Old weights and measures (Bavaria)
With the ordinance of February 28, 1809, the dimensions throughout Bavaria were made binding on defined sizes. Before that, there were some regional differences. For example, the Aschaffenburg foot measured 290.50 mm and the Nuremberg foot was 303.75 millimeters. An economic reform of Montgelas should also standardize the weights and measures.
Ferdinand Malaise (1842) gives an overview of various European weights and measures for the Bavarian foot - its reference size - 129.38 Parisian lines .
On April 29, 1869, Bavaria introduced the metric system by law at the turn of the year 1872 . The Bavarian foot was set at 0.291859206 meters.
The dimensional designations and dimensions, the values of which were initially set in metric units, remained in everyday use.
Derivation of the Bavarian foot
The Bavarian foot - like the Hanoverian foot and the Liège Lambert foot - has the exact ratio 63: 64 to the Roman foot . In practice, the Bavarian inch was created by dividing the Vienna cubit , which is 1 Roman cubits , by thirty-two.
The old, duodecimal length measures
While the foot sizes in ancient times always in sixteen finger's breadth was divided, which continued into the Middle Ages in Europe duodecimal tariff classification by. Whereby an inch in the Romance languages is usually called "a thumb (-breadth)". The duodecimal division of feet was valid in Bavaria up to and including the early modern period .
|Scruples||=||0.1689 mm||(typographical, unofficial)|
|foot||=||12||inch||=||291.8592 mm||Was officially set at 0.291859206 m in 1869.|
|step||=||28||inch||=||0.681 0048 m||(Not mentioned in 1869.)|
|rod||=||12||foot||=||3.502 3104 m|
|mile||before 1811:||=||7.414,975 km||= 25406 Bavarian feet, actually five Roman miles .|
|1811/71:||=||7.470 903 km||= 25600 Bavarian feet|
|from 1872:||=||7,200,000 km||(is rounded metrically)|
|1896:||=||7.420 44 km|
The length of the Bavarian cubit was legally exactly 2 feet 10¼ inches, or about 83.30 cm. This rather strange ell definition can easily be explained as follows: Historically, the old Bavarian ell is undoubtedly a 45-roman-digiti-ell. Since the Bavarian foot itself measures 63/64 Roman feet, this corresponds to exactly 34 2/7 Bavarian inches. Be it out of historical ignorance or just for the sake of simplicity, it was rounded down to 34¼ inches. So you waived exactly one twenty-eighth additional Bavarian customs.
The Nuremberg or Franconian yardstick, on the other hand, referred to the Bavarian foot. The Franconian yardstick measured 36 Bavarian finger widths or 27 Bavarian inches. Starting from the seven-smooth value of the Bavarian foot, one obtains the theoretical value of the Nuremberg cubit of (291.7215 ÷ 12 × 27 =) 656.373375 mm, which corresponds to about 290.968 Parisian lines and thus also with the value given in the literature empirical value of the Frankish yardstick corresponds to 291 Parisian lines.
The decimal transition length measures
Although Bavaria did not yet dare to use the meter introduced in France since 1793, the Bavarian foot was decimalized.
This system was in place until January 1, 1872, the day the law of 1869 came into force.
|Scruples||= 291.859206 µm|
|line||= 10 scruples||= 2.91859206 mm|
|inch||= 10 lines||= 2.91859206 cm|
|foot||= 10 inches||= 2.91859206 dm|
|rod||= 10 feet||= 2.91859206 m|
|Square inches||= 0.00059154 m²||= 5.9154 cm²|
|Square feet||= 144 square inches||= 0.085182 m²|
|Square mile (rare)||= about 55.2 km² (depending on the mile definition, see above)|
|Bed||= 9 square feet||= 0.7666 m²|
|Square rod||= 100 square feet||= 8.5182 m²|
|Decimals||= 4 square rods||= 34.072709 m²|
|Day's work (morning, jauchert, yoke)||= 100 decimals||= 3407.2709 m²|
|Hooves, hooves||= 33-42 daily work|
The Bavarian cubic foot is greater than or equal to 24.861044 liters. But this was not used for measure of capacity.
Measure of capacity, firm
The unit of the lime measure was the Metzen. Lime was measured mostly in heap. The measuring body was determined to be a truncated cone . On June 7, 1811, these dimensions were determined:
- bottom diameter 1½ feet
- top diameter 1¼ feet
- Cone height 11 inches plus 8⅖ lines
- 6 meats = 1 bushel
- 24 Metzen = 1 courage
According to the royal Bavarian legislation of 1869: a Bavarian bushel is 1 / 0.449 725 9946 hectoliters .
Historically, the Bavarian harlot is not derived from the Bavarian foot itself, but from the so-called Karl's foot.
This has a ratio of 9: 8 to the Roman foot and thus measures eight seventh Bavarian feet. Thus, there is between the used Bavarian cubic foot, and the actual Bavarian cubic feet, the ratio (7 × 7 × 7 =) 343: 512 (= 8 x 8 x 8). The so-called Karlsfuß measures just over a third of a meter.
|Thirties (thirty-second slashes)||= ½ sixteenths of a millet||=||1.15811l|
|Sixteenth of a century , Mäßlein||= ½ eighths of a millet||=||2.31623 L.|
|Eighth knot||= ½ quarter mason||=||4.63245 L.|
|Viertelmetze (n), half a quarter||= ½ quarter||=||9.26490 L.|
|Quarter, half slut (s)||= ½ Metzen||=||18.52980 L.|
|Muck (noun)||= 34⅔ measure||=||37.05960 L.|
|Scheffel ( Bavarian : Schaff, plural: Schäff )||= 6 Mets||=||222.35762 L.|
|Courage||= 4 bushels||=||889.43046 L.|
Measures of measure, liquid
According to royal Bavarian legislation of 1869, the Bavarian measure is the 208th part of the volume of a Bavarian bushel at 1 / 0.449 725 9946 hectoliters .
Historically, the Bavarian measure is certainly exactly 50 Karlskubikzoll. According to this, the pecker is exactly (1728 ÷ 50 =) 34, 5 6 measure, instead of 34⅔ measure.
The resulting metrological error is exactly 1/325 = 0.308%.
Conversely, if you take the Karls cubic foot, i.e. the Metze, as the reference value, then an old Bavarian measure is not 10 69.0 27 ml, but about 10 72.3 27 ml. Thus, there was a deviation of just under 3 when serving. 3 ml.
|Achterl, eighths in Francs||= ⅛ measure||=||0.133 l|
|Bottle, quart (el)||= 2 figure eight||= ¼ measure||=||0.267 l|
|Gazel||= ⅓ measure||=||0.357 l|
|Seidel , in Franconia Seidla (half)||= 2 quarters||= ½ measure||=||0.535 l|
|Measure, measure jug or mug||= 2 pints||= 3 gazels||=||1.069 L.|
|Dispensing bucket||= 60 measure||=||64.142 L.|
|Visireimer (beer bucket )||= 64 measure||=||68.416 L.|
Water flow rate
|Steften||= 2 measures per minute||=||2.18 liters per minute|
A distinction must therefore be made between an old, historical value and a reform value about a quarter percent lower :
|unit||Historical value||Reform value|
|Penny weight||=||15th||Grän||=||1096.265 6250||mg||=||1093.750||mg|
|Quentchen (Quint)||=||4th||penny||=||4.385 0625||G||=||4,375||G|
|Loth||=||4th||Tiny bit||=||17,540 2500||G||=||17,500||G|
Note: The historical values are of course only "filled" zeros after the third right-hand decimal place of the pound value in order to be able to correctly reflect the important arithmetical values of the smaller units. In any case, greater precision can either only be achieved with reference to a certain specimen of scale or via a binding definition.
Historically, the Nuremberg pharmacist pound was 357.84 grams. The Kingdom of Bavaria rounded this to 360 grams under Montgelas in 1811.
The Cologne mark with its subdivisions was also valid in Bavaria .
- [Mile in Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1896.jpg Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Fifth Edition, Leipzig, Vienna, 1896, Volume 12, p. 80]
- General pocket book of coin, measure and weight, Johann Christian Nelkenbrecher, Berlin 1828, page 277.
- Johann Baptist Weigl : Textbook of the art of arithmetic for use in Latin and industrial schools a. for self-teaching. J. E. v. Seidelschen Buchhandlung, Sulzbach 1846, p. 169
- Robert Krusche: At the origin of the Rezat: Historical from and around Oberdachstetten. Excerpts from Google Books
- Max von Pettenkofer: The canal or Siel system in Munich: Expert opinion . Manz, 1869, p. 9 ( Steften in Google Book Search).
- According to Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1892 ; the Viennese mark is equal to 288.644 g, hence the mass of the Viennese pound is 581.288 g.
- Cornelia Meyer-Stoll: The regulation of the Bavarian state measures .pdf. Akademie Aktuell, 3/2005, p. 20 ff .; see in particular the chapter: "Bavarian dimensions defined in French", p. 22.
- www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de: Tables for Bavarian measures and weights by Heinrich Grebenau: “Tables for converting Bavarian measures and weights into metric measures and weights and vice versa. In addition to the associated price changes. On the basis of the ratios officially published in the highest ordinance of August 13, 1869. With a short history and the necessary explanation of the metric measurement and weight system. ” Lindauer, Munich 1870.
Theoretical-practical instruction in arithmetic by Ferdinand Malaisé , Munich 1842, Appendix 1: Measures, weights and coins .
(In the text version of the 1st appendix, incorrectly referred to as "official units of measurement in Europe 1842" by the webmaster concerned.)