# Old weights and measures (German-speaking area)

Here are historic dimensions and weights of the German-speaking countries , especially the 19th century, listed. The illustrations also show old international units of measurement with their conversion into the metric system . Although the relationships within a system are more or less constant, the units were subject to considerable changes in terms of location and time. Before converting to the metric system, it must always be checked carefully whether the conversion factor used was actually valid for the corresponding time at the respective location.

Saxon cubit on the wall of the Walpurgis Church in Apfelstädt

## Metric system

In order to overcome the local differences, especially in terms of length and weight, the metric system was introduced in France (1791, November 29, 1800), which is based on the original meter created for this purpose . Many other states gradually followed the French example.

The "Prussian Measures and Weight Regulations" of May 16, 1816 standardized sizes based on the Rhineland foot , defined as part of the old French measure of length (no longer legally valid in France), the Toise du Pérou : 1 Prussian foot = 139.13 Parisian Lines (subunit of the Toise, corresponds to 31.387728 cm).

The North German Confederation decided on 17 August 1868, the North German weights and measures regulations , which introduced as of 1 January 1872, the metric system; Bavaria followed on April 29, 1869 with effect from January 1, 1872. The metric system was in effect throughout the German Empire from 1872 onwards . On May 20, 1875, 17 states signed the Meter Convention .

## Counting measures

Units of measure for the number as used in addition to the general counting unit of pieces .
Sorted from the smallest to the largest quantities
Number measure piece Remarks
belt 12 salmon
Remel / Rähmel 1 Bundle of flax à 20 pounds (German.) Northwest Germany
map 2 Pound of silk
Riem 2 Ream (wrapping paper)
Spool of yarn 2 Pieces or 4 Toll = 40 bundles = 1600 threads
Pair 2 only for objects that belong together
Shot of bread 2 for loaves (baked goods)
Bandel 4th for birds
Klupper 4th in Nuremberg
ring 5 Pound of wire
Seidel 5 Hundredweight of iron
Litter 5 for coins, other countable things
Upholstery 5 Piece (only in Fulda)
straw 6th Wall = 480 pieces
lb 8th Piece (in Regensburg 1 pound of salt = 8 shillings = 240 slices)
Half stairs 10
decade 10 Ratio of two numbers with a factor of 10
Decher, also Decker 10 "Dozen" adapted to the decimal system, = 2 cushions of 5 pieces each (mostly leather)
Thicker 10 for fur goods / skins
Pack cloth 10 Piece or hem with 22 pieces of 32 cubits each
Ten of a kind 10 Piece of skins
Schöberlein 10 Pieces of sheaves, bundles
Bandage 10 Knitting = 250 eels
bunch 10 Piece of hare skin
dozen 12
Bale 12 Piece of cloth
Warrior 12-16 Ellen Linen
Big dozen / long dozen 13 Piece (Engl.)
Flax globes 15th Edges = 6 hands full (only in Fulda)
Almond, Malter, Squat 15th engl. big dozen
Farmer's, Big Almond 16 better divisibility
Steps, steps 20th Fish trade, cloth and linen trade, wood, tobacco goods and leather
Scores 20th Piece of skins
hem 22nd Cloths or pieces of 32 cubits each
Alphabet 23 Piece of sheet (in bookstores)
Barchet 24 Ellen Tuch in Ulm
Tufts 25th feathers
Bandel 25th frogs
Push 25th Sheets, 12 sheets = 1 pack (in playing card production)
quarter 25th Piece of crayfish
Band, waistband 30th
Shilling 30th piece
Box 30th Stairs of 20 pieces of plaice in Lübeck
Mollen 30th Bundle of straw in Stettin (in Rostock : Moller )
Timber, room 40 Rauchwerk engl. Measure
Room, clipper 40 to 4 covers
Vartel 45 fustian
Fardel 45 Barchet cloths (in Ulm)
Schober 60 Pieces of sheaves, bundles
room 60 5 dozen, for lumber (boards and beams)
shock 60 1 shock = 3 rises = 4 almonds = 5 dozen
Shock (slightly more Silesian) 40 piece
Shock (severe Silesian) 60 piece
Shock (sheet metal production) 120 piece
Shock (agricultural sheaves) 20th piece
Roll of parchment 60 5 dozen hides or 60 sheets in the English parchment trade (roll of parchment)
Tufts 60 Pieces of unusable sheet metal bound together
Big shock, peasant shock 64 = 4 peasant almonds
Weave 72 Cloth and linen trade
Wall, Wahl, Oll 80 Fish trade in Gdansk, Frankfurt / M, Denmark
Bale 100 Piece of hare skin
Federation 100 Feathers, corresponds to 4 tufts
Platter 110 fishes
Big hundred 120
Hundred 124 Piece of stockfish and clipfish
bag 134 Pound of salt
Gros , Great, Great 144 a dozen dozen, so 12 × 12
Skid 150 Pound of salt
Roll / crib 180 Stockfish
Bulge, bush, bust 181 Sheet of paper (in paper manufacture ( paper mill ))
lb 240 Piece (in Nuremberg)
Great thousand 1,200 1 great thousand = 100 dozen
Measure , large 1,728 often for a sheet of paper, 12 gros or a dozen gros, so 12³
Crib, crib, box 2,180 in the stockfish trade
Wall, Wahl, Oll 4,800 1 wall = 80 shock; Fish trade in Pomerania, Stralsund

## Speyrer dimensions

In the Middle Ages, larger cities had their own measuring systems that also included unit sizes for goods that were frequently traded locally. One example is the city of Speyer , which had piece dimensions for straw , hay , bundles of wood and herrings .

## Length measurements

Foot measurements - conversion table from mathematics textbook, 1848
Elliptical measurements - conversion table from mathematics textbook, 1848
Distance measures - conversion table from mathematics textbook, 1848
 Point by 0.35 mm 1 ⁄ 72 in 1 mm (North German Confederation) 1 ⁄ 12 in 1 ⁄ 10 inches (younger; in Switzerland e.g. from 1838) 2.179 mm (Prussia) 2.5 mm (Hesse until 1871) 3.0 mm (Baden until 1871, Switzerland 1838–1876) 1 ⁄ 24 cubits 1 cm (North German Confederation) 1 ⁄ 12 feet = 12 lines 1 ⁄ 10 feet = 10 lines (younger; in Switzerland e.g. from 1838) 2.615 or 3.7662 cm (Prussia) 2.5 cm (Hesse until 1871) 3.0 cm (Baden until 1871, Switzerland 1838–1876) by 10 cm = 1 dm 1 ⁄ 6 cubit = 4 inches 10 inches mostly 12 inches = 25–43 cm, sometimes 1 ⁄ 2 cubit younger than 10 inches (Hessen, Baden; in Switzerland from 1838) 1 meckl. Foot = 0.291 m 25.0 cm (Hesse until 1871) 30.0 cm (Baden until 1871, Switzerland 1838–1876) 10 shoes, each 30.0 cm = 3 m (Switzerland) Distance between the thumb and middle finger tips (small range) Distance between the crook of the arm and the wrist Distance between the middle finger tip and the wrist Distance between the thumb and the tip of the little finger (large range) 1 ⁄ 2 cubit Distance between elbow and middle finger tip double the distance between the elbow and the wrist 2 feet 50-85 cm about 71-75 cm about 142-150 cm = 2 steps 1 m (North German Confederation) Span of arms 3 cubits 6 feet 1.7–2.91 m, in Switzerland (1838–1876) 1.8 m, in Hessen-Darmstadt 2.5 m 6 feet (for depth measurement) 3 1 ⁄ 2  –7 m, mostly around 4.6 m, in Switzerland (1838–1876) 3.0 m 10, 12, 14, 15 or 16 feet 2 double step 10–20 shoe (Middle Franconia), 3.60 m ( Ergersheim , Middle Franconia) 1 laugh = 6 feet + 8 inches = 1,938 m (Mecklenburg / Mining) 1,829–2,092 m (mining) 8 instep 80 inches (Prussia) often at 7 1 / 2 kilometers ( 1 / 15 equatorial degrees) or 9 kilometer 2 (travel) hours 2,000 fathoms = 12,000 feet 24,000 feet 1,000 double steps (Roman antiquity) 1,000 or 2,000 rods 16,000 cubits = 32,000 feet 7500 m (North German Confederation) about 27-36 km (Dutch day), distance that a ship covers from noon to noon (during an astronomical day), day trip, recurring flood time of 12 hours or daily period of 24 hours

## Area dimensions

Field measurements - conversion table from mathematics textbook, 1848

Units of measure for area measurement .

 Field (in agriculture) 19.0647-64.431 a 2 bushels = 5,534.20 m² in Kursachsen 2 rods wide (Calenberg) approx. 1 ⁄ 5 acres (Bremervörde) 40 old Jück = 0.2241136 km² = 22 ha 41 a 13.6 m² ( County of Oldenburg , average farm probably on the Geest) 150 14-shoe square rods = 23.865 a (in Northern Hesse) approx. 1 ⁄ 2 ha = 216 square rods of 21 m² each ( Eiderstedt ) 400 square feet = 34.0727 m² (Bavaria) approx. 0.57 ha ( East Frisia ) 3 ⁄ 4 acres (= 1 piece of bushel - Calenberg) 1 rod wide (Schaumburg) Timber law of 1 × 28 length measuring device: 362.88 m² ( Ergersheim , Middle Franconia) 1.6 acres 11.206 hectares 12,531 ha (Königsberg) 1 ⁄ 2 Brunswick morning = 60 QR 1 ⁄ 3 acres (Verden, Grafschaft Hoya and Diepholz) approx. 1 ⁄ 6 acres (Land Hadeln) 1 ⁄ 3 acres (Calenberg) 1 ⁄ 4 acres = 1 ⁄ 3 drone (Schaumburg) varies from place to place; used for district and yard sizes. mostly 30 acres mostly between 15 and 20 ha 7.6597 ha (Prussia before 1755) 7.659 ha ( Magdeburg measure , Prussia from 1793) 9.9 ha (Slavic hooves) 16.8 ha (Flemish hooves) 23.9 ha (Franconian hooves) 37.35 ha = 66 ⅔ acres (each 5601.17 m² = 300 square rods of 18.67 m²) (Kulmische) mostly 2 hooves 2 Landhufen = 60 acres = 39.3 ha (Prussia, beginning of the 18th century) 13-47 ha 2 hook hooves = 30 acres = 19.65 ha (Prussia, 18th century) 30 acres = 19.65319 ha (Pomerania) 15 acres = 9.82 hectares (Prussia, 18th century) 3 hook hooves ¾ tomorrow Area that a team of oxen can plow in one day. 36 a (Switzerland 1838–1876) 33.09 a (Württemberg) 43.16 a (Hungary) 57.55 a ( Lower Austria ) = 1600 Viennese square fathoms approx. 2.2 Hanoverian acres (Wesermünde) the meadow to be mown by a man on a working day 34.07-47 a 1 ⁄ 2 Dutch morning (Lower Rhine) 1 Prussian morning (Lower Rhine) the area that can be plowed with a team of oxen in one morning, Roßmorgen , the area that can be plowed with a team of horses in one morning mostly 25 to 58 a, maximum 122.5 a 120, 150, 160, 180, 300 or 400 square rods 25 a = 1 ⁄ 4 ha = 1 vha ( quarter hectare , North German Confederation from 1869) 0.2554 ha ( Magdeburg measure , Prussia from 1793) 14.185 m² (Rhineland, Prussia 1869) 18.67 m² (Kulmische) 21.17 m² (Cologne) 1 ⁄ 2 acres (Walsrode) 1 ⁄ 3 acres (Nienburg, Schaumburg) 1717 m² (Lippe) 1 ⁄ 2 acres = 2,767.10 m² (Kursachsen) 1 ⁄ 2 tail wide 25–36 a (Baden, Bavaria, Nassau) 2 mornings = 4 four-up 0.55 ha (Denmark, Holstein) 1 ⁄ 2 acres (also known as Vorll ) 1 square rod = 21.54 m² (Mecklenburg / Mining)

## Room dimensions

The dimensions of the room were also referred to as hollow dimensions, as they can be used to measure the "hollow" of a vessel. Mostly the liquid measure is classified in such a way that the liquid is filled into the hollow vessel. More recently, the term volume measure has been added.

Fruit dimensions - conversion table from mathematics textbook, 1848
Beverage measurements - conversion table from mathematics textbook, 1848

## Weight measurements

Weights - conversion table from mathematics textbook, 1848
 Cent , cent 1 ⁄ 100 grains around 166.67 µg (Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony, Hesse) 16 parts 1 ⁄ 12 carat = approx. 16.67 mg 0.812 g (gold and silver) 0.05 g (gemstones and pearls) approx. 0.063 g (pharmacy) 205.1 mg (now 200 mg) from Latin scrupulus = pebbles; unscrupulous: a pharmacist without scruples could not work exactly. 6 carat 1 ⁄ 24 ounce (about 1.25 g) 1 ⁄ 20 ounce in Germany as silver weight 1 ⁄ 512 of the weight mark (see Heller (coin) #Germany ) or as a coin value determined by the pound in the region of 0.5 g (silver); see. Pennies and pennies 2 light weights 4 penny weights 3.65 g (from Latin "fifth") 1 ⁄ 10 new lot = 1.6666 g (Prussia from 1858) 4 quents 1 ⁄ 30 - 1 ⁄ 32 pounds (original) 15.6–17.5 g (1 new lot from 1858 = 16.666 g) 14.606 g (Prussia) 16 Grän (precious metals and coins) 18 Grän = 1 ⁄ 16 Mark (precious metal) 144 carats 2 lot (trade) 28.35 g 31.1 g 50 g (Austria, around 1810) 16 Lot (precious metals and coins up to 1857, see coin base ) 233.856 g (Cologne) 214 g (Old Norway up to the 15th century) = 8 Øre = 24 Ertog = 240 Pfennig 32 lot = 16 ounces 30 new lots each 16.666 g (see Vereinstaler ) 327.45 g (ancient Roman pound of 12 Unciae) 467.404 g (Prussia) 500 g ( Deutscher Zollverein 1858, Switzerland 1838–1876) 22-40 pounds 100 pounds 110 pounds = 51.498 kg (Prussia) 100 pounds = 50 kg (Deutscher Zollverein 1840) 100 kg (Austria, Switzerland, Russia) 2 quintals 1 decitonne = 1 double = 100 kg 3 quintals = 20 pounds (ship freight) 168 kilograms, the amount of goods that a horse can carry 4 hundredweight or 244 kg Austrian horse load 40 quintals (ship freight) around 70 kg (Styria, steel) Measure of the carrying capacity of a ship 3000 kg (Bremen and Hamburg) 2000 kg (rest of Germany = 2 tons) Chinese unit of weight for precious metal 10 Chin (Mace) = 100 Fen (Candareen) = 1000 Li = 37.78 g 34.246 g in Shanghai 33.387 g in foreign trade based on the peso 12 ounces = 350.78 g 2 lot = 8 drachmas 3 scruples = 60 grains = 3.65 g 320 pounds 200 pounds 14 pounds Measure for fish (Altona) 140 pounds = 67.845 kg (Altona) 1 Bergscheffel = 150 pounds (Mecklenburg / Mining) 1 ton (To) = 4 bushels = 135.6 l but: 1 to = 145 kg (Mecklenburg / Mining) 1 hl = 75 kg (Mecklenburg / Mining)

• Old dimensions and weights in:
 Japan Persia Arabia Tibet of antiquity ; especially of Roman antiquity the bible

## literature

• Hans-Joachim von Alberti: Measure and Weight. Historical and tabular representations from the beginning to the present. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1957.
• Otto Brandt, Saxon Ministry of Economics (ed.): Documentary information on measure and weight in Saxony . Hauptteichamt, Dresden 1933.  Permalink German National Library .
• François Cardarelli: Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins . Springer, Berlin (among others) 2003, ISBN 1-85233-682-X .
• Eduard Döring: Handbook of coin, exchange, measure and weight . J. Hölscher, Coblenz 1854 (Online: Google Book Search )
• Anne-Marie Dubler : Weights and measures in the state of Lucerne and in the old Swiss Confederation. 125 years of the Lucerne Cantonal Bank . Luzerner Kantonalbank, Lucerne 1975.  Permalink German National Library .
• Heinrich Grebenau: For the assessment of the length and area mass of glaciers, alpine lakes etc. in metric measures. In: Journal of the German Alpine Club , year 1869–79 (Volume I), pp. 392–399. (Online at ALO ).
• Helmut Kahnt, Bernd Knorr: Old measures, coins and weights: a lexicon . Licensed edition of the Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig. Bibliographical Institute, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-411-02148-9 .
• Johann Friedrich Krüger : Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830 (Online: Google Book Search )
• Klaus-Joachim Lorenzen-Schmidt: Small lexicon of old Schleswig-Holstein weights, measures and currency units. Wachholtz-Verlag, Neumünster 1990, ISBN 3-529-02713-8 .
• Harald Rockstuhl , Werner Rockstuhl : Handbook of old Thuringian, Prussian, Saxon and Mecklenburg measurements and their conversion. For local researchers, chroniclers and authorities. Rockstuhl Verlag, Bad Langensalza 1997, ISBN 3-929000-94-6 .
• Günther Scholz, Klaus Vogelsang: Small Lexicon. Units, symbols, quantities . Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1991, ISBN 3-343-00500-2 .
• Wolfgang Trapp : Small manual of the dimensions, numbers, weights and the time calculation . 4th edition. Reclam's Universal Library, Volume 8737. Reclam, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-15-008737-6 .
• Wolfgang Trapp, Heinz Wallerus: Handbook of measures, numbers, weights and the calculation of time. With 99 tables . 5th edition. Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-15-010587-0 .
• Fritz Verdenhalven : Old measurement and currency systems from the German-speaking area - what family and local history researchers are looking for . 2. Significantly increased and completely revised edition, unchanged reprint. Degener, Neustadt an der Aisch 1996, ISBN 3-7686-1036-5Table of contents online (PDF; 32 kB).
• Harald Witthöft: Measurement and weight standards in the Hanseatic salt trade. In: Hansische Geschichtsblätter 95, 1977, pp. 38-65.
Historical works
• Johann Christian Nelkenbrecher , Christiane Stedeler (Textbearb.): Johann Christian Nelkenbrecher's pocket book of a banker and merchant, containing an explanation of all domestic and foreign coins, the exchange course, UFOs, respect days and other things related to the plot. With a precise comparison of the ells, trade, gold and silver weights, also measures of grain and liquid things of the most prestigious European trading places . Reprint of the 2nd edition, Wever, Berlin 1769. VDM-Verlag Dr. Müller, Düsseldorf 2004, ISBN 3-936755-58-2 .
• Hermann Mulsow: Measure and weight of the city of Basel up to the beginning of the 19th century. Philosophical dissertation Freiburg im Breisgau 1910.

Wikisource: Weights and Measures  - Sources and full texts

## Individual evidence

1. ^ Johann Georg Krünitz : Economic encyclopedia or general system of state, city, house and Agriculture . Peter Strußenglöckner, Bochum 1912, p. 371, online version .
2. ^ Wilhelm Hoffmann: General encyclopedia for merchants, manufacturers, business people. Volume 2, Verlag Otto Wigand, Leipzig 1848, p. 487
3. Fritz Verdenhalven: Old measurement and currency systems from the German-speaking area Neustadt an der Aisch. 1993, ISBN 3-7686-1036-5 , p. 46
4. G. Buchner: The most worth knowing from the measure, weight u. Coin history in tabular form with special consideration of the Bavarian. Measurement and weight system. I. Paulsche Buchdruckerei, Günzburg 1853, pp. 27, 28
5. Jürgen Elert Kruse : General and especially Hamburg Contorist, who speaks of the currencies, coins, weights, measures, types of exchange and customs of the most distinguished cities and countries in and outside Europe. Publishing house of the author's heirs, Hamburg 1808, p. 123.
6. Leopold Carl Bleibtreu: Handbook of coin, measure and weight, and the bill of exchange, government paper, banking and shares in European and non-European countries and cities. Published by J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1863, p. 192
7. Leopold Einsle: Systematic compilation of the most excellent European measures, weights and coins . Jos. Kösel'sche Buchhandlung, Kempten 1846, pages 122–124
8. Johann Friedrich Krüger : Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830, pp. 139, 247
9. a b c Spießlein: Association of practical merchants, the latest illustrated trade and goods lexicon or encyclopedia of the entire trade sciences for merchants and manufacturers . Volume 2, Verlag Ernst Schäfer, Leipzig 1857, p. 262
10. ^ A b c Christian Nelkenbrecher: JC Nelkenbrecher's General Pocket Book of Coin, Measure and Weight . Sandersche Buchhandlung, Berlin 1828, p. 154:
11. a b c Eduard Döring: Handbook of coin, exchange, measure and weight. Verlag J. Hölscher, Koblenz 1862, p. 462
12. ^ A b Eduard Döring: Handbook of coin, exchange, measure and weight. J. Hölscher, Koblenz 1862, p. 304
13. a b c d Georg Thomas Flügel: Course list continued as a manual for coin, measure, weight and Customs . LF Huber Verlag der Jäger'schen Buch-, Papier- und Landkartenhandlung, Frankfurt am Main 1859, pp. 154, 168.
14. Leopold Carl Bleibtreu: Handbook of coin, measure and weight, and the bill of exchange, government paper, banking and shares in European and non-European countries and cities. Published by J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1863, p. 82.
15. ^ A b John Dede: The Trade of the Russian Empire. Verlag GA Reyher, Mitau / Leipzig 1844, p. 84
16. Leopold Carl Bleibtreu: Handbook of coin, measure and weight, and the bill of exchange, government paper, banking and shares in European and non-European countries and cities. Published by J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1863, p. 237
17. Ernst Winkelmann: Explanation of 20,000 foreign words and technical expressions which are used in the German language. Publisher Paul Neff, Stuttgart 1863, p. 406.
18. Reinhard Goltz: The language of the Finkenwerder fishermen . Studies to develop a technical vocabulary. Ed .: Altonaer Museum in Hamburg. Koehler Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Herford 1984, ISBN 3-7822-0342-9 , p. 232 .
19. Eucharius Ferdinand Christian Oertel: Non-profit foreign dictionary for the explanation and Germanization of the foreign words and expressions occurring in our language, explained according to their spelling, pronunciation, origin and meaning from old and new languages. Volume 2, WG Gassert, Ansbach 1830, p. 971
20. ^ Johann Friedrich Krüger: Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830, p. 14
21. ^ Johann Friedrich Krüger: Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. Verlag Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830, p. 324.
22. Leopold Carl Bleibtreu : Handbook of coin, measure and weight, and the bill of exchange, government paper, banking and shares in European and non-European countries and cities. Published by J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1863, p. 244.
23. ^ Association of practical merchants: The latest illustrated trade and goods lexicon or encyclopedia of the entire trade sciences for merchants and manufacturers . Volume 2, Ernst Schäfer, Leipzig 1857, p. 679.
24. ^ Eduard Döring: Handbook of coin, exchange, measure and weight. J. Höscher, Koblenz 1862, p. 177
25. ^ A b c Samuel Christoph Bunzel: New commercial arithmetic book. Volume 2, Verlag Gustav Phil. Jak. Bierling, Nuremberg 1789, p. 205.
26. CLW Aldefeld: The dimensions and weights of the German customs union states and many other countries and trading centers in their mutual relationships. Verlag JG Cotta'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart / Tübingen 1838, p. 304.
28. "The shock is an invoice coin and amounted to 60 old silver groschen or Wilhelminer, which were minted on the mark under Elector Friedrich II of Saxony and Duke Wilhelm in Meißen from 1408 to 1482 to 160 pieces." In: HA Mascher: The property tax - Regulation in Prussia based on the laws of May 21, 1861 . Döring, 1862. Online version
29. ^ A b c d Johann Christian Heyse, Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Heyse: Concise dictionary of the German language. Part 2, Department 1, Wilhelm Heinrichshofen, Magdeburg 1849, p. 775.
30. August Schiebe: Universal encyclopedia of commercial science: containing: coin, measure and weight. Volume 3, Fleischer / Schumann, Leipzig / Zwickau 1839, p. 589.
31. Jurende's patriotic pilgrim: business and entertainment book for all provinces of the Austrian imperial state: consecrated to all friends of culture from the teaching, military and nutritional class, especially all nature and fatherland friends. Volume 21, Winiker, Brünn 1834, p. 33.
32. ^ Christian Noback , Friedrich Eduard Noback : Complete paperback of the coin, measure and weight relationships. Volume 1, FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1851, p. 558.
33. ^ Johann Friedrich Krüger: Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830, p. 19.
34. ^ Fritz Klotz: Speyer Small City History . District group Speyer of the Historical Association of the Palatinate, 1971, 4th edition, pages 67, 68
35. Field jury in Middle Franconia. (PDF; 804 kB) (No longer available online.) Directorate for Rural Development Ansbach, p. 12 , archived from the original on December 12, 2015 ; Retrieved February 5, 2013 .
36. a b Ergersheim Forest Regulations. Weinbauverein Ergersheim, 2012, accessed on February 12, 2013 .
37. Helmut R. Tödter: Kulturhistorisches Lexikon Pd-Verlag, Heidenau 2012, p. 199.
38. Startin: Servicelexikon /
39. Wine knowledge: piece barrel
40. ↑ mass by weight
41. Clemens M. Hutter: Grossglockner . VCM-Verlag, Elsbethen 1987.