Morning (unit)

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Farmer with a pair of horses and a plow

A morning (Mg) is a historical, but also currently occasionally used German area measure . While today, roughly in line with the Prussian morning, it is equated with 25 ares or 2500 square meters , its area once ranged from 1906 to 11,780 square meters.


The measure was determined by the area that can be plowed in one morning with a single-blade horse or ox plow. The morning was mostly set as a rectangle with sides of an even number of local rods , as turning is avoided when possible when plowing .

The area of ​​the morning was very different from region to region, but was mostly between a fifth to half a hectare (2,000 to 5,000 m²). In northern Germany, acres of 6,000 to 9,000 square meters were also in use, in the marshes up to 11,000 square meters. When it was established in the late 19th century , four acres corresponded to one hectare in the German Empire , which is why the former was also called quarter hectares (vha) to distinguish it from traditional dimensions.

In the 20th century , the metric acre of 25  ares introduced by the North German Confederation in 1869 prevailed, but has since been replaced by hectares, square meters and square kilometers.

Morning counterparts, but for a whole working day, are

In the Anglo-American measurement system , the acre is around 4,047 m². Another comparable measure is the dunam from the Middle East . In Serbia the danoranga corresponded to the morning.

Comparative measurements for the morning in German-speaking countries

Area (time)
Surname Surface in m²
in square rods (QR)
metric Quarter hectare (vha) 2,500 (100 QR)
Prussia (1816–1869) Magdeburg morning 2,553.22 180 QR
Saxony (1781) Morning bushel (sowing) 2,767 150 QR
Bavaria Day's work 3,407 400 QR
Württemberg (1806–1871) Swabian morning 3.152 384 QR
Baden (from 1810) Baden morning 3,600 400 QR
Hesse, Grand Duchy (from 1817) Hessian morning 2,500
Bergisches Land Bergischer Morgen 2.132 120 QR
Cologne Rhineland Rhineland morning 3.176 150 QR
Hanover (before 1836) 2,608 120 QR
Hanover (after 1836) 2,621 120 QR
Oldenburg 2,256
Bremen 2,572 120 QR
Hamburg 9,658 600 QGR
Schleswig-Holstein Control bucket 5,466 260 QGeestR
Holstein Ton (tønde) 5,046 240 QGeestR
Mecklenburg 6,500 300 QR
Francs 2,000
Frankfurt am Main Field morning 2,025 160 QFieldR
Homburg 1,906 160 QR
kassel Field 2,386 150 QR
Waldeck- Pyrmont (like Prussia) 2,553.22 180 QR
lip 2,574,881
Schaumburg district 2,585 120 QR
Frankfurt am Main Forest morning 3,256 160 QWaldR
Braunschweig Field morning 2,502 120 QR
Braunschweig Forest morning 3,335 160 QR
Oldenburg Jück 4,538 160 QR
Danzig to 5 000 300 QR
Teutonic Order State Culinary morning 5,601.17 300 QR
Ostfriesland Diemat (h) 5,674
Altes Land ( Harburg and Stade ) 8,185
Kehdingen March morning 10,477
Old country 10,484 480 QR
Hadeln 11,780 540 QR
Duchy of Nassau tomorrow 2,500

In the Kingdom of Hanover ,  the term drone was used for the Morgen-acre = 90  quarter rods = 18.49 Parisian quarter feet . The ½ acre was a foreleg and was 60 quarters in size.


As a sample morning were referred to a 1-acre wooded area that was used for the approximate calculation of the wooden stock.

See also


  • Fritz Verdenhalven : Old measurement and currency systems from the German-speaking area. 2nd Edition. Verlag Degener & Co., Neustadt an der Aisch 1993, ISBN 3-7686-1036-5 .
  • Otto Brandt: Documentary on measure and weight in Saxony. Saxon Ministry of the Interior, Dresden 1933.

Individual evidence

  1. Deserts, People, and History . At:
  2. ^ Leopold Carl Bleibtreu : Handbook of coin, measure and weight and the bill of exchange, government paper, banking and stock system of European and non-European countries and cities. Published by J. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1863, p. 68.
  3. ^ Johann Friedrich Krüger : Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. … Published by Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830, p. 370.
  4. Stephan Behlen (Ed.): Real and Verbal Lexicon of Forest and Hunting Studies with their auxiliary sciences . tape 5 . Verlag Johann David Sauerländer, Frankfurt am Main 1843, p. 239 ( Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).