Bad Vöslau

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Bad Vöslau
coat of arms Austria map
Bad Vöslau coat of arms
Bad Vöslau (Austria)
Bad Vöslau
Basic data
Country: Austria
State : Lower Austria
Political District : to bathe
License plate : BN
Surface: 39.11 km²
Coordinates : 47 ° 58 '  N , 16 ° 13'  E Coordinates: 47 ° 58 '1 "  N , 16 ° 12' 52"  E
Height : 276  m above sea level A.
Residents : 12,126 (January 1, 2020)
Postal code : 2540
Area code : 02252
Community code : 3 06 03
Address of the
municipal administration:
Schlossplatz 1
2540 Bad Vöslau
Mayor : Christoph Prinz (List Flammer)
Municipal Council : ( 2020 )
(37 members)
19th 7th 4th 
A total of 37 seats
Location of Bad Vöslau in the Baden district
Alland Altenmarkt an der Triesting Bad Vöslau Baden Berndorf Blumau-Neurißhof Ebreichsdorf Enzesfeld-Lindabrunn Furth an der Triesting Günselsdorf Heiligenkreuz Hernstein Hirtenberg Klausen-Leopoldsdorf Kottingbrunn Leobersdorf Mitterndorf an der Fischa Oberwaltersdorf Pfaffstätten Pottendorf Pottenstein Reisenberg Schönau an der Triesting Seibersdorf Sooß Tattendorf Teesdorf Traiskirchen Trumau Weissenbach an der Triesting NiederösterreichLocation of the municipality of Bad Vöslau in the Baden district (clickable map)
About this picture
Template: Infobox municipality in Austria / maintenance / site plan image map
Bad Vöslau - town center seen from the Harzberg
Bad Vöslau - town center seen from the Harzberg
Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria

Bad Vöslau is a city with 12,126 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020) in the district and judicial district of Baden in the industrial district in Lower Austria .


Bad Vöslau is located on the slope of the Vienna Woods to the Vienna Basin , around 35 km south of Vienna , just under 5 km south of Baden near Vienna . Due to the fault line at the thermal line , there are some thermal springs here .

Community structure

The municipal area comprises three localities and cadastral communities (population on January 1, 2020; area: as of December 31, 2017):

OS / KG Pop. Area in ha founding year
OS: Bad Vöslau
KG: Vöslau
7688 0.824.62 1134
Gain fern 3901 2,340.64 1547
Großau 0.537 0.709.55 1658

The two places Gainfarn and Bad Vöslau have practically grown together, whereas the smallest place, Großau , is in the direction of Berndorf . The city itself is located directly on the thermal line , while Gainfarn is located a little higher on a mountain step towards the Vienna Woods .

Neighboring communities

Alland Sooss Baden near Vienna
Pottenstein , Weissenbach an der Triesting Neighboring communities
Berndorf Leobersdorf Kottingbrunn


Traces of settlement have been found in Bad Vöslau since the late Neolithic ; the thermal springs were already used in the Roman Empire .

Vöslau was first mentioned in 1136 in the so-called Salbuch of the Augustinian monastery in Klosterneuburg , which mentions an Adoldus de Veselove . The name is of Slavic origin (cf. Czech vesele , "happy"). At that time, Vöslau only consisted of a castle with a moat, which was only expanded and developed in the 18th century. The moated castle was destroyed and looted by Matthias Corvinus in 1483, but after its reconstruction it was of great importance during the Reformation .

In the time of the Counter Reformation it was merged with the parish of Gainfarn.

When Vöslau came into the possession of the Fries family in 1773, at that time one of the most influential families at the Viennese court, it took a great boom, as a result of which Voeslau Castle was (probably) designed by the court architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg (see: Gloriette and Palais Pallavicini ) was erected.

After the bankruptcy of the Fries family, Georg Simon von Sina acquired the rule for only one year . Baron Johann von Geymüller acquired it from him in 1827 , who also built up the well-known, but no longer in operation, Vöslauer worsted spinning mill . In the 19th century the city lived mainly from the textile industry and from the middle of the century also from tourism. In addition, viticulture is still important today.

The first bathing facility was operated from 1822, which also means the beginning of the "health resort", and expanded in 1837. In 1904 Vöslau was appointed a curort . The thermal baths that exist today were ceremoniously opened on June 20, 1926 in the presence of Federal President Michael Hainisch .

According to the state parliament resolution of March 27, 1928, Vöslau can call itself Bad Vöslau .

In 1954, the local community Bad Vöslau was raised to town. The former castle has been used as a town hall since a renovation in 1974.


In the 2001 census, 60.1% of the population declared themselves to be Roman Catholic and 9.9% to Protestant . The third largest religious community (8.0%) was Islam , followed by the Orthodox churches (3.9%). Other denominations each stayed below 1%. 15.3% of the population were without religious beliefs.

Population development

Culture and sights

Bad Vöslau thermal baths
Vöslau Castle - today the town hall
Jubilee waiting room on the Harzberg, northwest view
  • Catholic parish church Bad Vöslau : The parish church is consecrated to St. James the Elder. Count Moritz II von Fries and his wife Flora, née Baroness von Pereira, donated the new parish church for Bad Vöslau. The building in Romanesque-Gothic style dates from 1870 and was completely renovated in 2011.
  • Evangelical Parish Church Bad Vöslau : In 1964 the foundation stone was laid for the new (Evangelical) Christ Church. In the middle of the bright room, a metal sculpture of the blessing Christ forms the focal point. This sculpture was created by the sculptor Matthias Hietz ​​from Vöslau. The tower of the church is 22 m high and has three bells.
Opening of the cultural center on October 24, 2009
  • Islamic cultural center: In 2007 there was a broad discussion in the community about the planned establishment of an Islamic cultural center. This was supposed to replace one of the two small Islamic prayer houses. The submitted planning envisaged an oriental-style building in the style of a classic mosque . The operators of the project, the ATIB based in Bad Vöslau, agreed on the initiative of the mayor to carry out an exemplary mediation process together with representatives of all parties represented in the municipal council. The now established cultural center corresponds to a modern building with open glass fronts and barely visible, only hinted at roof structures made of glass instead of the classic minarets . The integration of local citizens of Turkish origin should be a major concern of the future (German courses, etc.).
  • Vöslau Castle with Castle Park: The castle is now used as the town hall.
  • Bad Vöslau thermal baths: thermal baths with cabins (small rental cabins for storing loungers, parasols and personal items). As early as 1822, a bathing facility served the townspeople as a place for summer retreat . The outdoor pool offers various pools and has been renovated in recent years.
  • Hotel Stefanie: opened in 1896, historic building on the square in front of the thermal baths
  • Harzberg Tower : actually Emperor Franz Joseph Jubiläumswarte
  • Bellevue: Built in 1867 by Bernhard Back, above the bath on the slope of the Harzberg. Opened as "Hotel Back", later "Hotel Bellevue" and now a residential complex that is well worth seeing.
  • Merkenstein ruins : first documented mention around 1170
  • Merkenstein Castle : built in 1843 in the English Tudor Gothic style
  • Hansybach snail reserve : The Hansybach snail reserve in the Hansybach natural monument is a small brook reserve in which three water snail species are protected that have survived since the Tertiary and are only found in Bad Vöslau and the nearby thermal baths in Bad Fischau.
  • City Museum: shows interesting articles about the thermal baths, it also shows articles about the resin production that was important in the past, about the former Vöslauer worsted yarn factory (1834–1978), as well as about viticulture and sparkling wine production ( Schlumberger ). Since the museum season 2009, Linda the manatee has also been exhibited in a separate room of the museum. Around thirteen million years ago Bad Vöslau was located on a primeval sea, numerous finds such as mussels, snails etc. (as well as the mentioned remains of this manatee) are shown. As part of a historical walk , buildings that are important or architecturally valuable for the history of the place can be viewed.
  • Geological nature trail, forest nature trail and numerous marked hiking trails
  • Austrian Aviation Museum at Bad Vöslau / Kottingbrunn airfield


  • The ASK Bad Vöslau was founded in 1919 in Bad Vöslau. The club, which has its venue on the Rohrwiese sports complex, plays in the Lower Austria regional league , where it came third in the 2012/13 season.
  • Also worth mentioning is the Vöslauer HC , which was founded in October 1945. The first major success of the Vöslauer handball club came in 1973 when it won the State Youth Championship in Innsbruck.
  • In 1989 the Vöslauer Thermenhalle was opened, with which a new training and game facility was available. The Vöslauer HC currently plays in the Lower Austrian regional league.
  • There are also many other small sports clubs and associations.

Regular events

The following events, which are well-known across the municipality, take place on a recurring basis:

  • City festival Bad Vöslau - in the castle park, since 1985.
  • Fairytale Advent - in front of and in the town hall. The well-known Advent market has been taking place in the castle park since 2015.
  • Grape and must cure - in front of the thermal bath.
  • Floating salon - in the thermal bath, in the middle of the "green pool".
  • Bad Vöslauer Porsche days - in the castle park.

Economy and Infrastructure

Worsted yarn center entrance

The city is a tourist municipality . The viticulture belongs to the wine region Thermenregion . In the urban area, the Vöslauer mineral water is extracted from a depth of around 660 meters and exported for European consumers.

East of the city center, near the train station, is the former worsted yarn factory, which has been owned by a group of investors since around 1983. The new owners of the area have continuously revitalized part of it and rented it out as office, business or storage space or as ordinations or the like. Other areas and buildings will also be renewed or adapted in the future. The factory area is now known as the Vöslauer Kammgarnzentrum .

In addition to the inner-city retail companies, there is a well-frequented specialist market and business center in the northeast of the municipality, which in some cases even serves customers from the region around Berndorf.

On February 11, 2006, the new Bad Vöslau spa center was opened.


Map of the tram route in Bad Vöslau
  • Air traffic: The Vöslau-Kottingbrunn airfield is located on the eastern edge of the municipality (but mostly in Kottingbrunn) .
  • Road: Another new operating area is being created at the Bad Vöslau motorway junction of the A 2 southern motorway, which was opened in 2011 . The Bad Vöslauer Straße B 212 from Berndorf to Baden runs through the city center.
  • Rail: Bad Vöslau has a Südbahn station with three platforms and a Park & ​​Ride facility to the east and west of the tracks. In addition, the city has two motorway junctions on the A 2 southern motorway with the junction points Bad Vöslau (in the northeast) and Kottingbrunn (in the south) .
  • Bus: In addition to the public connection by rail, there are also bus lines of the ÖBB and Wiener Lokalbahnen (WLB), as well as an inexpensive “city taxi”.
  • History: From 1895 to 1951 the Baden – Sooß – Vöslau tram ran and had its terminus directly at the Hotel Stefanie.


The community houses five kindergartens , two elementary schools , a general special school (under the name: “ Creative Learning Center ”), a music school and a new middle school with a focus on sport . Until June 2005 the higher federal forestry school was in operation in Gainfarn.

From September 2005, the BG and BRG Baden Frauengasse had started an expositur in the buildings of the former Federal Higher Education Institute for Forestry. From 2009 to 2012 new buildings were erected and existing ones adapted or renovated, and in 2013 the independent grammar school Bad Vöslau was founded.

Bad Vöslau has also been a "university town" since October 2009. The ITM College for Tourism moved from Semmering to Bad Vöslau and opened its doors in the building of the former ÖBB training center. Here students from several countries are trained to become tourism managers, and a further university degree is possible. The "College Garden Hotel" is also connected, where students can acquire practice.


The municipal council has 37 members.

  • With the municipal council elections in Lower Austria in 1990, the municipal council had the following distribution: 28 Flammers list, 5 SPÖ, 3 ÖVP, and 1 FPÖ.
  • With the municipal council elections in Lower Austria in 1995, the municipal council had the following distribution: 26 List Flammers, 5 SPÖ, 4 ÖVP, and 2 FPÖ.
  • With the municipal council elections in Lower Austria in 2000, the municipal council had the following distribution: 27 Flammers list, 4 SPÖ, 3 ÖVP, 2 FPÖ, and 1 GRÜNE.
  • With the municipal council elections in Lower Austria in 2005 , the municipal council had the following distribution: 26 List Flammers, 6 SPÖ, 4 ÖVP, and 1 FPÖ.
  • With the municipal elections in Lower Austria in 2010 , the municipal council had the following distribution: 22 List Flammers, 5 FPÖ, 4 SPÖ, 4 ÖVP, and 2 GRÜNE.
  • With the municipal council elections in Lower Austria in 2015 , the municipal council had the following distribution: 19 Flammers list, 5 GREENS, 5 FPÖ, 4 ÖVP, 3 SPÖ, and 1 independent municipal council.
  • With the municipal council elections in Lower Austria 2020 , the municipal council has the following distribution: 19 List Flammers, 7 GREENS, 4 ÖVP, 3 SPÖ, 2 FPÖ, 2 NEOS.


  • 1985–2003 Alfred Flammer (List Flammer)
  • since 2003 Christoph Prinz (List Flammer)

Citizens' initiatives

In the period 2005–2018, a number of citizens' initiatives were formed in the village, seven of which joined together on December 4, 2018 to form a non-partisan group. Since then, these have appeared collectively under the name “List Bad Vöslau - United Citizens' Initiatives”. Two days later, the “Gainfarn Habitat Initiative” joined this list of citizens as the eighth member.

Town twinning

  • GermanyGermany Neu-Isenburg in Hessen, Germany; since April 15, 1978


Philipp Draexler from Carin

Sons and daughters of the church

  • Konrad Poll (Chunradus Pollo) (around 1240 – around 1305 Vienna ), first mayor of Vienna known by name (1282 and 1288–1305), who is mentioned in 1282 as the magister civium
  • Lorenz Schönberger (around 1770–1847), painter of the late classicism. Although he later no longer lived in Vöslau, he always signed his residence permit with "Origin: Vöslau" on his extensive trips to Europe. Some of his pictures are in the Austrian picture gallery in the Lower Belvedere, one picture hangs in the gallery of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
  • Philipp Draexler von Carin (1794–1874), head of the chief stewardship , art collector and poet
  • Adolph von Brenner-Felsach (1814–1883), diplomat and landowner
  • Olga Wohlbrück (1867–1933), actress, writer. Considered the first female film director in Germany.
  • Gabriele Rabel (1880–1963), physicist, philosopher and botanist
  • Guido Szivessy (1885–1948), physicist
  • Franz Prendinger (1893–1963), Austrian politician (CSP) and wine maker
  • Michael Scherz (1895–1982), Austrian politician (SPÖ) and wine maker
  • Karl Singer (1916–2010 in Bad Vöslau), made an honorary citizen on December 13, 1988 for his services to researching the Vöslauer spring.
  • Wolfgang Gratzer (* 1965), musicologist and book author. 2010–2014 Vice Rector for Development and Research at the Mozarteum University in Salzburg .
  • Seiler and Speer , musicians and artists
  • Felix Auböck (* 1996), professional swimmer

People related to the community

  • Johann von Fries (1719–1785), the Counts of Fries - with one interruption, from 1773 to 1902 owner of the Vöslau estate and of great historical and economic importance for the development of the place
  • Georg Simon von Sina (1783–1856), one of the most important bankers and entrepreneurs in Austria in the 19th century
  • Ami Boué (1794–1881), came from an emigrated French Huguenot family. Between 1812 and 1839 he traveled all over Europe as a geologist and ethnologist. Between 1841 and 1874 he wrote nine works on the Vöslauer sources. He is buried in a crypt in the Vöslau cemetery.
  • Grand Duke Leopold II. Tuscany (1797–1870), renounced the Villa Steinberg (Florastraße 15) in 1859 in favor of his son Ferdinand IV.
  • Nikolaus Lenau (1802–1850), Austrian writer
  • Robert Alwin Schlumberger, Edler von Goldeck (* 1814; † 1879 in Bad Vöslau), initiator of the Austrian sparkling wine industry , promoter of viticulture in Austria, founder of the renowned wine and sparkling wine cellar in Bad Vöslau; specialized from 1843 to the production of sparkling wines according to the method of Champagne ; 1864–1870 mayor of Vöslau
  • Franz von Suppè (1819–1895), Austrian composer
  • Johann Strauss (1825–1899), Austro-German conductor and composer ("Walzerkönig"), lived in Villa Badnerstrasse 18 and in 1877 in Gainfarner Villa Hauptstrasse 6 , composed the " Vöslauer Polka "
  • Jakob Minor (1855–1912), Austrian literary scholar, spent the summers of his youth at the Florahof (Josefsplatz 2)
  • Friedrich Ohmann (1858–1927), an important Art Nouveau architect (Vienna: Wienflussverbauungung im Stadtpark), built a villa for himself - the Ohmannvilla in Großau
  • Theodor Herzl (1860–1904), Austro-Hungarian writer, publicist and journalist, lived in the Storchenvilla (Florastraße 11)
  • Arthur Schnitzler (1862–1931), Austrian doctor, storyteller and playwright, lived in Marienhaus (Jägermayerstraße 9) in 1873
  • Oskar Helmer (1887–1963), Austrian typesetter, trade unionist and social democratic politician
  • Jacob Levy Moreno (1889–1974) was a community doctor and company doctor for the worsted yarn factory from 1918 to 1925. He is the founder of sociometry, group psychotherapy and “psychodrama”, lived and worked in Maital 4. In 1925 he emigrated to the USA.
  • Hans Swarowsky (1899–1975), Austrian conductor
  • Mathias Hietz (1923–1996), Austrian sculptor. He was the initiator of the Lindabrunn sculpture symposium and worked in stone, wood and metal.
  • Hannelore Valencak (1929–2004), Austrian writer, lived in Bad Vöslau until her death
  • Arnulf Rainer (* 1929), Austrian painter, lived and worked 1953–1959 in the villa belonging to his parents in Gainfarn, Berggasse 18
  • Georg Pichler (* 1959), Austrian writer, lives in Bad Vöslau


  • Michael Dippelreiter: Bad Vöslau 1136–1986. A historical foray . Bad Vöslau municipality, Bad Vöslau 1986, OBV .
  • Stadtgemeinde Bad Vöslau (event): The great architects of the Ringstrasse era , their forerunners and descendants in the country. An exhibition in the historic rooms of Bad Vöslau Castle, June 21 to September 30, 1986. Catalog. 2nd improved edition. Municipality of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 1987, OBV .
  • Andreas Klingelmayer, among others, authors: Parks and public green spaces in Bad Vöslau, Gainfarn and Großau , Bad Vöslau 2010
  • Gerhard Baumgartner: Thalia, cry! Theater tradition in Bad Vöslau. City of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 1994, OBV .
  • Robert Haininger, Markus Foschum, Reinhard Staudinger: Historical pictures. Vöslau, Gainfarn, Großau. City of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 1994, OBV .
  • Robert Haininger, Harry Otto, Karl Klauda: From the swastika to the Soviet star . 50 years of the end of the war in Bad Vöslau, Gainfarn, Grossau. A documentation of the special exhibition of the Bad Vöslau local history museum. S. n. , Sl 1995, OBV .
  • Otmar Rychlik (ed.): Guests - Big World in Bad Vöslau. For the exhibition in the historical rooms of the castle. City of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 1994, OBV .
  • Robert Haininger (text), Harry Otto (photo): Monuments, Marterln, memorials in Vöslau, Gainfarn, Grossau. Enclosed graves of mayors and famous personalities. Grasl, Bad Vöslau 1995, OBV .
  • Silke Ebster: "... a loyal and grateful friend of Vöslaus ...". Rental villas, their owners and guests in the spa and summer resort of Bad Vöslau during the Franciscan-Josephine era (1852–1914). Dissertation, University of Vienna, Vienna 1996, OBV .
  • Oliver Kühschelm: Bad Vöslau and its citizens. 1850-1914. Municipality of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 1996, OBV .
  • Christian Steeb: The Counts of Fries. A Swiss family and their economic, political and cultural historical significance for Austria between 1750 and 1830. First edition. Municipality of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 1999, ISBN 3-9501205-0-5 . (At the same time: Dissertation, University of Graz, Graz 1996).
  • Franz R. Vorderwinkler (ed.): On the trail of culture. Museums, pens, castles, palaces, galleries in Lower Austria. Mediapress, Steyr 1997, ISBN 3-901819-00-2 .
  • Heidemarie Halbritter, Rupert Stingl: Yellow Leek & Zypergras. A small botanical local history of Bad Vöslau, Gainfarn and Großau. Advertising graphics Weber, Bad Vöslau 2004, OBV .
  • Kathrin Julia Magnet: Bundle of services at Heurigen businesses in the thermal region. Analysis using the example of the municipality of Bad Vöslau. Diploma thesis, course in International Economic Relations. University of Applied Sciences Eisenstadt, Eisenstadt 2007, OBV .
  • André Rathammer: Politics and administration using the example of a Lower Austrian municipality. Bad Vöslau 1985-2005. Thesis. University of Vienna, Vienna 2008. - Full text online (PDF; 875 kB) .
  • Alfred R. Benesch ( et al. ), Andreas Klingelmayer (Red.): Parks and public green spaces in Bad Vöslau, Gainfarn and Großau. Municipality of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 2010, ISBN 978-3-200-01876-1 .
  • Otmar Rychlik (Ed.): Big world in Bad Vöslau. Revised, partially supplemented 2nd edition. Edition art agency. Municipality of Bad Vöslau, Bad Vöslau 2010, ISBN 978-3-9502145-5-0 .
  • Spa town of Bad Vöslau . Rogo Media, Kottingbrunn 2012, OBV .
  • Otmar Rychlik (Ed.): Chronicle of the Gainfarn parish in the 700th year of its existence, 1312–2012 . Edition Kunst-Agentur, Vienna 2012, ISBN 978-3-9502145-7-4 .
  • Peter Selb, Stephan Holpfer (ed.): St. Jakob Parish Bad Vöslau. The story of a social anchor from its foundation to the present (1870–2012) . Stephan Holpfer, Bad Vöslau 2012, OBV .

Web links

Commons : Bad Vöslau  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Statistics Austria: Population on January 1st, 2020 by locality (area status on January 1st, 2020) , ( CSV )
  2. (Excel file, 1,210 kB); accessed on January 4, 2018
  3. Festschrift on the occasion of the opening of the new thermal baths on June 20, 1926. Mayor's office of the spa town of Vöslau, Vöslau 1926, OBV ,
    The opening of the thermal baths in Vöslau. In:  Badener Zeitung , No. 50/1926 (XLVII. Volume), June 23, 1926, p. 5 middle. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / bzt.
  4. Nö LGBl 1928/49. In:  Landesgesetzblatt für die Land Niederösterreich , year 1928, p. 30 f. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / lgn.
  5. Nope LGBl 1954/25. In:  Landesgesetzblatt für die Land Niederösterreich , born 1954, p. 23. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / lgn,
    Christl Braun (ed.), City of Bad Vöslau (ed.): City of Bad Vöslau. Festschrift for the city elevation celebration, May 16, 1954. Grasl, Bad Vöslau 1954, OBV .
  6. Turkish cultural center opened in Bad Vöslau. In: Small newspaper. October 24, 2009, archived from the original on September 16, 2014 .;
  7. ^ Mosque construction in Bad Vöslau. (PDF; 192 kB) In: Station 10 Migration - A case for the media? Democracy Center Vienna , accessed on May 1, 2013 .
  8. Today's Bad Vöslau thermal baths were built in 1926 according to plans by Peter Paul Brang and Wilhelm Lukesch. On the street side it shows a slightly concave curved entrance building with a continuous colonnade and a massive clock tower. ( Kabane & Liebe , Schwimmbad + Therme, Österreichischer Wirtschaftsverlag, October 9, 2012, accessed on October 21, 2019)
  9. new brand name: VIVEA Gesundheitshotel
  10. Chronicle 2003 List Flammer
  11. ^ Because of the spatial planning program: List Bad Vöslau founded. In: NÖN. Retrieved December 13, 2018 .
  12. News | List Bad Vöslau - United Citizens' Initiatives. Retrieved December 11, 2018 .
  13. a b c d e f a street / alley is named after him; see. Street directory  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. at Statistics Austria.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  14. a b c d e f Geschichte & Gschichtl`n - A walk through the past of Bad Vöslau at (pdf, 7.41 MB), accessed on April 10, 2018.
  15. Rychlik: Guests - Big World in Bad Vöslau , p. 83.