|Original title:||The bat|
|Libretto :||Karl Haffner , Richard Genée|
|Premiere:||April 5, 1874|
|Place of premiere:||Theater an der Wien|
|Playing time:||about 2½ hours|
Gabriel von Eisenstein has to take a prison sentence for insulting an official. He likes to follow the advice of his friend Dr. Falke to amuse himself with Prince Orlofsky the night before. In reality, Dr. Falke proposed to return the favor of Eisenstein's earlier coup (the operetta was originally supposed to be called “Die Rache einer Fledermaus”, but this was shortened during the rehearsals). Rosalinde von Eisenstein likes to let her husband go when he supposedly goes to prison. She also released the maid Adele, who pretended to visit a sick aunt.
When everyone is gone, Alfred comes to have fun with Rosalinde. Unfortunately, the affair is disturbed by the prison director Frank, who wants to pick up Eisenstein: Out of consideration for Rosalinde, Alfred has no choice but to play her husband and have himself taken to prison.
In the garden salon with the young Prince Orlofsky, Dr. Falcon the prince that he will still have a lot to laugh about today. Eisenstein appears as “Marquis Renard”, Adele is introduced as the young artist Olga. She rejects Eisenstein's suspicion that she is his housemaid. Prison director Frank is introduced to society as "Chevalier Chagrin", and even Rosalinde, disguised as a Hungarian countess, appears - Dr. Falke had her come with the hint that her husband was there. She succeeds in stealing his pocket watch from Eisenstein, who is fascinated by her (who does not recognize her), which she needs in order to later prove his infidelity to her husband (whom she has of course recognized).
Tipsy from the champagne, Eisenstein tells all the guests how he once made Dr. Falke was embarrassed when he exposed him in his bat costume (they were at a masked ball) to the ridicule of market women and street boys.
In the early morning the heavily drunk Frank wants to start his job as prison director. The even more heavily drunk cell closer Frosch is supposed to report what has happened in the meantime, and uses this report for a more or less improvised parody of current local events. This shows that Adele (with her sister Ida) followed Frank. Adele admits who she really is and asks the alleged Chevalier to have her trained for the stage. Now Eisenstein also appears, who wants to begin his sentence and now learns from Frosch that he, Eisenstein, was brought in yesterday. But it turns out that his doppelganger is none other than Alfred ; And when Rosalinde also appears, Eisenstein sees through the relationship between Alfred and his wife, but becomes meek when Rosalinde shows him the watch that she took from him in the form of the "Hungarian Countess" at Orlofsky's party.
Finally the whole party meets with Prince Orlofsky and Dr. Hawk a. Now it becomes clear: The entire production was the successful "Revenge of the Bat" Falke. The lusciously amused prince promises Adele to promote her as a patron .
Roles and cast
The male lead, Gabriel von Eisenstein , is opposed to the two equal female lead roles Rosalinde and Adele . The speaking parts and vocal difficulty of the three main roles are roughly equivalent. The role of Eisenstein was written by Strauss for a play tenor , although some important baritones have also recorded the role. The role of Adele is a classic soubrette .
The most important supporting roles are Dr. Falke (aka the bat ), the tenor Alfred , the prison director Frank , the bailiff Frosch and Prince Orlofsky . The latter was created by Johann Strauss as a trouser role for a mezzo-soprano , in some productions the role is also sung by a tenor.
In addition to the vocal soloists, the work is composed of a four-part choir and a symphony orchestra with 2 flutes (2nd with piccolo ), 2 oboes , 2 clarinets , 2 bassoons , 4 horns , 2 trumpets , 3 trombones , timpani , percussion and strings ( violins 1, Violins 2, violas , cellos , double basses ).
Cast of the premiere
- Gabriel von Eisenstein: Jani Szika
- Rosalinde: Marie Geistinger
- Adele: Caroline Charles-Hirsch
- Ida, Adele's sister: Jules
- Alfred: Hans Rüdiger
- Dr. Falcon: Ferdinand Lebrecht
- Dr. Blind: Carl Matthias Rott
- Frank: Carl Adolf Friese
- Prince Orlofsky: Irma Nittinger
- Frog: Alfred Schreiber
- No. 1a, Introduction - "Little pigeon that has fluttered" (Alfred, Adele)
- No. 1b, Duettino - "Oh, I am not allowed to go to you" (Rosalinde, Adele)
- No. 2, trio - "No, with such lawyers" (Eisenstein, Rosalinde, Blind)
- No. 3, duet - "Come to supper with me" (Dr. Falke, Eisenstein)
- No. 4, trio - "So I have to stay alone" (Rosalinde, Adele, Eisenstein)
- No. 5, Finale I - " Drink, love, drink quickly " (Alfred, Rosalinde, Frank)
- No. 6, choir and ensemble - "A supper today beckons us" (choir)
- No. 7, couplet - "I like to invite guests" (Orlofsky)
- No. 8, ensemble and couplet - "Oh, my lords and ladies" / "My lord Marquis" (Orlofsky, Dr. Falke, Ida, Adele, Eisenstein, choir)
- No. 9, duet - "This decency, so well mannered" (Eisenstein, Rosalinde)
- No. 10, Csárdás - "Sounds of Home" (Rosalinde)
- No. 11a, Finale II - Ensemble and choir "In the stream of fire of the vines" (Orlofsky, Eisenstein, Rosalinde, Frank, Dr. Falke, Adele, Ida, choir)
- No. 11b, Finale II - Ballet, “Marianka, come and dance with me” (choir) [No. 11b is regularly deleted in performances and recordings and replaced by another ballet.]
- No. 11c, Finale II - Ensemble and choir "Enough with it, enough!" (Orlofsky, Eisenstein, Frank, Rosalinde, Dr. Falke, Adele, Ida, choir)
- No. 12, Entr'acte
- No. 13, melodrama - "Olga come here, Ida too" (Frank)
- No. 14, Couplet - "I play innocence from the country" (Adele, Ida, Frank)
- No. 15, trio - "I am full of trepidation" (Rosalinde, Alfred, Eisenstein)
- No. 16, Finale III - "O Fledermaus, o Fledermaus" (Eisenstein, Dr. Falke, Orlofsky, Adele, Alfred, Rosalinde, Frank, Ida, Blind, Choir)
History of origin
The libretto of the operetta goes back to the comedy in four acts Das Prison by the Leipzig writer Roderich Benedix . From this, the comedy Le Réveillon by the French duo of authors Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy emerged . In France, Réveillon refers to the feast on Christmas Eve, which can certainly get out of hand (a similar feast plays a role in the second act of Giacomo Puccini's opera La Bohème ). Karl Haffner edited the motifs and content , although his model turned out to be unsuitable for music. The Vienna-based librettist Richard Genée expanded this template into a compact piece suitable for operettas. In particular, he made a lavish party at a Russian grand prince the focus of the work around which the intrigues of Eisenstein and Falke develop.
The main parts of the music are said to have been composed within 42 days in the summer of 1873 in Strauss' apartment at the time (1870–1878) at Maxingstrasse 18 in Hietzing (13th district of Vienna since 1892), with Strauss mainly appearing as the originator of the melodies stepped while Genée carried out much of the instrumentation. A piece of music from the new work was first presented to the Viennese audience at a charity concert in October 1873, this was the Csárdás from Act II. This and the overture are the only musical parts that were composed entirely by Johann Strauss.
Because of the great success of this Csárdás performance, the world premiere of the entire operetta was pushed ahead quickly, but had to be postponed several times as a result of the economic crisis that had broken out in the meantime (“ Gründerkrach ”). It finally took place on April 5, 1874, under the musical direction of the composer, in the Theater an der Wien . According to later claims, it was not a “sensational success” in Vienna, but in reality it met with approval from the public and the press. By 1888, another 199 performances followed in the same theater. In other cities, however, the recording was considerably better, at the same time it had already been performed over 300 times in Berlin at a later start time.
Along with the Gypsy Baron and One Night in Venice, Die Fledermaus is one of the three most famous Strauss operettas and also one of the few operettas that are regularly performed at major international opera houses (mostly on New Year's Eve and during Carnival).
The main reason for this is the extremely subtle, rousing and masterfully orchestrated composition. Highlights are the clock duet (Rosalinde / Gabriel von Eisenstein), the csárdás , the aria of Prince Orlofsky, the aria Mein Herr Marquis (Adele) and the choral waltz Little Brother and Sister - You and You in Act Two.
The text is catchy and full of irony with timeless truths. The ensemble "Little Brothers and Sisters" can once again serve as evidence:
"Little brothers / little brothers and sisters / Let this you dare give us / For eternity / Always like today / If we think about it tomorrow."
The overture , which, written in the free sonata main movement form , is one of the greatest works by Johann Strauss , occupies a special position . It sums up the numerous musical highlights of the entire work and, with its varied dynamics, is always a challenge even for top orchestras.
In 1999, as part of the New Johann Strauss Complete Edition, a two-volume new edition of Fledermaus was published with the revised musical text and the post-composed “New Csárdás” as well as the genesis, revision report and libretto.
Independent works were then created based on motifs from this operetta, which are marked in his catalog raisonné with the opus numbers 362 and 363 as well as 365 to 368. These are the following works:
- Fledermaus-Polka , Opus 362 (first performance February 10, 1874, Sophiensaal)
- Fledermaus-Quadrille , Opus 363 (first performance between April and June 1874)
- Tik-Tak-Polka , Fast Polka, Opus 365 (first performance September 6, 1874, Schwender's Neue Welt, Hietzing)
- An der Moldau , Polka française, Opus 366 (first performance October 25, 1874, Great Hall of the Wiener Musikverein )
- Du und Du , Walzer, Opus 367 (according to the standards of today's copyright law: Du and Du, waltz by Eduard Strauss based on motifs from the operetta “Die Fledermaus”, published under the name of his brother as op. 367 ) (first performance as a bat waltz on August 2, 1874 in Schwender's Neue Welt, Hietzing, with the title Du und Du on September 6, 1874, also Schwender's Neue Welt, Hietzing)
- Happy is he who forgets! , Polka Mazurka, Opus 368 (first performances in summer 1874)
Csarda's works from “Die Fledermaus” and Neuer Csardas for “Die Fledermaus” were also created without an opus number . The ballet music , seldom played in the operetta , also appeared as an independent work.
It is almost completely forgotten that around 1879 there were efforts to persuade Johann Strauss to continue the operetta. Leon Treptow wrote the libretto for this. After Strauss finally refused (he then composed the operetta " The Queen's Lace Scarf"), "Prince Orlofsky" was finally set to music by Carl Alexander Raida and had its world premiere on April 8, 1882 in the Viktoria Theater in Berlin . At best, the “Prinz Orlofsky Waltz” is known from it. After 23 performances, the work was taken off the program and does not seem to have seen another performance.
- 1950: Choir of the Vienna State Opera - Vienna Philharmonic - Clemens Krauss with Eisenstein: Julius Patzak - Rosalinde: Hilde Güden - Adele: Wilma Lipp - Dr. Falcon: Alfred Poell - Frank: Kurt Preger - Prince Orlofsky: Sieglinde Wagner - Alfred: Anton Dermota - Dr. Blind: August Jaresch ( Decca , 2 CD, 425 990 2)
- 1955: Philharmonia Chorus - Philharmonia Orchestra - Herbert von Karajan with Eisenstein: Nicolai Gedda - Rosalinde: Elisabeth Schwarzkopf - Adele: Rita Streich - Dr. Falke: Erich Kunz - Frank: Karl Dönch - Prince Orlofsky: Rudolf Christ - Alfred: Helmut Krebs - Dr. Blind: Erich Majkut ( EMI , 2 CD, 7 69531 2)
- 1960: Philharmonia Chorus - Philharmonia Orchestra - Otto Ackermann with Eisenstein: Karl Terkal - Rosalinde: Gerda Scheyrer - Adele: Wilma Lipp - Dr. Falke: Eberhard Waechter - Frank: Walter Berry - Prince Orlofsky: Christa Ludwig - Alfred: Anton Dermota - Frog: Erich Kunz ( EMI , 2 CD, 5 73851 2)
- 1960: Choir of the Vienna State Opera - Vienna Philharmonic - Herbert von Karajan with Eisenstein: Waldemar Kmentt - Rosalinde: Hilde Güden - Adele: Erika Köth - Dr. Falke: Walter Berry - Frank: Eberhard Waechter - Prince Orlofsky: Regina Resnik - Alfred: Giuseppe Zampieri - Frog: Erich Kunz ( Decca , 2 CD, 421 046 2)
- 1963: Choir and Orchestra of the Vienna State Opera - Oscar Danon with Eisenstein: Eberhard Waechter - Rosalinde: Adele Leigh - Adele: Anneliese Rothenberger - Dr. Falcon: George London - Frank: Erich Kunz - Prince Orlofsky: Risë Stevens - Alfred: Sándor Kónya - Frog: (role deleted) ( RCA , 2 CD, 88697 46984 2)
- 1963: Choir of the Vienna State Opera - Vienna Philharmonic - Robert Stolz with Eisenstein: Rudolf Schock - Rosalinde: Wilma Lipp - Adele: Renate Holm - Dr. Falcon: Claudio Nicolai - Frank: Walter Berry - Prince Orlofsky: Elisabeth Steiner - Alfred: Cesare Curzi - Frosch: Otto Schenk ( Eurodisc , 2 CD, 610 327 232)
- 1972: Choir of the Vienna State Opera in the Volksoper - Wiener Symphoniker - Willi Boskovsky with Eisenstein: Nicolai Gedda - Rosalinde: Anneliese Rothenberger - Adele: Renate Holm - Dr. Falke: Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau - Frank: Walter Berry - Prince Orlofsky: Brigitte Fassbaender - Alfred: Adolf Dallapozza - Frosch: Otto Schenk ( EMI , 2 CD, 5 66223 2)
- 1973: Choir of the Vienna State Opera - Vienna Philharmonic - Karl Böhm with Eisenstein: Eberhard Waechter - Rosalinde: Gundula Janowitz - Adele: Renate Holm - Dr. Falke: Heinz Holecek - Frank: Erich Kunz - Prince Orlofsky: Wolfgang Windgassen - Alfred: Waldemar Kmentt - Frosch: (role deleted) ( Philips , 2 CD)
- 1975: Choir of the Vienna State Opera - Vienna Philharmonic - Herbert von Karajan with Eisenstein: Waldemar Kmentt - Rosalinde: Hilde Güden - Adele: Erika Köth - Dr. Falke: Walter Berry - Frank: Eberhard Waechter - Prince Orlofsky: Regina Resnik - Alfred: Giuseppe Zampieri - Frog: Erich Kunz , singing as guests of Prince Orlofsky a. a. by Renata Tebaldi , Jussi Björling , Leontyne Price , Mario del Monaco , Ettore Bastianini , Ljuba Welitsch and Joan Sutherland ( Eterna , 3 VP, 8 25 517); Grand Prix du Disque 1976 (This recording is the above-mentioned recording from 1960, recorded in June 1960 in Vienna, published by DECCA)
- 1976: Chorus of the Bavarian State Opera Munich - Bavarian State Orchestra - Carlos Kleiber with Eisenstein: Hermann Prey - Rosalinde: Julia Varady - Adele: Lucia Popp - Dr. Falke: Bernd Weikl - Frank: Benno Kusche - Prince Orlofsky: Ivan Rebroff - Alfred: René Kollo - Dr. Blind: Ferry Gruber - Frosch: Franz Muxeneder - Ida: Evi List - Ivan: Nikolai Lugowoi ( Deutsche Grammophon , 2 CD, 415 646 2)
- 1987: Chorus of the Bavarian State Opera - Bavarian State Orchestra - Carlos Kleiber with Eisenstein: Eberhard Waechter (baritone) - Rosalinde: Pamela Coburn - Adele: Janet Perry - Dr. Falke: Wolfgang Brendel - Frank: Benno Kusche - Prince Orlofsky: Brigitte Fassbaender - Alfred: Josef Hopferwieser - Dr. Blind: Ferry Gruber - Frog: Franz Muxeneder
- 1988: Dutch Opera Choir - Concertgebouw Orchestra - Nikolaus Harnoncourt with Eisenstein: Werner Hollweg - Rosalinde: Edita Gruberová - Adele: Barbara Bonney - Dr. Falke: Anton Scharinger - Frank: Christian Boesch - Prince Orlofsky: Marjana Lipovsek - Alfred: Josef Protschka - Dr. Blind: Waldemar Kmentt - Frog: André Heller ( Teldec , 2 CD, 2292 42427 2)
- 1991: Choir of the Vienna State Opera - Vienna Philharmonic - André Previn with Eisenstein: Wolfgang Brendel - Rosalinde: Kiri Te Kanawa - Adele: Edita Gruberová - Dr. Falcon: Olaf Bär - Frank: Tom Krause - Prince Orlofsky: Brigitte Fassbaender - Frog: Otto Schenk ( Philips , 2 CD, 432 157 2)
- 1993: Bratislava City Chorus - Czecho-Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra - Johannes Wildner with Eisenstein: John Dickie - Rosalinde: Gabriele Fontana - Adele: Brigitte Karwautz - Dr. Falcon: Andrea Martin - Frank: Alfred Werner - Prince Orlofsky: Rohangiz Yachmi-Caucig - Alfred: Josef Hopferwieser - Frog: Hans Krämmer ( Naxos , 2 CD, 5 66223 2)
Film adaptations of the operetta:
- 1917: Das Fidele Prison (Germany) - Directed by Ernst Lubitsch , Ossi Oswalda , Harry Liedtke and Emil Jannings played in the film, which was based on motifs from the operetta.
- 1923: Die Fledermaus (Germany) - Directed by Max Mack , Eva May , Harry Liedtke , Lya de Putti , Paul Heidemann played in a silent film based on motifs from the operetta.
- 1931: Die Fledermaus (France / Germany) - Anny Ondra and Georg Alexander starred in this coproduction, directed by Carl Lamač .
- 1933: Die Fledermaus (Great Britain) - Directed by Wilhelm Thiele with Fritz Schulz .
- 1937: Die Fledermaus (Germany) - Directed by Paul Verhoeven , Lída Baarová , Hans Söhnker , Hans Moser , Friedl Czepa , Georg Alexander and many others played. The part of the plot that is based on the "bat" makes up about the last as a dream sequence two thirds of the film and contains numerous corresponding vocal parts.
- 1946: Die Fledermaus (Germany) - Directed by Géza von Bolváry , Johannes Heesters , Marte Harell , Will Dohm , Josef Egger , Hans Brausewetter , Willy Fritsch and Siegfried Breuer played the leading roles. The music in this largely song-free version of the film cannot be heard in the original by Johann Strauss, but in an adaptation by Alois Melichar . The film, shot in 1944, was on the cut at the end of the war, was completed by DEFA and was released in 1946 as a defector .
- 1955: Fledermaus 1955 (GB / FRG) - The film was released in Great Britain under the title “Oh, Rosalinda!” And in Germany under the title “Fledermaus 1955”. Directed by Michael Powell played Anton Walbrook , Michael Redgrave , Ludmilla sealed Erina, Mel Ferrer and Anneliese Rothenberger the leading roles. In this film adaptation, the plot was moved to Vienna, which is divided into four parts, after the Second World War.
- 1955: Rauschende Melodien (GDR) - DEFA also took on this work in the same year. Director EW Fiedler was also his own screenwriter and cameraman. Under his direction, Jarmila Ksirowa, Sonja Schöner, Erich Arnold and, more recently, Josef Egger played the leading roles.
- 1959: (Germany) - On behalf of the WDR, a film was made under the direction of Kurt Wilhelm with Friedrich Schoenfelder (Eisenstein), Nadia Gray (Rosalinde) and Gerlinde Locker (Adele) in the leading roles, the roles of Fritz Wunderlich and Antonia were sung Fahberg and Rita Bartos . Unusual is the opening credits, in which the prehistory of the operetta is told in an album with painted pictures, which Adele turns the pages of the overture.
- 1962: Die Fledermaus (Austria) - Géza von Cziffra (script and direction) brought out an idiosyncratic version of the operetta in 1962. As in the German production of 1944/1945, the music was heavily edited. There are also only a few motifs left of the original plot. Anyone who thinks they can expect a film adaptation of the operetta under the title “Die Fledermaus” will be disappointed. The main roles were prominently cast with Peter Alexander , Marika Rökk , Willy Millowitsch and Hans Moser .
- 1972: Die Fledermaus (Austria) - TV adaptation, directed by Otto Schenk. The Vienna Philharmonic under the direction of Karl Böhm , with Gundula Janowitz, Eberhard Wächter, Wolfgang Windgassen, Heinz Holecek, Erich Kunz, Otto Schenk (as a frog) and Renate Holm singing.
- 2003: The BBC , in coproduction with Opus Arte , recorded and broadcast a performance in 2003 at the Clyndebourne Opera House, Lewes , Sussex and also distributes it on DVD . The texts have been partially revised, but are in German. The singers include Pamela Armstrong (Rosalinde), Lyubov Petrova (Adele), Thomas Allen (Eisenstein) and Malena Ernman as Prince Orlofsky.
- Wilhelm Zentner (Ed.): Johann Strauss: Die Fledermaus . Reclam, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 978-3-15-008260-7 .
- Oswald Panagl and Fritz Schweiger: The bat. The real story of an operetta . Böhlau, Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-205-99087-0 .
- The Bat : Sheet Music and Audio Files in the International Music Score Library Project
- Plot and libretto of Die Fledermaus in German at Opera-Guide
- Audio video of the overture to the bat (recording from the New Year's concert 2010 of the Vienna Philharmonic under Georges Prêtre)
- General review of the work on stern.de . Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- Scanned original score in the Vienna Library in the City Hall
References and footnotes
- The name Alfred for Rosalinde's lover is Verdi's La traviata modeled
- At this point there is a deliberate amount of space for the respective staging.
- The prison , Cöln 1851, books.google
- La Réveillon , comédie en trois actes, Paris 1872, archive.org
- Maxingstrasse in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna
- Information on the new edition of the score in the Strauss Edition Vienna ( Memento from December 7, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Vienna Institute for Strauss Research (Ed.): Strauss Elementar Directory , Hans Schneider, Tutzing 2013, ISBN 978-3-86296-054-5 , pp. 586-588 with a note that no autographs and sketches are known or . these are lost, the voices come from Georg Kraus.
- Vienna Institute for Strauss Research (Ed.): Strauss Elementar Directory , Hans Schneider, Tutzing 2013, ISBN 978-3-86296-054-5 , pp. 588-591 with a note that no autographs and sketches are known or . these are lost, the score is by Michael Wodopivetz.
- Vienna Institute for Strauss Research (Ed.): Strauss Elementar Directory , Hans Schneider, Tutzing 2013, ISBN 978-3-86296-054-5 , pp. 594-596 with a note that no autographs and sketches are known or . these have been lost, the first score that can be dated is from 1902.
- Vienna Institute for Strauss Research (Ed.): Strauss Elementar Directory , Hans Schneider, Tutzing 2013, ISBN 978-3-86296-054-5 , pp. 596-598 with a note that no autographs and sketches are known or . these are missing, voices by Holzinger (undated).
- Vienna Institute for Strauss Research (Ed.): Strauss Elementar Directory , Hans Schneider, Tutzing 2013, ISBN 978-3-86296-054-5 , pp. 598–601 with a note that no autographs and sketches are known or . these have been lost, various partial editions (undated). The sole authorship of his brother can be proven on the basis of a correspondence, including the use of that by Johann Strauss , so the arrangement was - as it were - authorized.
- Vienna Institute for Strauss Research (ed.): Strauss Elementar Directory , Hans Schneider, Tutzing 2013, ISBN 978-3-86296-054-5 , pp. 602–603 with a note that no autographs and sketches are known or .these are lost. It can be assumed that this P.-M. was composed by Josef Schrammel for his sextet, this original score has been preserved.
- Peter Kemp: "Fledermaus" - the continuation In: Wiener Bonbons , magazine of the Johann Strauss Society Vienna. Part 1 in volume 4/1999, pp. 15-18, part 2 in volume 1/2000, pp. 15-17. The same wording also in: Deutsche Johann Strauss Gesellschaft (Ed.): "New Life" - Bulletin of the German Johann Strauss Society , Issue 27 (2000), pp. 26–34. .
- According to the Lexicon of International Films