A morning (Mg) is a historical, but also currently occasionally used German area measure . While today, roughly in line with the Prussian morning, it is equated with 25 ares or 2500 square meters , its area once ranged from 1906 to 11,780 square meters.
The measure was determined by the area that can be plowed in one morning with a single-blade horse or ox plow. The morning was mostly set as a rectangle with sides of an even number of local rods , as turning is avoided when possible when plowing .
The area of the morning was very different from region to region, but was mostly between a fifth to half a hectare (2,000 to 5,000 m²). In northern Germany, acres of 6,000 to 9,000 square meters were also in use, in the marshes up to 11,000 square meters. When it was established in the late 19th century , four acres corresponded to one hectare in the German Empire , which is why the former was also called quarter hectares (vha) to distinguish it from traditional dimensions.
In the 20th century , the metric acre of 25 ares introduced by the North German Confederation in 1869 prevailed, but has since been replaced by hectares, square meters and square kilometers.
Morning counterparts, but for a whole working day, are
- the daily work with 2,500 m² to 3,600 m²
- the yoke in southern Germany and Austria
- in Bavaria and Württemberg with 3,525 and 3,309 m² respectively
- in Austria with 5,755 m² (1,600 square fathoms )
- the Juchart in Switzerland with 3,600 m²
- the Matt in the Jever domain with 4,292 m²
In the Anglo-American measurement system , the acre is around 4,047 m². Another comparable measure is the dunam from the Middle East . In Serbia the danoranga corresponded to the morning.
Comparative measurements for the morning in German-speaking countries
||Surname||Surface in m²
||in square rods (QR)|
|metric||Quarter hectare (vha)||2,500||(100 QR)|
|Prussia (1816–1869)||Magdeburg morning||2,553.22||180 QR|
|Saxony (1781)||Morning bushel (sowing)||2,767||150 QR|
|Bavaria||Day's work||3,407||400 QR|
|Württemberg (1806–1871)||Swabian morning||3.152||384 QR|
|Baden (from 1810)||Baden morning||3,600||400 QR|
|Hesse, Grand Duchy (from 1817)||Hessian morning||2,500|
|Bergisches Land||Bergischer Morgen||2.132||120 QR|
|Cologne Rhineland||Rhineland morning||3.176||150 QR|
|Hanover (before 1836)||2,608||120 QR|
|Hanover (after 1836)||2,621||120 QR|
|Schleswig-Holstein||Control bucket||5,466||260 QGeestR|
|Holstein||Ton (tønde)||5,046||240 QGeestR|
|Frankfurt am Main||Field morning||2,025||160 QFieldR|
|Waldeck- Pyrmont||(like Prussia)||2,553.22||180 QR|
|Schaumburg district||2,585||120 QR|
|Frankfurt am Main||Forest morning||3,256||160 QWaldR|
|Braunschweig||Field morning||2,502||120 QR|
|Braunschweig||Forest morning||3,335||160 QR|
|Danzig||to 5 000||300 QR|
|Teutonic Order State||Culinary morning||5,601.17||300 QR|
|Altes Land ( Harburg and Stade )||8,185|
|Old country||10,484||480 QR|
|Duchy of Nassau||tomorrow||2,500|
In the Kingdom of Hanover , the term drone was used for the Morgen-acre = 90 quarter rods = 18.49 Parisian quarter feet . The ½ acre was a foreleg and was 60 quarters in size.
As a sample morning were referred to a 1-acre wooded area that was used for the approximate calculation of the wooden stock.
- Fritz Verdenhalven : Old measurement and currency systems from the German-speaking area. 2nd Edition. Verlag Degener & Co., Neustadt an der Aisch 1993, ISBN 3-7686-1036-5 .
- Otto Brandt: Documentary on measure and weight in Saxony. Saxon Ministry of the Interior, Dresden 1933.
- ↑ Deserts, People, and History . At: woiste.de.
- ^ Leopold Carl Bleibtreu : Handbook of coin, measure and weight and the bill of exchange, government paper, banking and stock system of European and non-European countries and cities. Published by J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1863, p. 68.
- ^ Johann Friedrich Krüger : Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. … Published by Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830, p. 370.
- ↑ Stephan Behlen (Ed.): Real and Verbal Lexicon of Forest and Hunting Studies with their auxiliary sciences . tape 5 . Verlag Johann David Sauerländer, Frankfurt am Main 1843, p. 239 ( Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).