Baden (Lower Austria)

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to bathe
coat of arms Austria map
Baden coat of arms
Baden (Lower Austria) (Austria)
Baden (Lower Austria)
Basic data
Country: Austria
State : Lower Austria
Political District : to bathe
License plate : BN
Surface: 26.88 km²
Coordinates : 48 ° 0 '  N , 16 ° 14'  E Coordinates: 48 ° 0 '27 "  N , 16 ° 14' 4"  E
Height : 230  m above sea level A.
Residents : 25,958 (January 1, 2020)
Postal code : 2500
Area code : 02252
Community code : 3 06 04
Address of the
municipal administration:
Hauptplatz 1
2500 Baden
Mayor : Stefan Szirucsek ( ÖVP )
Municipal Council : ( 2020 )
(41 members)
18th 8th 6th 6th 
A total of 41 seats
Location of Baden in the Baden district
Alland Altenmarkt an der Triesting Bad Vöslau Baden Berndorf Blumau-Neurißhof Ebreichsdorf Enzesfeld-Lindabrunn Furth an der Triesting Günselsdorf Heiligenkreuz Hernstein Hirtenberg Klausen-Leopoldsdorf Kottingbrunn Leobersdorf Mitterndorf an der Fischa Oberwaltersdorf Pfaffstätten Pottendorf Pottenstein Reisenberg Schönau an der Triesting Seibersdorf Sooß Tattendorf Teesdorf Traiskirchen Trumau Weissenbach an der Triesting NiederösterreichLocation of the municipality of Baden (Lower Austria) in the Baden district (clickable map)
About this picture
Template: Infobox municipality in Austria / maintenance / site plan image map
Trinity or plague column (by the sculptor Giovanni Stanetti)  1] on the main square of Baden near Vienna.  2]
Trinity or Plague column (by the sculptor Giovanni Stanetti ) on the main square of Baden near Vienna.
Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria

Baden , also called Baden bei Wien , is a town in Lower Austria , Austria , 26 km south of Vienna on the Thermenlinie . It is the seat of the district administration of the administrative district of Baden . It has 25,958 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020). The names Baden and Baden bei Wien are both common; in the brand development process in 2016, Baden bei Wien was defined as the official name. Since October 15, 1968, “red and white” have been the official municipal colors . Baden is also known as a Biedermeier city or an imperial city.


City structure

In 1850 it was decided to merge with Leesdorf and Gutenbrunn. In 1912 the expansion with Weikersdorf took place.

The only village is Baden. Districts of Baden are the Haidhof settlement , the Haidhofteich and Lorenzteich settlement , the hamlet of Kiebitzmühle and other locations.

Neighboring communities

Heiligenkreuz Pfaffstätten Traiskirchen
Alland Neighboring communities Oberwaltersdorf
Bad Vöslau


Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Baden
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 3.4 5.5 10.3 16.1 20.9 23.8 26.4 25.8 20.7 15.0 8.1 3.7 O 15th
Min. Temperature (° C) -2.6 -1.7 1.7 5.6 10.2 13.3 15.3 15.0 11.2 6.7 2.2 -1.6 O 6.3
Temperature (° C) 0.0 1.2 5.3 10.2 15.2 18.2 20.4 19.7 15.0 9.9 4.6 0.7 O 10.1
Precipitation ( mm ) 36 40 55 45 68 78 69 73 66 41 47 47 Σ 665
Humidity ( % ) 71.3 64.6 58.9 52.6 55.1 56.3 53.9 54.5 59.2 64.5 72.4 75.5 O 61.6
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


City of Baden in a contemporary depiction 1482

Several finds attest to the presence of the Celts in the area of ​​Baden. The warm sulfur springs are already given in a place directory from Roman times . At the time of Emperor Claudius (41–54 AD) the settlement was given the name Aquae (German: baths), which refers directly to its already important role as a spa. In 869 the place was mentioned again as "Padun". Baden received the in 1480 city law . In 1488 the Hungarian Queen Beatrix visited the city to cure her childlessness. The Turkish invasions with the destruction of Baden both in 1529 and 1683, the turmoil of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation , the plague in 1713 and a major fire in 1714 were decisive events in the life of the city.

Emperor Franz I spent every summer in Baden from 1796 to 1834 and made the city his summer residence. In 1782 Joseph II issued the tolerance patent for the Jews in Vienna and Lower Austria. This made Baden an important health resort. In the wake of the court, the upper class came in summer to relax in Baden. It was not until 1867 that the Basic Law on the General Rights of Citizens put Jews on an equal footing with other citizens.

City fire on July 26th, 1812. - Foreground: Josefsplatz, pumping fire water from the Mühlbach; Background: Josefsbad (left), Neubad (center), behind the burning roof of the Frauenkirche

After the great fire in 1812, the city was rebuilt in the Biedermeier style according to plans by Joseph Kornhäusel . The incorporation of Leesdorf and Gutenbrunn in 1850 and the merger with Weikersdorf in 1912 led to the expansion of what is now the municipality.

In 1916 the Army High Command , the command center for all units (including the Austro-Hungarian Navy ) of the Armed Forces of Austria-Hungary , was relocated from Teschen in Austrian Silesia to Baden, to the Imperial House of Baden , and stayed here until the end of the war in early November 1918. Emperor Karl I. , who, in contrast to his aged predecessor Franz Joseph I, had taken over the supreme command himself, therefore often stayed in Baden from November 1916 to October 1918.

After the casino opened in 1934, Baden became Austria's most important health resort .

In the course of the November pogroms in 1938 , the interior of the synagogue was destroyed and the building was then taken over by the National Socialist People's Welfare .

A bomb attack on April 2, 1945 - the penultimate month of World War II - destroyed many buildings. From 1945 to 1955, Baden was the headquarters of the Soviet occupying power in Austria. Especially in the first period of the occupation, soldiers of the Red Army looted, raped and shot. Some prisoners (and sometimes tortured) in the Nikoladonivilla (Schimmergasse 17) in Baden were deported to the USSR.

After 1965 the entire tourist infrastructure of the place was renewed; Today, Baden is once again one of the most important health resorts in Austria (see also Tourism in Austria # Health and Wellness Tourism ).

"In Baden (at Josefsplatz) a memorial was erected in memory of the people persecuted and murdered by the Nazi regime," reports the ORF. The project of the municipality, Baden Jewish community and civil society was completed in April 2017. Until 1938, Baden was home to the third largest Jewish community in Austria.

See also: History of Lower Austria , History of the Vienna Woods

Population development

The population of Baden has increased almost continuously since the second half of the 19th century and, especially between 1869 and 1923, doubled to over 22,000. A marked decrease in the population of 11.6% only occurred during the war years from 1939 to 1945.

The population has also increased by 4.3% since the 1991 census , which was due to the positive balance of migration (+ 8.8%), while the birth balance was negative (−4.4%).


Interior of the Baden parish church St. Stephan

The majority (62.7% of Baden's residents) are Roman Catholic . The most famous church is the parish church of St. Stephan .

8.3% are Evangelical , 3.6% Orthodox . For Islam to 4.0% profess. 16.8% are without religious belief. The small (0.1%) Jewish community tried to renovate the Baden synagogue through its synagogue association . The renovation was completed in 2005 and the Baden synagogue was re-consecrated. The building, originally erected in 1873, and the Vienna City Temple are today the only two Jewish sacred buildings in Austria from the period before 1945 that are in their original use.


Culture and sights

Baden is an important spa town due to the hot sulfur springs . These sulfur springs have been known for thousands of years. The oldest sulfur spring is located in a tunnel under the casino. Today the water comes from fourteen springs that are among the most sulphurous in Austria. In addition to the springs, Baden is also a climatic health resort due to its good air conditions .

The cityscape is characterized by buildings from the Biedermeier period, in the early 19th century the city experienced an economic boom due to the bathing tourism from Vienna. Baden is a member of the Small Historic Cities Association .


The City Theater 2010

The theater life in Badner is characterized by operetta performances . In winter the performances take place in the city ​​theater (built 1908–1909 by Ferdinand Fellner the Younger , Büro Fellner & Helmer ), during the summer in the Badner Sommerarena (built 1906 by Rudolf Krausz ).

Casino Baden

Grand Casino Baden

The casino in Baden was built as a new health resort between 1884 and 1886 according to plans by the architects Eugen Fassbender and Maximilian Katscher . The building was built in the neo-renaissance style instead of the old Theresienbad in the spa gardens. After several renovations, it was reopened in 1995 as the largest casino in Europe, including a congress and event center. The casino is regularly used for cultural events (readings, concerts), and the Ave Verum international choir competition is also held there .

City library

The Baden City Library was founded in 1940/41. At that time it had 3,000 volumes and 22,332 loans for 1,349 readers (300 of whom were spa guests). In 1959 she moved to the location Kaiser-Franz-Ring 9, the Zellerhof , where the registry office is also located (see: photos ). The Weikersdorf branch was opened in 1964 with open access to the books, and from 1973 to 1975 the main library was also designed as an open access library. In 2008 the library had 52,480 borrowings for 26,095 visitors; it comprised 31,303 items (26,602 books, 1,184 magazine issues from 43 subscriptions, 3,517 audio / video media).

Museums and exhibition houses


The town hall - built after the great fire of July 26th, 1812 in place of the burnt down one in 1814/15 and rebuilt and expanded from 1893 to 1895
Baden aqueduct
Aging structures

Site design

Pavilion of the former orangery in Doblhoffpark with photos from the open-air photo exhibition Fotofestival La Gacilly-Baden (2018)
Lanner and Strauss memorial in Baden's spa gardens
View from the ruin Rauheneck into the Helenental
Royal cave

In 2005, Baden was awarded a gold medal in the city category as part of the European " Entente Florale Europe " competition.


The former park of Weikersdorf Castle is named after the noble Doblhoff family, who owned the castle and park from 1741 until it was purchased by the town of Baden in 1966. In 1969 a rosarium was opened in the approximately 8-hectare park in cooperation with the municipality, the Austrian tree nurseries and the architect Viktor Mödlhammer .
  • Spa gardens
  • Gutenbrunn Park
  • Weikersdorfer Park


Economy and Infrastructure


The Südbahn runs through Baden, the city is the terminus of the Badner Bahn , which connects Baden with Vienna. Due to its proximity to the southern motorway , Baden is conveniently located in terms of transport.

Established businesses

The economy is characterized on the one hand by spa and conference operations, on the other hand by the casino (a location of Casinos Austria and at the same time the largest casino in Austria). In addition there is the viticulture in the area.

power supply

In the densely built-up area, Baden is almost completely open to biogenic district heating, which is generated in the Baden biomass cogeneration plant . The public buildings, such as schools, offices, as well as health establishments and large-volume residential buildings are supplied with district heating. Baden is one of the e5 communities that is subject to an international test for the achievement of climate targets. Baden does not yet have the highest distinction that 24 other municipalities in Austria can achieve (as of March 2019). However, this highest standard will be aimed for in the upcoming tests. In addition, Baden tries to positively influence climate change at the municipal level through urban planning competitions. In future tenders by the city in the construction sector, climate policy approaches should be given special priority.

Public facilities

As the administrative center of the Baden district , the city is the seat of regional authorities and other public institutions such as schools and health facilities.

Agencies and public authorities

View from Theresiengasse towards the main square
  • District Court
  • District Commission
  • District Police Command and Police Inspectorate
  • Tax office
  • Lower Austria agricultural district authority (branch office)
  • City Police (largest city ​​police in Austria , approx. 40 police officers)
  • Land surveying office



  • In Baden there is the “Malerschule Baden”, well-known in Austria and beyond, which houses various types of school: the college for building technology with the training branch paint and design, a master school for painting and painting and a technical school for painting and painting, which also has its own classes and specially trained teachers are available for the hearing impaired
View from Pfarrplatz towards Annagasse
  • Elementary schools including the practical elementary school of the Lower Austria University of Education
  • Secondary school, business school, practical main school of the Lower Austria Pedagogical University
  • Polytechnic school
  • Vocational school for bakers, confectioners and dental technicians
  • General special school
  • Lower Austria University of Education
  • Federal commercial academy and commercial school
  • Higher educational establishment for economic professions
  • Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium Frauengasse
  • Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium Biondekgasse
  • "Regenbogenschule", a private primary school with permanent public rights.
  • Federal Institute for Social Education
  • HTL painting school
  • School for general health and nursing care at the Baden-Mödling State Hospital
  • Dance school and ballet school
  • music school


View over Baden from the high spring water pipe running through the northeastern vineyards towards the Jubiläumswarte on the Harzberg ( Bad Vöslau ) ( )World icon
  • Baden spa center
  • District office of the Lower Austrian regional health insurance fund
  • Health and spa hotel Badener Hof
  • Malcherhof Clinic, Baden
  • Baden State Hospital

medical corps

The rescue service is carried out by the Red Cross district office in Baden and is organized via the Lower Austria emergency number .

Voluntary fire brigades

The city of Baden maintains a total of three volunteer fire brigades:

  • Voluntary fire brigade Baden-Stadt (I)
  • Baden-Leesdorf Volunteer Fire Brigade (II)
  • Baden-Weikersdorf Volunteer Fire Brigade (III)

Federal Army


The city administration offers various electronic services to simplify official channels for citizens. In this way, forms can be downloaded as PDF files directly from home and then sent to the relevant department by post. In addition, some concerns such as For example, applications for employment can be submitted directly via the web form. The city's online forms are based on AFORMSOLUTION, the Austrian IT company aforms2web .


Sons and Daughters of the City (extract)

Those who died in the city

Worked in Baden

Honorary citizen

  • 2016 Amadeus Hörschläger OCist , 2012–2016 pastor of the parish church of Baden-St. Stephan
  • 2016 Kurt Staska (* 1959), Mayor of Baden from April 2010 to September 2016


Photos of Baden

Historical recordings of Baden

Historical maps from the years 1872 to 1910


  • Carl Schenk: Pocket book for bathers in Baden in Lower Austria. With copper. Geistinger, Vienna / Baden (1820). - Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf .
  • Wilhelm Tomaschek : Aqua, Aquae 1) . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume II, 1, Stuttgart 1895, Col. 294.
  • Rainer von Reinöhl: The architectural monuments of the health resort Baden near Vienna. Deutsche Heimatbücherei, Volume 4, Vienna 1913, ÖNB .
  • Johannes Ressel: Churches and chapels, religious memorial columns and signposts in Baden near Vienna. A contribution to history, local history and art history. 2nd, improved and advanced Edition, Grasl, Baden 1982, ISBN 3-85098-131-2 .
  • Johann Kräftner (Ed.): In the shadow of the Weilburg. Bathing in Biedermeier. An exhibition by the town of Baden in Frauenbad from September 23, 1988 to January 31, 1989. Grasl, Baden 1988, ISBN 3-85098-186-X .
  • Viktor Wallner , Gerhard Weber: 200 years of the spa gardens in Baden. A compilation. Neue Badener Blätter, Volume 3.2, ZDB -ID 2161928-1 . Society of Friends of Baden and Municipal Collections - Archive, Rollett Museum of the City of Baden, Baden 1992, OBV .
  • Julius Böheimer: Streets and alleys in Baden near Vienna. Lexicon of streets, alleys, squares, paths, walkways, bridges. Grasl, Baden 1997, ISBN 3-85098-236-X .
  • Viktor Wallner: Houses, people and stories - a Baden anecdotal walk. Society of Friends of Baden, Baden 2002, OBV .
  • Rudolf Maurer: The Viennese suburb. Antonsgasse and Annagasse over the centuries. Catalog sheets of the Rollettmuseum Baden, Volume 56, ZDB -ID 2101396-2 . Rollettmuseum Baden, Baden 2005, ISBN 3-901951-56-3 .
  • Hildegard Hnatek, Franz Reiter: That's how it was once in Baden near Vienna. Verlag Sutton, Erfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-86680-154-7 .
  • Heidi Angelika Mascher-Pichler: Baden near Vienna during the Soviet occupation 1945–1955 with special consideration of the first two years of occupation and the year 1955. Dissertation. University of Vienna, Vienna 2009. - Full text online (PDF; 2.8 MB) .

Web links

Commons : Baden bei Wien  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Nope Law Gazette 1968/445. In:  Landesgesetzblatt für die Land Niederösterreich , year 1968, p. 293. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / lgn
  2. ^ Pia Maria Plechl : Baden near Vienna.
  3. ^ R (ainer) Reinöhl:  What did the Romans call our bathing? In:  Badener Zeitung , January 12, 1907, p. 1 below. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt
  4. a b c
  5. ^ Arthur Graf Polzer-Hoditz, Kaiser Karl, From the secret folder of his cabeinet chief, Amalthea-Verlag, Zurich-Leipzig-Vienna, 1929.
  6. The invasion of the Red Army and its consequences . In: Mascher-Pichler, Baden near Vienna , p. 44.
  7. In Soviet captivity. Prisons in the middle of Baden . In: Mascher-Pichler, Baden near Vienna , p. 99 f.
  8. ↑ The NS memorial in Baden opens, April 23, 2017, accessed on May 2, 2017.
  9. deaths. In:  Badener Zeitung , July 7, 1928, p. 4, center left. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt
  10. ^ Casino Baden 2005. The history of the building. In: Casinos Austria website. Retrieved September 29, 2017 .
  11. a b Wallner: Häuser , p. 13.
  13. ^ Institute of Architectural Sciences: Rosarium - Doblhoffpark ; accessed on June 29, 2018
  14. Baden reacts to the climate crisis . Communal on April 2, 2019
  15. on , accessed on March 27, 2013
  16. School overview. Retrieved April 20, 2015 .
  17. Forms. Retrieved April 21, 2015 .
  18. Local news. Baptism in the Weilburg. In:  Badener Zeitung , August 2, 1911, p. 3, top left. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt
  19. Sascha Merenyi on
  20. ^ Viktor Wallner: Ludwig van Beethoven and Baden (A difficult contemporary in Lower Austria). In: Neue Badener Blätter, 9th volume, number II, Baden 1998.
  21. - Baden's mayor Staska resigned . Article dated September 19, 2016, accessed September 19, 2016.


  1. On July 8, 1713, the city council of Baden decided to erect a pillar in honor of the Most Holy Trinity on the main square on the occasion of the plague epidemic that had been overcome . The foundation stone was laid on June 3, 1714, and the consecration on June 12, 1718 by the Holy Cross Abbot Gerhard Weixelberger. The column was restored in 1756, 1833, 1844, 1884, 1932, 1961 and 1980. (Ressel: Churches and Chapels , p. 137)
  2. Covered: Kaiserhaus , Hauptplatz 17 (formerly: Kaiser Karlplatz 17):
    1792 by Freiherrn v. Gontard, built according to the plans of the court architect Johann Aman , passed from the property of Prince Paul Esterházy to that of Emperor Franz in 1813 . Inhabited by Emperor Karl and his family during the last years of the war . Now owned by the Disability Fund. In: Notable buildings in Baden. In:  Badener Zeitung , spa supplement of the Badener Zeitung, September 8, 1926, p. 3 (online at ANNO ). The house, which was presented to the public on December 4, 2009 after the restoration was completed, is owned by the municipality and now has the status of a museum (
    Kaiserhaus Baden ( Memento from March 18, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) An exclusively museum dedication of the building is viewed critically within the municipal council (Stefan Jedlicka: “Kaiserhaus not only as a museum!” . In: NÖ Nachrichten , 19 September 2010).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt
  3. ↑ In 1929 the Badener Zeitung listed Gastein as the most luxurious health resort in Austria . - See: composer Fritz Recktenwald, the conductor of the spa orchestra in Gastein…. In:  Badener Zeitung , April 17, 1929, p. 3, bottom right. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt
  4. On October 7, 1912, Archduke Rainer unveiled the sculpture created by Hans Mauer , the first model of which was originally intended for the erection of a monument in Große Sperlgasse, Vienna. Since this project was not carried out due to the road regulation not being carried out, the artist left another design to the city of Baden on particularly favorable terms . (Wallner, Weber: 200 Years of the Kurpark , p. 33 f.)
  5. Building in the foreground on the left: Theresiengasse 8 ( Jägersches Haus or Zum Erzherzog Karl ). Built by Joseph Kornhäusel in 1810 for the Viennese wholesaler Anton von Jäger; In 1822, before the Weilburg was completed , Archduke Karl lived in it . (Kräftner: Im Schatten der Weilburg , p. 196; Reinöhl: Baudenkmale , p. 64)
  6. At the entrance to Antonsgasse, opposite the Heilquell pharmacy on Antonsgasse 2, the Schiestlhof, built in 1888 by beneficiary Anton Schiestl by master builder A [nton] Foller. With regard to the nearby church [parish church] (in contrast to others), the building is only moderately high and shows the efforts of the time to add new buildings to the old townscape. An old sculpture (console) from the parish church is walled in in the cellar. Home of the well-known, avid Badensia collector and photographer Anton Schiestl (see: Notable buildings in Baden. In:  Badener Zeitung , cure supplement of the Badener Zeitung, 4th August 1926, p. 3 middle. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt)
    In the years around 1927 was Schiestl chairman of the Association of Lower Austrian Regional Friends (see: Baden im Bilde then and now. In:  Badener Zeitung , September 10, 1927, p. 4, center left. (Online at ANNO ). The clinker-adorned with the Schiestlhof, the representative entrance to Antonsgasse House, Antonsgasse 1 (Pfarrplatz 6), was planned by the Viennese city architect Karl Riess for his Baden relatives Anton Riess. The noticeably reduced height of this building suggests that there was an understanding between the builders in the planning of the two opposite buildings (Maurer,
    Die Wiener Vorstadt. , P. 54) This is significant for the city as a whole and for the residents of the neighborhoods around the parish church in particular r day was May 16, 1881, when Crown Prince Rudolph and his wife, Crown Princess Stephanie , chose the route through Antonsgasse to drive home from Heiligenkreuz to Laxenburg Castle . (See: Local news. The high married couple…. In:  Badener Bezirks-Blatt , May 21, 1881, p. 3, center left. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt

    Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bbb
  7. Path names according to Wallner, Weber: 200 years Kurpark , folding plan, ro / vo
  8. earlier: Kaiser Karlplatz 20: Renaissance courtyard , windows with pillars as loggias, old statue of the Virgin Mary in niche behind glass . In: Notable buildings in Baden. In:  Badener Zeitung , spa supplement of the Badener Zeitung, September 8, 1926, p. 3 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt
  9. Design: Urban planning engineer Josef Schubauer . Opening concert: May 12, 1894, conductor: Karl Komzák  - In: Wallner: Häuser , p. 46.
  10. Architect: Rudolf Krausz , capacity: 650 people. - In: Böheimer: Straßen & Gassen , p. 16.
    Opening on June 16, 1906 with three performances: Ludwig van Beethoven : To the Consecration of the House , Johann Nestroy : Former Relationships and Johann Strauss (Son) : Die Fledermaus (third act) - See: Opening of the new arena. In:  Badener Zeitung , June 13, 1906, p. 3, center right. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt
  11. Until July 22nd, 1962, the day it was renamed, the building erected in 1798 by order of Camillo Graf Lambertis (adjutant general of Emperor Franz II ) by the Baden architect Hantl in honor of the ancient god of healing was called Äskulapempel . (Böheimer: Straßen & Gassen , p. 82; Reinöhl: Baudenkmale , p. 56)
  12. The building was built as a hotel in 1895 according to the plans of Ernst Gotthilf , renovated in 1907, from 1919 onwards it housed the district administration, on April 9, 1945 it was hit by aerial bombs and subsequently burned out. (Information on the date and cause of the fire: Mascher-Pichler, Baden bei Wien , p. 49) After the property had been fallow for decades or was designed and used as a parking lot, the district court was able to move into a new building on June 8, 1985. (Böheimer: Straßen & Gassen , p. 28)