-loop ("ʒ")
  4. Sulzbacher form

Nowadays most of the ß in antiquarian typefaces are formed either after 2nd or 4th, but sometimes one can also be found after 3rd, for example on street name signs in Berlin and Bonn . The variant after 1. is rarely used.

spelling, orthography

From the “Book of Scripture”, Vienna 1880.

The ß is for reproducing the unvoiced sound s, the Fortis [⁠ s ⁠] , the representation by S, SS and SS has changed with time, most recently with the spelling reform 1996 .

S spelling concepts

Andrées world atlas, Bielefeld / Leipzig 1880:
The Antiqua sentence was still used in the 19th century, the s to three identical s to each other to avoid.

The handling of the ß according to the rules of the spelling reform of 1996 follows the so-called Heyseschen s spelling , which was formulated by Johann Christian August Heyse in 1829. It was valid in Austria from 1879 until it became invalid for schools and offices in German-speaking countries as part of the standardization of German spelling by the Orthographic Conference of 1901 . Instead, Adelung's spelling of the orthographer Johann Christoph Adelung was used from then on . With the spelling reform of 1996, the Heysesche s spelling was reintroduced in Austria.

Today's spelling rules

According to the rules of the 1996 spelling reform, ß is written for the voiceless s sound:

  • after a stressed long vowel: street, ate, ate, penance, greets;
  • after a (equally long) double vowel ( diphthong ): hot, outside.

But one writes s when a consonant follows in the root of the word:

  • Consolation, fist, clear throat, spiritually.

If the final sound is hardened , s is also written if the s sound is voiced in related word forms:

  • (I) sneezed (sneeze) ; Grass (grasses) ; soluble (dissolve) ; Aas (the Aase) .

In Switzerland and Liechtenstein you always write ss instead of ß .

Exceptions and special cases:

  • Proper names: Personal and place names are not affected by the above rules. So one continues to write Theodor Heu ss (despite the diphthong) or vice versa Schü ß ler -Salze , Litfa ß pillar and ß larn (despite the short vowel).
  • Several debates are reflected in various spellings down: Both ss soil and ß ground is correct because the ö can be short or long. Then you write in Austria Gescho ß instead Gescho ss , because there the o is long; The same applies to Spa ss as a dependent variant pronunciation of Spa ß .

Spelling rules from 1901 to 1996

According to the rules valid from 1901 to 1996, ß was written in the same cases as today; in addition, ß instead of ss at the end of the word (also in combinations): Kuss, kussecht, passport, passport picture as well as at the end of the word stem, if a consonant follows: (you) must, (it) fits, watery, unforgettable, Rößl.

In the Adelung'schen s-sensitive thus the distribution directed by SS and ss partly after graphotaktischen criteria (considering the graphical environment: word end, Wortfuge or following consonant letter) and partly on the criterion of pronunciation (considering the length of the preceding vowel). If the s-sound is ambisyllabic , then ss.

Historical comparison as a table

Ligatures of the Fraktur set are not shown as such in order to reproduce their elements as faithfully as possible. The Antiqua-ß, which is common today, has only been used here for Latin spelling since the 20th century.

Fracture set Antiqua
after ennoblement after Heyse 19th century 20. u. 21st century (Adelung) 21st century (Heyse)
Waſſerschloſʒ Waſſerschls Moated castle Moated castle Moated castle
Road influence Road Influence Road influence Road influence Road influence
Measurement result Measurement results Measurement result (s) Measurement result Measurement result
Unit of measure Unit of measure Unit of measurement Unit of measurement Unit of measurement
Scale Scale Scale scale scale
Paſʒſtraſʒe Paſsſtraſʒe Passtrasse Pass road Pass road,
pass road
Grassland Grassland Sods Sods Sods
House el House el House donkey House donkey House donkey

In Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Instead of ß , ss is always written in Switzerland and Liechtenstein . In these countries ss - in contrast to other double consonant letters - stands not only after short, but also after long vowels and diphthongs . As with other digraphs (e.g. ch ), the length or shortness of the preceding vowel is not recognizable ( mass stands for dimensions as well as mass, buses stands for penance as well as for penance ; see high and wedding, way and away ) . This contradicts the fact that the s of such words acts as a syllable joint ( clearly stretched in Swiss dialect pronunciation) (ambisyllabic s , i.e. the s is added to both the preceding and the following syllable - as is the case with other double consonants).

The early antique prints in Switzerland as well as in Germany had no ß . After the conversion from Fraktur to Antiqua in 1873, the ß was initially missing in the Federal Gazette of the Swiss Confederation , but was introduced soon after, but was abandoned again in 1906. The resolution of the Second Orthographic Conference of 1901 to make ß compulsory for the Antiqua as well was not widely observed in Switzerland. As a result, the Education Directorate (Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs) of the Canton of Zurich decided in the 1930s not to teach ß in the cantonal elementary schools from January 1, 1938; the other cantons followed. As the last Swiss daily newspaper, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung , which switched from Fraktur to Antiqua on August 1, 1946 , decided to dispense with the ß from November 4, 1974 . With the reform of 2006 it was also officially abolished for official correspondence. However, Swiss publishers who produce for the entire German-speaking market continue to use the ß .

In Switzerland it has always been customary in Antiqua to separate ss in ss , even if it stands for a ß . For example, the word street (for road ) in road (for road separated). This Swiss separation was adopted as a general rule with the spelling reform of 1996 (§ 108 (1996) and § 110 (2006)).

Substitute forms

Small capitals with ß, replacement with ss (only permitted if there is no ß, or in Switzerland and Liechtenstein), small caps with SS, small caps with ß, small caps with capital ß (ẞ).

In German spelling, the ß may only be replaced by ss in a sentence if the ß is not present in a font or a character set . Manuscripts without ß must therefore be implemented according to the rules. In Switzerland and Liechtenstein, the ß is regularly expressed by ss.



There was no uppercase form of the letter ß for centuries . Since the SS in high Deutsche can not stand at a beginning of a word, such a capital letter (will Versal ) ß in the high German only with consistent upper case ( Versalschrift ) is required. As a substitute, the following orthographically permissible solution options arose:

  • the replacement of the ß by SS (as a rule)
  • the use of the lowercase ß in the middle of a word written in capital letters (in exceptional cases such as official documents)
  • the replacement of the ß by SZ (in exceptional cases, until 1996)

Today there is another option:

  • the (large) ẞ

The capital ß (ẞ) has been an official part of the official German spelling since June 29, 2017 . Since then, for example, the spelling STRAẞE has been permissible on an equal footing with the spelling STRASSE.

The capital letter ẞ can usually be entered on a computer by using certain key combinations (different depending on the keyboard / computer system); For details see main article Large ß .

Special features of use

Alphabetical sorting

In the alphabetical order (DIN 5007) the ß is treated like ss . For words that only differ by ss or ß , the word with ss comes first, e.g. B. mass before measurements (DIN 5007, Section 6.1); the dictionary deviates from the norm in this respect: here the word with ß comes first.

In documents

People with ß in their surname often have problems, as many electronic systems cannot process ß and one has to resort to the description ss. In identity cards and passports in particular, the name is then spelled in two ways, once correctly with ß and in the machine-readable zone (MRZ) with transcription as ss, which creates confusion and suspicion of document forgery, especially abroad. Austrian identification documents can (but do not have to) contain an explanation of the German special characters (in German, English and French, e.g. "ß" corresponds to / is equal to / correspond à "ss" ). Even before the introduction of the great ẞ allowed the Duden, by name in documents for reasons of clarity ß as uppercase to use (eg. As HEINZ GRO beta E).

The German naming law (No. 38 NamÄndVwV) also recognizes special characters in the family name as a reason for a name change (even a mere change in the spelling, e.g. from white to white , counts as such).

On 1 October 1980, the Federal Administrative Court again found that the technically caused erroneous reproduction of special characters on electronic systems can be an important reason for the change of surname (the plaintiff spelling wanted his name of G ö tz in G oe change tz , but initially failed at the registry office; file number: 7 C 21/78).

In a foreign language area

Misunderstanding when rendering the ß in France

Due to the lack of the keyboard used there and its visual similarity to B, the capital letter B is sometimes incorrectly used as a substitute abroad, which seems strange to the German-speaking reader.


Although the letter is not used in Dutch, it has its own name there - Ringel-S (written “ringel-s” in Dutch). In Dutch, the ß is always replaced by ss: this is how you write “edelweiss” (instead of edelweiss) and “gausscurve” (instead of Gaussian curve).

English speaking area

In English-speaking countries, where the letter does not appear in the alphabet, the ß is colloquially referred to as German B (German B) in some people because of its shape . This is why most English speakers read the “ß” as a “B”; B. the term "white man" as "women". It also happens that the "ß" is simply reproduced as "b"; for example “ Sesamstrabe ” in a British satellite TV program booklet, which also lists the programs of German stations. Occasionally the ß is confused with the Greek letter β (beta).

The correct term in English is Sharp S or Eszett as in German.


Example of the use of the ß in Sorbian (wyßokoſcʒi = "height"; today wysokosći )

Sorbian was written with the help of the Schwabacher until the implementation of the “analog spelling”, which is based on Czech and is still essentially valid today, under the direction of Jan Arnošt Smoler in the second half of the 19th century . In this German-based script standard, the ß was used to represent the sharp S sound. In Lower Sorbian, this old spelling was in use well into the 20th century.

Representation in computer systems and replacement

In the computer sector, the ß is often referred to as umlaut because it causes the same kind of problems as the real umlauts: Above all, it is not contained in ASCII , the "lowest common denominator" of the Latin character sets . It is therefore coded differently in different cases.

Coding and input

In ASCII - character set from 1963 the sign is not, which is why many older computer systems could not represent it. However, the ASCII extensions ISO 6937 from 1983 and ISO 8859-1 (also known as Latin-1) 1986 contained the Eszett. Almost all modern computers use the Unicode standard introduced in 1991 , which means that the Eszett can be processed and displayed without any problems. Only a few programs that are still based on older character sets can cause problems when exchanging data.

The ß is defined and encoded as follows in the international character encoding standard Unicode , in the Internet document format HTML and in UTF-8 ; it can be inserted using the following key combinations of the operating system or the respective text editor :

Standard / System Latin Small Letter Sharp S (ß) latin capital letter sharp S (ẞ)
Character encoding
Unicode Codepoint U + 00DF U + 1E9E
UTF-8 C3 9F E1 BA 9E
HTML entity ß -
XML / XHTML decimal ß ẞ
hexadecimal ß ẞ
TeX / LaTeX Text mode "s (german.sty) or \ ss or \ 3 ;
within a word Street {\ ss} enbahn
Mathem. mode - -
Input methods 1
Windows CP850 ( TUI ) Alt+ 2252 -
CP1252 ( GUI ) Alt+ 02232 -
macintosh + S -
Linux (with newer versions of X11 ) Alt Gr+ Umschalttaste+S -
1Key information related to a German QWERTY - keyboard layout . Many systems also offer specific options for entering a Unicode character directly.
2Enter numbers via the numeric keypad . Hold the Alt key down permanently.

On some newer Windows systems, the capitalized sharp S Altcan be entered with + 7838.

Since almost all modern computer systems and fonts are based on Unicode , the Eszett can now theoretically be displayed, processed, transmitted and archived worldwide. A replacement for technical reasons is therefore rarely necessary.


Only on the German standard keyboard is the Eszett key in the top row of keys between the key for the number zero and the key for the acute accent . Like the American keyboard, the Swiss keyboard does not have a standardized key for the Eszett. On the Dutch and Turkish keyboard as well as on the US international keyboard layout, however, it can be entered in Windows via AltGr+ S, with the German-Swiss layout, on the other hand, it is only possible under Linux ( AltGr+ S) and on a Mac ( ⌥ Option+ S). The capital ß - ẞ - can be entered natively with the Neo keyboard layout via Shift+ ß.

Replacement and Similar Characters

If the character “ß” cannot be displayed because it is missing in the font or character set used , it should be replaced by “ss” (“street” becomes “street”). In the (official) telex the "ß" was replaced by "sz" until the early 21st century. This was important, among other things, with family names (“Straßer” became “Straszer” in the text). In telex and typewriters without a ß-letter, the “ß” was replaced by “: s” in order to differentiate between family names such as Strasser, Straszer and Strasser. Replacing it with "β" ( beta ) or " B " is no longer common.

In Chinese script , the form 阝 appears as radical 163 or radical 170 and in characters that are based on these.


Web links

Wiktionary: ß  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Directory: German / words with ß  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : ß  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Duden to ß
  2. ^ Atlas of everyday German language
  3. See the history section .
  4. See section The ſs ligature in Antiqua .
  5. a b Swiss Federal Chancellery: Guide to German Spelling 2008 ( Memento from October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Guide to German Spelling. 3. Edition. 2008.
  6. ^ German-speaking Community in Belgium: Responsibilities
  7. ^ Website of the German-language daily newspaper "Der Nordschleswiger" (Denmark) ( Memento from December 17, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  8. Landmaus No. 12
  9. Sample text : Curriculum for German as a mother tongue, grades 4–7 ; Republic of Namibia: Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture
  10. ^ Minister for Education and Vocational Training, Mady Delvaux-Stehres: Communiqué - New regulation of German spelling in the Luxembourg school system. August 3, 2005 ( online ( Memento from May 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive ))
  11. ^ Abbreviations of coins Entry in GenWiki , accessed on September 9, 2012.
  12. a b Council for German Spelling: Official rules for German spelling updated (press release). (PDF) Retrieved June 29, 2017 .
  13. a b End for "Mayonnaise": That changes immediately with our spelling. In: welt.de. Retrieved June 29, 2017 .
  14. Wolf-Dieter Michel: The graphic development of the s-sounds in German . In: Contributions to the history of the German language and literature . tape 81 . Halle (Saale) 1959, p. 456-480 . , P. 461.
  15. Max Bollwage: Is the Eszett a Latin guest worker? Typographer's guesswork . In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch , Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-7755-1999-8 , pp. 35–41.
  16. a b c d Herbert E. Brekle: On the handwritten and typographical history of the letter ligature ß from Gothic-German and humanistic-Italian contexts . In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch , Mainz 2001, ISBN 3-7755-2001-5 , pp. 67-76 ( online )
  17. ^ Letter from the Reich Minister and Head of the Reich Chancellery to the Reich Minister of the Interior of July 20, 1941. BA, Potsdam, R 1501, No. 27180. Contained in: The writing dispute from 1881 to 1941 by Silvia Hartman, Peter Lang Verlag. ISBN 978-3-631-33050-0
  18. ^ Rules and vocabulary for German orthography. (Based on the template written by R. v. Raumer.) In: Dieter Nerius (Ed.): The orthographic conferences of 1876 and 1901. Georg Olms, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2002, p. 140 (= Documenta Orthographica 5 ).
  19. In numerous letters from the 19th century, personal names are highlighted in Latin cursive against the current script of the rest of the text.
  20. Austria in History and Literature with Geography , Volume 29, Institute for Austrian Studies, 1985, p. 256.
  21. Konrad Duden: Complete Orthographic Dictionary of the German Language . 1880, page xiv. ( Wikipedia Commons )
  22. Bavarian State Ministry for Education and Culture (Ed.): Rules for German spelling and dictionary. 1903.
  23. ^ In: Journal for Germany's book printers, lithographers and related trades. XV. Volume, No. 27, Leipzig, July 9, 1903 (facsimile in: Mark Jamra: The Eszett ( Memento from January 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). 2006, accessed on April 17, 2008).
  24. New Standard German. In: Carl Faulmann: The book of writing. 2nd Edition. Printed and published by the Imperial and Royal Court and State Printing House, Vienna 1880, p. 226.
  25. ^ Heysesche's writing in Gothic script
  26. See § 25 of the official regulations ( PDF ).
  27. See § 23 of the official regulations ( PDF ).
  28. Theodor Ickler : Laut-Letters-Allocations , May 14, 2005 (Section 4. s - ss - ß: On the problem of "Heysean s-writing" ).
  29. Dr. Daniel Sanders, concise dictionary of the German language, published by Otto Wiegand, Leipzig, 1869
  30. Peter Gallmann : Why the Swiss still do not write Eszett. (1996/1997)
  31. Urs Bühler: Apostrophitis and other epidemics. Wrong writing is like speaking with your mouth full: indecently and detrimental to communication. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung. December 2, 2016, p. 12.
  32. Duden. The German spelling. 24th edition. Mannheim 2006, p. 117.
  33. E.g. Duden. The German spelling. 25th edition 2009, p. 93.
  34. On the origin of Hermann Möcker: Wittgenstein, Wüster and the creation of a German standard alphabet. The dictionary for elementary schools and the alphabetical classification of the German additional letters ä, ö, ß, ü. Part II. In: Native Vol 97 (1987) 336-256, here pp 351-353..
  35. Eugen Wüster: Nine questions about the writing of the German S-sounds. In: Mutterssprache Vol. 85 (1975) pp. 122-139, here pp. 123 f.
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on June 25, 2004 in this version .