Johann Strauss (son)
Johann Baptist Strauss (born October 25, 1825 in St. Ulrich near Vienna, today part of Wien-Neubau ; † June 3, 1899 in Vienna) was an Austro-German conductor and composer and was internationally valued as the "waltz king". To distinguish him from his father of the same name , he is also referred to as "Johann Strauss (son)".
Parentage and name
The family came mainly from the Vienna and Lower Austria area.
The name Strauss can often be found in reference works with ß . The Strauss family , as Johann Strauss himself, wrote the name in the spelling "Strauss" with long and round S . His family called him Schani , derived from Italian Gianni or French Jean for "Johann", a nickname that became common among music lovers for the composer.
His father Johann Strauss originally envisaged a career as a civil servant for him, but his soon-to-be single mother Anna, née. Streim (1801–1870), who did everything in her power to take revenge for her husband's infidelity with the support of her son, made it possible for Johann junior to study music. a. with Joseph Drechsler .
Since the father had broken with the family, Johann junior had to take care of the family's food as the elder and he began to give concerts. His first appearance at Casino Dommayer on October 15, 1844 in the Viennese suburb of Hietzing , an entertainment venue known throughout the region, was a huge success. Tours soon took him across Europe and North America . After the death of his father in 1849, he took over his orchestra. From 1856 to 1865 he traveled every summer to Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg at the invitation of the Russian railway company . There he not only gave guest appearances. Many new works were also created, which he then added to his repertoire. Strauss also had a love affair with the Russian composer Olga Smirnitskaja .
Since he had composed some works for the revolutionaries of 1848 - e.g. B. the freedom songs waltz and the revolution march - and thus showed sympathy for the insurrection movement, he drew the attention of the censorship authorities and fell out of favor at court despite his popularity. So it was not until 1863 that Emperor Franz Joseph I appointed him "kk court ball music director".
He was now in charge of all court balls until 1871. During this time Strauss only composed dance music, which established his reputation as the “waltz king”. In 1866/1867 he composed the Danube Waltz (On the Beautiful Blue Danube) , which later became world-famous and is now considered the unofficial anthem of Vienna and Austria, in his apartment at the time, 2. , Praterstraße 54 . In 1871 his request for removal from the post of court ball music director was approved; at the same time he was awarded the Franz Joseph Order . His brother Eduard Strauss became his successor .
Josef Strauss took part in the direction of the Strauss Orchestra from 1853 and from 1861 the then 25-year-old Eduard Strauss officially joined the chapel as a further conductor, which he directed together with his brother Josef until 1870.
Jacques Offenbach , with whom he met in 1864, had inspired Strauss to compose operettas , which Strauss himself always referred to as "comic opera". On February 10, 1871, his first operetta, Indigo und die 40 Räuber , premiered in the Theater an der Wien . The premiere of his most successful and probably best-known operetta of all, Die Fledermaus, also took place at this theater on April 5, 1874 . This work was included in the repertoire of the kk Hofoper (today the Vienna State Opera ) in 1894 and is the only operetta that is played there to this day. A number of other operetta premieres followed, including The Merry War and A Night in Venice . Strauss became a central figure in the “ golden era of Viennese operetta ”.
In 1876, Strauss received the building permit for a residential building in the Wieden district , Igelgasse 4/6, which Strauss used in house 4 for himself and his family. This so-called “Strauss Palais” was completed in 1878. It was close to the Palais Archduke Rainer and the Wiedner Hauptstrasse , through which one got directly to the old town. In 1944 it was destroyed by bombs in air raids .
From July 1880 to 1893/94 he also owned a villa in Schönau an der Triesting , which had been built in 1864 for the industrialist Paul Pacher von Theinburg . Strauss mainly used them during the summer months. In this villa the operettas One Night in Venice and The Gypsy Baron , parts of the opera Ritter Pásmán as well as dance compositions, etc. a. Roses from the south and the kiss waltz .
On the occasion of his 40-year anniversary as an artist, which he again celebrated at the “Dommayer”, in 1884 the City of Vienna granted him honorary citizenship. However, when he gave up his Austrian citizenship , this civil right was extinguished again in 1886.
The Gypsy Baron premiered in 1885 with Alexander Girardi in the lead role, followed by some less well-known operettas. His last operetta, The Goddess of Reason , he only completed because he was contractually u. a. had committed to the composition to Alexandrine von Schönerer . Since he rejected the libretto by Alfred Maria Willner , he distanced himself from the work and did not even appear for the premiere on March 13, 1897, which again took place in the Theater an der Wien.
Strauss was married three times. All three marriages remained childless.
First marriage to Jetty Treffz
His first wife was Henriette, nee Chalupetzky , b. 1818, known as a singer under the name Jetty Treffz (her mother's maiden name). In 1862, the year of the wedding, he moved into summer quarters with her in Hietzing, Hetzendorfer Strasse 18 (since 1894 Maxingstrasse), and later bought the house, which had been used repeatedly until 1878. In the summer of 1873 he composed most of his operetta Die Fledermaus there . During the winter season, the couple lived mostly in the 1st or 2nd district, from 1866 onwards at the address 2., Praterstraße 54 (today the Johann Strauss apartment of the Wien Museum ).
Jetty died in the house in Hietzing in 1878. In the same year the "Strauss-Palais" on Igelgasse in the 4th district was completed.
Second marriage to Angelika Dittrich
Just a few weeks later, Strauss married the actress Angelika Dittrich. In 1882 she left him because of the director of the Theater an der Wien, Franz Steiner . In the same year the marriage was “divorced from bed and table”. A separation according to the gang was not possible, as in Austria the Catholic marriage law also applied in the civil law area.
Change to citizenship of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
In order to be able to marry again, Strauss gave up his Austrian citizenship in 1886. He became a citizen of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha . By virtue of the civil marriage law applicable to Germans, the marriage with Angelika Strauss (née Dittrich) now also had to be legally separated, which Duke Ernst II did in 1887: His second wife Angelika gave her prior written consent on request from Coburg to this civil divorce.
Third marriage with Adele Deutsch, related Ostrich
Strauss married Adele, née Deutsch, widowed Strauss (1856–1930) in Coburg in the same year, 1887 . As his wife, she also became a citizen of the Duchy of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha and thus German. Both had previously converted to the Evangelical Lutheran faith. The church wedding took place in Coburg in the court chapel of Ehrenburg Palace.
Johann Strauss died - as a German and as a citizen of Coburg, who he had been since 1887 - on June 3, 1899, in his house on Igelgasse in Vienna- Wieden of pneumonia . His body was first laid out in public in the mourning house (during which 161 wreaths were laid on the coffin) and on June 6, 1899, the consecration service took place in the Evangelical City Church AB in Dorotheergasse . The coffin was then brought to the Vienna Central Cemetery in a ceremony lasting several hours with the participation of many thousands , past the places of activity Theater an der Wien , Hofoper and Musikverein . Mayor Karl Lueger spoke at the open grave . The day after , the daily newspaper Neue Freie Presse mentioned Gustav Mahler , Ludwig Bösendorfer and Hermann Bahr among the many mourners .
On October 8, 1899, Strauss was finally buried in a small circle in a grave of honor , which is located in the vicinity of the graves of other well-known musicians (Group 32A, No. 27). The grave monument was designed by Johannes Benk .
Johann Strauss (son) received numerous honors during his lifetime. At the beginning of his career as Kapellmeister and composer, he was anxious, not least through numerous dedications , to increase the number of awards he received. In old age, Strauss was rather distant towards them. According to a well-known (but not proven) anecdote, he is said to have shown the collection in a room in his villa in Igelgasse with the words And here you see the lumber room of my celebrity .
The most important honors include:
- Citizenship of the City of Vienna (1884, for the 40th anniversary of the artist, expired by law in 1885 when he left the Austrian state association)
- Honorary membership of the Society of Friends of Music in Vienna (awarded on the occasion of the golden artist anniversary on October 8, 1894)
- Honorary membership of the Vienna Men's Choir Association
- Golden Artist Medal, awarded by Emperor Franz Joseph I on May 23, 1864
- Russian Great Gold Medal on the Alexander Nevsky Band , awarded on Oct. 11, 1864
- Knight's Cross of the Franz Joseph Order , awarded on January 12, 1871 (on the occasion of the suspension from court ball music)
- Croix de Chevalier de l'Ordre national de la Légion d'Honneur , awarded on March 28, 1877 by the President of the French Republic, Marshal Mac-Mahon .
After being accepted into the probate process , Johann Strauss (son) had in the course of his life, in addition to the honors listed, also received the following medals and decorations: “[…]
2.) the Knight's Cross 1st class of the Saxon-Ernestine House Order ;
3.) I. Knight's Cross Classe of Badische Zähringer Lion North , [...]
2) Commandeurkreuz the Spanish Isabella order ,
3) Ritterkreuz of the same order ,
4) Knight's Spanish order Carls III. ,
5) Commandeur decoration of the Turkish Medschidjeordens ,
6) Commandeur Cross of the Bulgarian. Order of Civil Merit , […]
8) Officer's Cross of the Order of Italy. Crown ,
9) Knight's Cross of Italy. Mauritius and Lazarus Order ,
10) Prussian Red Eagle Order IV. Cl. and prussia. Order of the Crown IV. Cl. on clasp,
11) Prussian Crown Order IV. Cl. ,
12) Persian Order of the Sun & Lions IV. Cl. ,
13) pers. Order of the Sun & Lions in Pierres de Strass (fantasy decoration) , […]
15) Silver Saxe-Coburg-Gotha medal for art and science ,
17) Small Saxe-Coburg-Gotha silver merit medal ,
18) Belgian Sauveteur Medal . "
These orders and awards include an unknown number of letters of thanks and congratulations, wreaths and wreath ribbons as well as letters of honor and handwriting from a wide variety of institutions and personalities.
Work and effect
Strauss was highly valued by his contemporaries, both as a person and as an artist. This effect lasted and continues to this day, as the following selection of quotations shows:
"I adore him not only as an artist, but also as a person, because I am completely delighted by his extraordinary modesty"
"He's the only one I envy - he's dripping with music, he always comes up with something."
"I adore him as one of my most brilliant colleagues."
“This is one of my few colleagues (yes) for whom I can have undiminished respect. We can learn something from him. "
“Johann Strauss is the most musical skull of the present. [...] Long live all musical geniuses from Bach to Johann Strauss! "
"We writers show the world how miserable it is - Strauss shows us how beautiful it can be."
“I consider the form in which your Waltz King rules to be a very happy and beneficial one. I would never have contradicted him. "
"Eight bars of Viennese blood and I give an entire opera for it - it is much more difficult to write a beautiful waltz than to compose a mediocre symphony."
"The characteristic of every great art is also inherent in that of Johann Strauss: It does not weigh down, it floats and makes us float with it ..."
"The Strauss family is a cosmos of its own that cannot be compared to anything else in the world."
Johann Strauss Societies
In 1936 the "International Strauss Society" Vienna was founded. After the annexation of Austria , she had to stop her work in 1938. In 1945 it was reactivated and in the 1980s it changed its name to the Johann Strauss Society Vienna (chairman 2016: Peter Widholz). The first foreign company, the Swedish Strauss Society, was founded in 1960 ( Svenska Strauss Sällskapet , chairman until his death in 2012: Leif Johannisson, since 2013 and as of 2016: Berth Vestergard). In 1964 she was followed by the "Johann Strauss Society of Great Britain" ( The Johann Strauss Society of Great Britain , longstanding chairman and today honorary president: Peter Kemp, chairman (as of 2016): John Diamond).
The German Johann Strauss Society has existed since 1975 with its headquarters in Coburg since 1991 (1st chairman since 2011 (initially only in office until 2012), as of 2016: Ingolf Roßberg ). The Swiss Strauss friends are traditionally also integrated into it. In 1991, the Vienna Institute for Strauss Research followed in German-speaking countries (chairman 2016: Eduard Strauss III .) As a research-oriented association.
With these, the new foundations in 2011 in New York , Oregon (both USA ) and in Vienna ( Kulturverein Wiener Blut , since 2015 also sponsoring association for the Museum of the Strauss Dynasty , founding president to this day (as of April 2016): Helmut Reichenauer ) and The existing companies in Japan , the two in Canada (each with headquarters in Edmonton and Quebec ), the Philippines , Poland , Romania , Russia (correctly in St. Petersburg ) and in the Czech Republic currently have 14 Johann-Strauss worldwide (as of April 2016) Societies.
Monuments, plaques and sculptures
Numerous monuments and plaques in Vienna commemorate Strauss. In 1921, on the basis of a private initiative by Edmund Hellmer , the Johann Strauss monument in Vienna's city park was inaugurated in 1907 . This had tried since the death of Johann Strauss in 1899, but various opposition from the authorities and ultimately the First World War and the immediate post-war period prevented an earlier establishment. In 1991 the gilding, which existed until 1935, was renewed. Today it is one of the most photographed monuments in Vienna.
The German Johann Strauss Society , in turn, donated in 1987 at their expense a memorial to mark the 100th anniversary of the naturalization of Johann Strauss in Coburg, the first at the, renamed at the same time Johann Strauss place was. Two years later it was moved to the rose garden , where it can still be viewed today.
In 2003 a memorial was erected in Pavlovsk to commemorate the “Russian years” of Johann Strauss, which was created based on the Strauss memorial in Vienna.
Museums and memorials
In the house Praterstraße 54 in Vienna 2nd district lived Johann Strauss with his (first) wife Henriette, born Treffz-Chalupetzky. A music memorial was set up in part of his former apartment in the 1970s as a branch of the Wien Museum . In this he composed a. a. the waltz On the beautiful blue Danube .
On March 18, 2015, the Museum of the Johann Strauss Dynasty was opened in Vienna's 9th district (Müllnergasse 3). This museum, created and operated by the private association Kulturverein 'Wiener Blut' (President is Helmut Reichenauer , status: 2019) shows u. a. the history of the Strauss dynasty (Johann Strauss (father), his sons Johann, Josef and Eduard Strauss as well as Johann Strauss (grandson)) and the cultural and historical environment in which they lived and worked using original documents, engravings, photographs and sound documents. It is the first (and only) museum of its kind in the world that deals with the family history on the one hand and the artistic work of the entire Strauss dynasty on the other.
Postage stamps, banknotes and coins
In 1922 the Austrian Post and Telegraph Administration (PTV) issued the first stamp with a portrait of Johann Strauss (son) . It was the 50 crown postage stamp of the time, but was only in use for a few months due to inflation . It can be assumed that this issue has a connection with the inauguration of the Johann Strauss monument .
Occasion of his 50th death anniversary PTV 1949 was a one-Schilling - Stamp out in 1975 - the 150th anniversary - was followed by a four-shilling mark. The 100th anniversary of the death of Strauss (son) in 1999 was honored by Post and Telekom Austria with a 7 Schilling stamp, and Deutsche Post AG issued a 300 Pfennig stamp on the same occasion .
In Austria, Johann Strauss' portrait was depicted on the 100 schilling banknote from 1960. In 1975 a 100 schilling coin was issued for the 150th birthday, showing the Strauss memorial . A gold coin in the denomination of 1000 Schilling with a fineness of 986/1000 and a fine weight of 16 g in 1992 on the anniversary "150 years of Philharmonic hook". The front shows the image of Johann Strauss with a violin, on the back you can see the building of the music association .
The 100th anniversary of his death in 1999 was also commemorated in Austria with a 50 schilling coin.
Also in Austria in 1995 a 5 ECU coin and an ECU medal with the portrait of Johann Strauss (son) appeared.
The life of the Strauss family, but especially that of Strauss (son) and their world-famous compositions, have led to film and television adaptations, the truth of which is assessed as doubtful in almost every case. The following Austrian and German list shows those films in which the life of Johann Strauss (son) as a whole or in part is the subject of the script.
- On the beautiful blue Danube (1913, silent film, leading role and director: Carl von Zeska , in aid of the Johann Strauss Monument Fund)
- Today the Strauss (The Waltz King) plays (1928, silent film, director: Conrad Wiene , leading role: Paul Hörbiger )
- The Waltz King (1930, director: Manfred Noa , main role: Hans Stüwe )
- Johann Strauss, k. u. k. Court Ball Music Director (1932, directed by Conrad Wiene, leading role: Michael Bohnen )
- Petersburg nights. Waltz on the Neva (1934, directed by EW Emo , leading role: Paul Hörbiger)
- Immortal Melodies (1935, director: Heinz Paul , leading role: Alfred Jerger )
- Roses from the South (1935, director: Walter Jansen, leading role: Paul Hörbiger)
- Immortal Waltz (1939, directed by EW Emo , Johann Strauss (son): Fred Liewehr )
- Operetta (1940, directed by Willi Forst , Johann Strauss (son): Edmund Schellhammer )
- Girardi - The Comedian of Vienna (1954, director: Karl Paryla , Johann Strauss (son): Eduard Strauss II .)
- Eternal Waltz (1954, director: Paul Verhoeven , leading role: Bernhard Wicki )
- Johann Strauss - The King without a Crown (1986, director: Franz Antel , main role: Oliver Tobias )
Among the foreign films, it is worth noting:
- Waltzes from Vienna (1934, directed by Alfred Hitchcock )
- The Great Waltz (1938, directed by Julien Duvivier , leading role: Fernand Gravet )
- The Waltz King (1963, directed by Steve Previn, leading role: Kerwin Mathews ), produced by Walt Disney , u. a. with Senta Berger and Peter Kraus as well
- Farewell to St. Petersburg (1971, director: Yan Frid, main role: Girt Jakovlev), a Soviet (Russian: Прощание с Петербургом), almost biographically exact, film adaptation of his stay in Pavlovsk 1856/57.
- The Great Waltz (1972, directed by Andrew L. Stone , leading role: Horst Buchholz , not to be confused with the 1938 film of the same name)
His life was adapted for television in:
- The Strauss-Family (1972)
- The Strauss Dynasty (1991, directed by Marvin J. Chomsky , Johann Strauss (son): Stephen McGann ) and
- Strauss: The King of 3/4 Time (1995, directed by Kit Hood , leading actor: Michael Riley)
- Strauss: The Waltz King (2005, director: Rupert Edwards, Johann Strauss (son): Joseph Edwards / Simon Williams), documentary drama about the dispute between father and son
Streets and squares (selection)
Numerous traffic areas are named after him. In Vienna-Wieden (4th district), Igelgasse was renamed Johann-Strauss-Gasse ( sic , with ß ) just one month after his death in 1899 .
There is a Johann-Strauss-Strasse (or Johann-Strauss-Strasse ) in Germany in Assamstadt , Auerbach (Upper Palatinate) , Augsburg , Babenhausen (Swabia) , Baldham , Bernau near Berlin , Bielefeld , Bramsche , Brandenburg , Dingolfing , Gersthofen , Haar , Hamm , Heilbronn , Illingen (Württemberg) , Karlsdorf-Neuthard , Karlsruhe , Kelkheim , Cologne-Rodenkirchen , Limbach (Baden) , Münster , Neuburg (Danube) , Northeim , Östringen , Oranienburg , Plankstadt , Bad Rappenau , Reilingen , Rhede , Roth , Spremberg , Staufenberg (Hesse) , Teltow , Unterhaching , Vaterstetten , Walldorf (Baden) , Weißenhorn , Windeck and Lutherstadt Wittenberg
In Austria one is known from Dornbirn , Ebreichsdorf , Bad Hall , Innsbruck , Bad Ischl , Linz , Bad Schallerbach , Stadl-Paura , Möllersdorf , Vöcklamarkt , Bad Vöslau , Tulln , Wallern an der Trattnach , Wels and Ziersdorf .
Deutsch Wagram , Dietersdorf am Gnasbach , Feldbach (Styria) , Felixdorf , Fohnsdorf , Gänserndorf , Gars am Kamp , Graz , Haag (Lower Austria) , Judenau , Judenburg , Klagenfurt , Klosterneuburg , Knittelfeld , Mauerbach , Mödling , Muckendorf-Wipfing , Pöttsching , Oberwart and Wiener Neustadt also have, in addition to Vienna, a Johann-Strauss-Gasse (or Johann-Strauss-Gasse ) each .
Berlin-Lichtenrade , Berlin-Mahlsdorf , Dresden and Kirchdorf an der Krems have Straussstrasse , while Leoben has Straussgasse . In Burg (near Magdeburg) , Gelsenkirchen , Hilden , Leinfelden-Echterdingen , Offenbach (Main) , Ulm and Verl there is a Johann-Strauss-Weg . Stockerau has a Johann-Strauss-Promenade , Falkensee a Johann-Strauss-Allee . Coburg and Potsdam-Babelsberg each have a Johann-Strauss-Platz .
Other terms (selection)
- From 1965 to 1980 there was an international railway connection called Johann Strauss of the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) from Frankfurt via Passau to Vienna ( Wien Westbahnhof ) (see ÖBB 4010 ). It was continued from 1987 as Eurocity EC 28/29 (later EC 22/23) and ran as a pair of trains with ÖBB wagons between Cologne and Vienna Westbahnhof. The train name was used for the last time in 2003.
- Asteroid 4559 (correct: (4559) Strauss = 1989 AP 6 ), discovered by astronomer Freimut Börngen at the Karl-Schwarzschild Observatory Tautenburg on January 11, 1989, bears the name of Johann Strauss (son).
- The Johann Strauss Elementary School in Berlin-Biesdorf and the Johann Strauss Elementary School of the same name in Augsburg-Haunstetten are each named after Johann Strauss (son).
- In Vienna, a Lions club , the Johann Strauss Lions Club , is named after him.
- The cruise ship Johann Strauss of the shipping company Premicon AG has been cruising the rivers of Europe since 2004 .
- There has been a Hotel Johann Strauss in Vienna since 2011 .
- The Warner Bros. cartoon A Corny Concerto (1943) (director: Bob Clampett, draftsman: Robert McKimson) is a parody of Walt Disney's Fantasia and was accompanied by music by Johann Strauss (which was not used in Fantasia ). The film is told by Elmer Fudd , who parodies Deems Taylor's appearance in Fantasia .
- The story of the American animated short film Cat and Mouse in Waltz Time (1953, also known as "Johann Mouse" ) as part of the Tom and Jerry series is based on the fact that the mouse listens spellbound outside its hole, if first Johann Strauss himself, later then the cat will play various Strauss waltzes.
- In Michail Bulgakov's novel Der Meister und Margarita , written in 1940 and published in 1967 , Johann Strauss leads the orchestra during Satan's Great Ball at the invitation of the character Behemoth.
- In the GDR the band " Silly " wrote the title The Old Men in 1982 , the first stanza of which reads as follows:
The old men don't dance anymore
They look here with wet eyes
They persistently save their applause
For a waltz by Johann Strauss
- Using the Strauss metaphor in the last line of each stanza , the band wanted to draw attention to the musical misery of the GDR and the censorship that the band had been confronted with since it was founded.
- Johann Strauss (son) is represented in Vienna with a wide range of products from the souvenir industry: In addition to various postcards, this also includes mugs, collector's mugs, T-shirts, ashtrays, key rings , chocolates and confectionery and much more that must also be classified as tasteless. In the sixties there was also a type of cigar, Waltz King .
- In 1901 a series of Liebig pictures about Johann Strauss (son) appeared, especially with reference to his operettas.
- The rose variety protected with a registered trademark Johann Strauss , a modern rose, pink, in the middle peach-colored, was named after his father. In 1999, the son received the name of the hybrid tea waltz king Johann Strauss .
Assumption by National Socialism
There was - ex ante - no discussion whatsoever in the Nazi state of Germany or in Austria that Johann Strauss Sohn was not of German blood (e.g. according to the Nuremberg Race Laws ) . His music was also often broadcast on the Reich broadcasters. In this context, it was nevertheless more than unpleasant for the Nazi regime that many librettists of Strauss' operettas were Jews: Ignaz Schnitzer , Victor Léon , Leo Stein : They had been consistent since 1938, in some cases even before that (e.g. . on theater slips as authors ) concealed.
However, in a very narrow circle in Vienna it was known among genealogists for a long time before the National Socialists that the great-grandfather Johann Michael Strauss from Ofen was of Jewish origin. This would not have posed any problems for Strauss Sohn, but it would have meant problems for his father, whose music as that of a “ Jewish half-breed second degree ” including the extremely popular Radetzky March as a quarter Jew should have been banned.
For various reasons, the Nazi rulers, who wanted to eliminate all Jewish influence, were not interested in this in the case of the Strauss family's music. The (very few) knowledgeable genealogists, including Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau , who later worked at the Vienna City and State Archives , were ordered to maintain strict secrecy as a first measure by the head of the district office of the district administration.
In two further stages, Strauss was then completely " Aryanized ": From June 8, 1939, the anti-Semitic hate speech Der Stürmer in Vienna published the three-part series of articles about Johann Strauss at weekly intervals: Jewish legacy sneaks / Jews and the German waltz king Johann Strauss / Die Machenschaften Der Jüdin Meyszner-Strauss / A pitiful Talmuderei , through which the Jewish stepdaughter of Johann Strauss, Alice Meyszner (1875–1945), was publicly coerced from her large Strauss collection, which she had inherited from her mother, who died in 1930.
A few valuable autographs from the collection were immediately taken to the Central Office for Monument Protection, while the remaining items were left in the apartment of Alice Meyszner and Alice's husband, Colonel Rudolf Edler von Meyszner (1866–1947), brother of SS group leader August Edler von Meyszner (Lieutenant General of the Police, sentenced to death and executed in Belgrade in 1946), designated as custodian. This series of hate speeches by the striker (print run 500,000) with the full address of Alice Meyszner was preceded by a poster campaign by the striker on Viennese advertising pillars announcing this series .
As part of an order called “ Secret Reichssache ”, the NS- Reichssippenamt confiscated the marriage book of the cathedral parish of St. Stephan (marriage book 69, fol. 210) in February 1941 and brought it to Berlin. The entire volume was copied, with the page with the entry from February 11, 1762, in which Johann Michael Strauss is referred to as a "baptized Jew", was replaced by one in which this entry was struck out without replacement, and the note in Index deleted. Then the original and the copy were returned to Vienna, the original disappeared in the safe of the house, court and state archives , while the copy with the note: “The correspondence of the surrounding photocopy with the submitted original is hereby certified. Berlin, February 20, 1941. Reichssippenamt ”was returned to the parish of St. Stephan.
With this forgery of documents, Strauss was finally “Aryanized” from the Nazi perspective. Since this forgery of documents was classified as a "Secret Reich Matter", it only became public knowledge long after the Second World War around 1960: The forgery was easily unmasked in a comparison of the original and the photocopy and can be seen today (as of March 2016) in the cathedral parish of St. Stephan can be viewed publicly.
For the usurped by the Nazi authorities collection Strauss-Meyszner it took after the Second World War, many (even more doubtful) intermediate steps before the city of Vienna made up for the gross injustice of 1939: It was only after more than 60 years, the collection 2001 by the Vienna Library of finally bought by the heirs according to their value. In 2003 the purchase was shown to the public for the first time in a large exhibition, Johann Strauss - De-Aryanized .
Strauss composed an opera, 15 operettas, a ballet and around five hundred waltzes, polkas, marches and quadrilles.
- Knight Pásmán (1892)
- From it: ballet music, pásmán waltz , pásmán polka, csárdás, Eva waltz and pásmán quadrille, all op.441
The list of 15 operettas largely follows Johann Ziegler (1999). Three other operettas have remained unfinished: The funny women of Vienna (composed around 1868), Romulus (around 1871) and Der Schelm von Bergen (around 1886).
Except for One Night in Venice (1883), the premiere location was Vienna.
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 343–351, August 1871; 1906/07 by Ernst Reiterer revised and a new playbook as Arabian Nights revived
- Carneval in Rome , premiere: March 1, 1873, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 356–360, August to October 1873
- Die Fledermaus , Premiere: April 3, 1874, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 362, 363, 365–368, June to November 1874
- Cagliostro in Vienna , premiere: February 27, 1875, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 369–374, July to October 1875
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 375–379, September 1877
- Blind cow , premiered on December 18, 1878, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 381–384, April to September 1879
- The Queen's Lace Shawl , premiere: October 1, 1880, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 388, 389, 391–394, 406, November 1880 and June / July 1881
- The Merry War , Premiere: November 25th, 1881, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 397–405, 407, October to December 1882
- One night in Venice , premiere: October 3, 1883, Neues Friedrich-Wilhelmstädtisches Theater , Berlin
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 411–416, March 1884.
- The Gypsy Baron , premiere: October 24th 1885, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 417–422, June 1886
- Simplicius , premiere: December 17, 1887, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 427–432, May 1888
- Princess Ninetta , premiere: January 10, 1893, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 445–450, March 1893
- Jabuka , premiere: October 12, 1894, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 455–460, December 1894
- Waldmeister , premiere: December 4th, 1895, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 463–468, February 1896
- The Goddess of Reason , Premiere: March 13th 1897, Theater an der Wien
- Dances based on motifs from the operetta: op. 471–473, June 1897
In eleven of these operettas, other composers had a sometimes considerable co-creative share. For example, the melodies of the bat primarily come from Strauss. The instrumentation was largely contributed by Richard Genée , who was also involved as a librettist.
There are also compilations, i.e. operettas, which other composers have put together from existing Strauss compositions. Three of them were authorized by Strauss himself and are therefore often counted as his works:
- The stage work Wiener Blut (not to be confused with the waltz of the same name, published in 1873) had its world premiere on October 26, 1899. These are well-known Strauss melodies from earlier years, which the conductor Adolf Müller junior had rearranged. Strauss died on June 3, 1899, but he still authorized the work with his name.
- Two French arrangements in the manner of Wiener Blut were made much earlier: La pure Indigo (1875) and La Tzigane (Die Zigeunerin, 1877), both of which were premiered at the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris. La Tzigane was a secondary exploitation of the operettas Die Fledermaus (1874) and Cagliostro in Vienna (1875), but due to the high level of self-creative nature of the composer, the work is mainly rated as an independent Strauss operetta.
Further arrangements of Strauss operettas followed in the 20th century. One of the most famous of these is The Dancer Fanny Elßler from 1934.
An extensive and largely complete list of orchestral works by Johann Strauss is listed here .
excerpt (playing time 2:58)
- On the beautiful blue Danube op.314 (1867)
- Künstlerleben op. 316 (1867), written for the Hesperus Ball in the Dianasaal and dedicated to the Hesperus Ball Committee
- Stories from the Vienna Woods op. 325 (1868), dedicated to the Prince and General Konstantin zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
- Wein, Weib und Gesang op. 333 (1869), dedicated to the Austrian conductor Johann von Herbeck
- Wiener Blut op. 354 (1873), also included in the operetta Wiener Blut
- Roses from the South op.388 (1880), based on his operetta Das Spitzentuch der Königin and dedicated to the King of Italy Humbert I.
- Voices of Spring, Op. 410 (1883)
- Kaiser-Waltz op.437 (1888)
- Annen-Polka op. 117 (1852), dedicated to Maria Anna , Empress of Austria.
- Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka op.214 (1858)
- Under Donner und Blitz Polka (Schnell) op. 324 (1868) originally performed as “Sternschnuppe”, written for the Hesperus ball in the Dianasaal
- Pappacoda-Polka Polka française op. 412. Based on motifs from the operetta One Night in Venice
- New Pizzicato-Polka op.449 (1893). Based on motifs from the operetta Princess Ninetta
- Pizzicato Polka Without Opus Number. Joint work by Johann and Josef Strauss
All other works are listed in the list of orchestral works by Johann Strauss (Sohn) .
- Margareta Saary: Strauss, family. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7001-3067-8 .
- Constantin von Wurzbach : Strauss, Johann II son . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 39th part. Imperial and Royal Court and State Printing Office, Vienna 1879, pp. 344–354 ( digitized version ).
- Ludwig Eisenberg : Johann Strauss. A picture of life, designed by Ludwig Eisenberg. , Breitkopf & Härtel , Leipzig 1894.
- Eusebius Mandyczewski : Strauss, Johann . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 54, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1908, pp. 610-614.
- Kurt Pahlen : Johann Strauss and the Waltz Dynasty. Heyne non-fiction book, volume 19/550. Wilhelm-Heyne-Verlag, Munich 1975, ISBN 3-453-12393-X .
- Norbert Linke : Johann Strauss (son) - in personal reports and photo documents . (= Rowohlt's Monographs, Volume 304). Reinbek, Rowohlt 1982, ISBN 3-499-50304-2 .
- Johann Strauss (comp.), Franz Mailer (ed.): Life and work in letters and documents . 10 volumes. Schneider, Tutzing 1983-2007.
- Felix Czeike (Ed.): Historisches Lexikon Wien . Volume 5, Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-218-00547-7 , p. 372 f.
- Robert Dachs : Johann Strauss: “What is my business ?!” Gleam and darkness in the life of the Waltz King
- Entry on Johann Strauss (son) in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Works by Johann Strauss (Sohn) ( Memento from June 15, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 434 kB) Johann Strauss Society of New York
- Literature by and about Johann Strauss in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Johann Strauss in the German Digital Library
Strauss companies in German-speaking countries
- Vienna Institute for Strauss Research - WISF
- Johann Strauss Society Vienna
- German Johann Strauss Society , in which the Swiss friends of Johann Strauss (son) are also organized
- Museum of the Johann Strauss Dynasty - Kulturverein Wiener Blut
Notes and acoustics
- Website of the Vienna Library in the City Hall, 198 music manuscripts
- Sheet music and audio files by Johann Strauss (son) in the International Music Score Library Project
- www.kreusch-sheet-music.net Collection of Strauss' works
- Overture to the bat on YouTube (recording from the New Year's Concert 2010 of the Vienna Philharmonic)
- Fledermaus - sound sample (MP3; 5.66 MB)
- Johann Strauss and Baden-Baden
- operetta-research-center.org (first performance reviews of the bat 1874 in the press archive)
- Ralph Braun u. a .: Cervantes or The Queen's Lace Shawl . (PDF; 1.84 MB) Coburg 2006.
- Ralph Braun u. a .: Twenty years of international Johann Strauss encounters in Coburg . (PDF; 2.28 MB) Coburg 2007.
- Johann Strauss in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- p. 190
- p. 192
Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau: Johann Strauss - The Waltz King and his dynasty. Family history, documents. Verlag Jugend und Volk, Vienna - Munich, 1965.
- Document 301, p. 343.
- Document 162, p. 218.
- Document 164, pp. 219/220.
- Document 184, pp. 233/234.
- Document 218, pp. 262/263.
- Document 327, pp. 368-370. The list is made - also in the numbering - of the source, which extends over various lists and pages.
- Photography on the occasion of his conducting of Die Fledermaus on September 4, 1876 in the (old) city theater in Baden near Vienna. Photo: Fritz Luckhardt , kk court photographer. Otto Wolkerstorfer: Waltz bliss and everyday life , Baden 1999, p. 338.
- Dr. Eduard Strauss: STRAUSS / STRAUẞ , on the website of the Vienna Institute for Strauss Research , accessed on November 29, 2019.
- A score of the Revolutionary March with a censorship note is exhibited in the Vienna Army History Museum, cf. Army History Museum / Military History Institute (ed.): The Army History Museum in the Vienna Arsenal . Verlag Militaria, Vienna 2016, ISBN 978-3-902551-69-6 , p. 70
- Otto Wolkerstorfer: Walzerseligkeit and everyday life , Baden 1999, p. 340 f.
- death in the daily newspaper Neue Freie Presse , June 4, 1899, p. 6 , p. 7 , p. 8 . The obituary in the features section, p. 1 , p. 2 .
- Johann Strauss' death of the corpses, daily newspaper Neue Freie Presse , June 7, 1899, p. 5 f.
- The burial of Johann Strauss in the grave of honor, daily newspaper Neue Freie Presse , October 9, 1899, p. 2, left column below
- Art and culture in Vienna: Details on the grave and the memorial in the Vienna Central Cemetery
- Ingolf Roßberg: Responsible for home after Coburg - socio-historical aspects of the citizenship of Johann Strauss (son) in the period 1886–1899 . In: New Life - Bulletin of the German Johann Strauss Society , Issue 39 (2012 / No. 1), . Pp. 44-66. Here p. 58/59. The claim that is often found in the literature that Strauss never made it to honorary citizenship has the same legal background: Up until the beginning of the 1920s, only Viennese citizens could receive honorary citizenship in Vienna.
- Robert Dachs: Johann Strauss: “What do I have to do with myself ?!”. Shine and darkness in the life of the Waltz King. Styria Verlag, Graz 1999, ISBN 3-222-12669-0 , p. 144.
- Inge Röhre: Quotes from famous contemporaries about Johann Strauss (letter to the editor). In Kulturverein Wiener Blut (Ed.): Almanach No. 4, July 2012, pp. 18/19.
- Baden-Baden Philharmonic (ed.): Orchestra gala in 1872 . In: Philharmonie. The journal of the Baden-Baden Philharmonic. Issue 2/2002.
- updated to: Ingolf Roßberg: Our sister companies worldwide - one report . In: New Life. Bulletin of the German Johann Strauss Society, No. 39 (2012 No. 1). Pp. 28-37.
- Homepage of the museum , accessed on January 27, 2019.
- list of Schilling coins from 1947 to 2001, p. 24, Österreichische Nationalbank OeNb PDF ( Memento of the original dated February 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- regard to German and Austrian films, the compilation is based on the detailed documentation (including a review) in Inge Röhre: When the Waltz King Johann Strauss and his dynasty become film stars . In: pamphlets. Bulletin of the German Johann Strauss Society, No. 18/1995. Pp. 13-78.
- The Waltz King in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Proshchaniye s Peterburgom in the Internet Movie Database (English) (with a wrong transcription of the main actor and a wrong premiere date )
- Strauss: The King of 3/4 Time in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Strauss: The Waltz King in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Data sheet of the IAU Minor Planet Center . Last accessed on June 21, 2018.
- Club website , last accessed June 21, 2018.
- Description of the Johann Strauss , last accessed on June 21, 2018.
- Website of the Hotel Johann Strauss in Vienna , last accessed on June 21, 2012.
- Complete text e.g. B. at songtexte.de . Last accessed on June 21, 2012.
- Illustration of the cigar box , last accessed on June 21, 2012.
- Johann Strauss series Liebigbilder, Sanguinetti catalog no.687 , last accessed on June 21, 2012.
- Under No. 16 Name Declaration for the Rose Johann Strauss , last accessed on June 21, 2012.
- Waltz King Johann Strauss . Last accessed on June 21, 2012.
- Family tree of the Strauss family ( Memento of the original dated November 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Vienna Institute for Strauss Research, accessed on August 30, 2013.
- Christian Mertens: The checkered history of the Strauss-Meyszner Collection in the Vienna City and State Library. (PDF, 2 MB) AKMB-news , 3/2004.
- Maria Wirth, Democracy Center Vienna: The negotiations on the Strauss collections in the Vienna City and State Library (PDF; 110 kB), lecture at the conference robbery and restitution in libraries , 23/24. April 2003, organized by the Vienna City and State Library in cooperation with the Austrian Society for German Studies and the Association of Austrian Librarians
- On the entire topic in detail: Norbert Linke, Ulla Wahnfried: Streicher's combat sheet “Der Stürmer”, the Jewish question and the Aryanization of Johann Strauss / son. In: pamphlets. Bulletin of the German Johann Strauss Society, No. 13/1988, pp. 57–96.
- Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau: Johann Strauss. The Waltz King and his dynasty. Family history, documents . Jugend & Volk, Vienna 1965, p. 84ff.
- Johann Strauss - De-Aryanized. The Strauss-Meyszner Collection: Impulses for Research and Interpretation . Catalog for the exhibition of the Vienna City and State Library, 2003
- Johann Ziegler: "Happy is he who forgets ..." - On the stage work of Johann Strauss. In: Vernissage No. 9/1999. The magazine for the exhibition Johann Strauss - Unter Donner und Blitz in the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna from May 6 to September 26, 1999. , pp. 14-27.
- New acquisition of the music collection: The "Annen-Polka" . In: wien.gv.at. December 30, 2008, accessed November 20, 2010.
- Johann Strauss. A picture of life, designed by Ludwig Eisenberg. online at archive.org
- Permalink Austrian Library Association .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Strauss, Johann Baptist (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian-German bandmaster and composer, was valued internationally as the “waltz king”|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 25, 1825|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||St. Ulrich near Vienna, today part of Vienna's new building|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 3, 1899|
|Place of death||Vienna|