# Old weights and measures (Bavaria)

With the ordinance of February 28, 1809, the dimensions throughout Bavaria were made binding on defined sizes. Before that, there were some regional differences. For example, the Aschaffenburg foot measured 290.50 mm and the Nuremberg foot was 303.75 millimeters. An economic reform of Montgelas should also standardize the weights and measures.

Ferdinand Malaise (1842) gives an overview of various European weights and measures for the Bavarian foot - its reference size - 129.38 Parisian lines .

On April 29, 1869, Bavaria introduced the metric system by law at the turn of the year 1872 . The Bavarian foot was set at 0.291859206 meters.

The dimensional designations and dimensions, the values ​​of which were initially set in metric units, remained in everyday use.

## Length measurements

### Derivation of the Bavarian foot

The Bavarian foot - like the Hanoverian foot and the Liège Lambert foot - has the exact ratio 63: 64 to the Roman foot . In practice, the Bavarian inch was created by dividing the Vienna cubit , which is 1 Roman cubits , by thirty-two.

### The old, duodecimal length measures

While the foot sizes in ancient times always in sixteen finger's breadth was divided, which continued into the Middle Ages in Europe duodecimal tariff classification by. Whereby an inch in the Romance languages ​​is usually called "a thumb (-breadth)". The duodecimal division of feet was valid in Bavaria up to and including the early modern period .

 Scruples = 0.1689 mm (typographical, unofficial) line = 12 Scruples = 2.0268 mm inch = 12 Lines = 24.3216 mm foot = 12 inch = 291.8592 mm Was officially set at 0.291859206 m in 1869. step = 28 inch = 0.681 0048 m (Not mentioned in 1869.) Fathoms = 6th foot = 1.7511552 m rod = 12 foot = 3.502 3104 m mile before 1811: = 7.414,975 km = 25406 Bavarian feet, actually five Roman miles . 1811/71: = 7.470 903 km = 25600 Bavarian feet from 1872: = 7,200,000 km (is rounded metrically) 1896: = 7.420 44 km

The length of the Bavarian cubit was legally exactly 2 feet 10¼ inches, or about 83.30 cm. This rather strange ell definition can easily be explained as follows: Historically, the old Bavarian ell is undoubtedly a 45-roman-digiti-ell. Since the Bavarian foot itself measures 63/64 Roman feet, this corresponds to exactly 34 2/7 Bavarian inches. Be it out of historical ignorance or just for the sake of simplicity, it was rounded down to 34¼ inches. So you waived exactly one twenty-eighth additional Bavarian customs.

The Nuremberg or Franconian yardstick, on the other hand, referred to the Bavarian foot. The Franconian yardstick measured 36 Bavarian finger widths or 27 Bavarian inches. Starting from the seven-smooth value of the Bavarian foot, one obtains the theoretical value of the Nuremberg cubit of (291.7215 ÷ 12 × 27 =) 656.373375 mm, which corresponds to about 290.968 Parisian lines and thus also with the value given in the literature empirical value of the Frankish yardstick corresponds to 291 Parisian lines.

### The decimal transition length measures

After the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806 , Bavaria joined the Confederation of the Rhine and was elevated to a kingdom by Napoleon with territorial gains .

Although Bavaria did not yet dare to use the meter introduced in France since 1793, the Bavarian foot was decimalized.

This system was in place until January 1, 1872, the day the law of 1869 came into force.

 Scruples = 291.859206 µm line = 10 scruples = 2.91859206 mm inch = 10 lines = 2.91859206 cm foot = 10 inches = 2.91859206 dm rod = 10 feet = 2.91859206 m

## Area dimensions

 Square inches = 0.00059154 m² = 5.9154 cm² Square feet = 144 square inches = 0.085182 m² Square mile (rare) = about 55.2 km² (depending on the mile definition, see above) Bifang, Pifang Bed = 9 square feet = 0.7666 m² Square rod = 100 square feet = 8.5182 m² Decimals = 4 square rods = 34.072709 m² Day's work (morning, jauchert, yoke) = 100 decimals = 3407.2709 m² Hooves, hooves = 33-42 daily work

## volume

The Bavarian cubic foot is greater than or equal to 24.861044 liters. But this was not used for measure of capacity.

### Measure of capacity, firm

This was used to measure all non-liquid substances, such as grain , flour , lime etc.

The unit of the lime measure was the Metzen. Lime was measured mostly in heap. The measuring body was determined to be a truncated cone . On June 7, 1811, these dimensions were determined:

• bottom diameter 1½ feet
• top diameter 1¼ feet
• Cone height 11 inches plus 8⅖ lines
• 6 meats = 1 bushel
• 24 Metzen = 1 courage

According to the royal Bavarian legislation of 1869: a Bavarian bushel is 1 / 0.449 725 9946 hectoliters .

#### Derivation

Historically, the Bavarian harlot is not derived from the Bavarian foot itself, but from the so-called Karl's foot.

This has a ratio of 9: 8 to the Roman foot and thus measures eight seventh Bavarian feet. Thus, there is between the used Bavarian cubic foot, and the actual Bavarian cubic feet, the ratio (7 × 7 × 7 =) 343: 512 (= 8 x 8 x 8). The so-called Karlsfuß measures just over a third of a meter.

 Thirties (thirty-second slashes) = ½ sixteenths of a millet = 1.15811l Sixteenth of a century , Mäßlein = ½ eighths of a millet = 2.31623 L. Eighth knot = ½ quarter mason = 4.63245 L. Viertelmetze (n), half a quarter = ½ quarter = 9.26490 L. Quarter, half slut (s) = ½ Metzen = 18.52980 L. Muck (noun) = 34⅔ measure = 37.05960 L. Scheffel ( Bavarian : Schaff, plural: Schäff ) = 6 Mets = 222.35762 L. Courage = 4 bushels = 889.43046 L.

### Measures of measure, liquid

According to royal Bavarian legislation of 1869, the Bavarian measure is the 208th part of the volume of a Bavarian bushel at 1 / 0.449 725 9946 hectoliters .

Historically, the Bavarian measure is certainly exactly 50 Karlskubikzoll. According to this, the pecker is exactly (1728 ÷ 50 =) 34, 5 6 measure, instead of 34⅔ measure.

The resulting metrological error is exactly 1/325 = 0.308%.

Conversely, if you take the Karls cubic foot, i.e. the Metze, as the reference value, then an old Bavarian measure is not 10 69.0 27 ml, but about 10 72.3 27 ml. Thus, there was a deviation of just under 3 when serving. 3 ml.

 Achterl, eighths in Francs = ⅛ measure = 0.133 l Bottle, quart (el) = 2 figure eight = ¼ measure = 0.267 l Gazel = ⅓ measure = 0.357 l Seidel , in Franconia Seidla (half) = 2 quarters = ½ measure = 0.535 l Measure, measure jug or mug = 2 pints = 3 gazels = 1.069 L. Dispensing bucket = 60 measure = 64.142 L. Visireimer (beer bucket ) = 64 measure = 68.416 L.

### Water flow rate

 Steften = 2 measures per minute = 2.18 liters per minute

## Weights

### Commercial weights

The Viennese pound was used in Bavaria . In the Middle Ages and the early modern period this was always about 561.288 g, i.e. H. two Viennese marks .

In 1811 Montgelas rounded the pound in Bavaria to 560,000 g. this should facilitate the conversion to other dimensions.

A distinction must therefore be made between an old, historical value and a reform value about a quarter percent lower :

   Historical value    Reform value unit Gran = 73.084 3750 mg = 72.916 mg Penny weight = 15th Grän = 1096.265 6250 mg = 1093.750 mg Quentchen (Quint) = 4th penny = 4.385 0625 G = 4,375 G Loth = 4th Tiny bit = 17,540 2500 G = 17,500 G Quadruplets = 8th Loth = 140.322 0000 G = 140,000 G lb = 4th Quadruplets = 561.288 0000 G = 560,000 G

Note: The historical values ​​are of course only "filled" zeros after the third right-hand decimal place of the pound value in order to be able to correctly reflect the important arithmetical values ​​of the smaller units. In any case, greater precision can either only be achieved with reference to a certain specimen of scale or via a binding definition.

### Pharmacist weights

The Bavarian pharmacist weight corresponds to the Franconian, i.e. the Nuremberg pharmacist weight , as everywhere in Germany .

Historically, the Nuremberg pharmacist pound was 357.84 grams. The Kingdom of Bavaria rounded this to 360 grams under Montgelas in 1811.

### Coin weights

The Cologne mark with its subdivisions was also valid in Bavaria .

## Individual evidence

1. ^ [Mile in Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1896.jpg Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Fifth Edition, Leipzig, Vienna, 1896, Volume 12, p. 80]
2. ^ General pocket book of coin, measure and weight, Johann Christian Nelkenbrecher, Berlin 1828, page 277.
3. Johann Baptist Weigl : Textbook of the art of arithmetic for use in Latin and industrial schools a. for self-teaching. J. E. v. Seidelschen Buchhandlung, Sulzbach 1846, p. 169
4. Robert Krusche: At the origin of the Rezat: Historical from and around Oberdachstetten. Excerpts from Google Books
5. ^ Max von Pettenkofer: The canal or Siel system in Munich: Expert opinion . Manz, 1869, p. 9 ( Steften in Google Book Search).
6. ^ According to Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1892 ; the Viennese mark is equal to 288.644 g, hence the mass of the Viennese pound is 581.288 g.
7. a b Cornelia Meyer-Stoll: The regulation of the Bavarian state measures  .pdf. Akademie Aktuell, 3/2005, p. 20 ff .; see in particular the chapter: "Bavarian dimensions defined in French", p. 22.