Pavlovsk (Saint Petersburg)

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flag coat of arms
coat of arms
Federal district Northwest Russia
City with
subject status
St. Petersburg
Rajon Pushkin
Founded 1777
Earlier names Slutsk (1918–1944)
City since 1796
population 16,087 inhabitants
(as of Oct. 14, 2010)
Time zone UTC + 3
Telephone code (+7) 812
License Plate 78, 98, 178
OKATO 40 294 502
Geographical location
Coordinates 59 ° 41 ′  N , 30 ° 26 ′  E Coordinates: 59 ° 41 ′ 0 ″  N , 30 ° 26 ′ 0 ″  E
Pavlovsk (Saint Petersburg) (European Russia)
Red pog.svg
Location in the western part of Russia
Pavlovsk (Saint Petersburg) (Saint Petersburg)
Red pog.svg
Location in Saint Petersburg
List of cities in Russia

Pavlovsk ( Russian Па́вловск ) is a classicist former summer residence of the Russian tsars , along with the city of the same name with 16,087 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010). It is located about 30 kilometers south of Saint Petersburg and five kilometers southeast of Tsarskoye Selo . Since 1998 it has been subordinate to Saint Petersburg administratively and belongs to the Pushkin district (Rajon).


The residence of Paul I and Maria Feodorovna

Pavlovsk Palace, statue for Tsar Paul I in front of the main building

The history of the city began in 1777, when the grounds of today's park along the Slawianka river were given to the future Tsar Paul I by his mother Catherine II on the occasion of the birth of his first son and heir to the throne, Alexander . First, the Crown Prince couple built two wooden castles there, Marienthal and Paulslust, then they tackled the major castle project.

In 1780 the Scottish architect Charles Cameron, who also built for Catherine II in Tsarskoye Selo , was commissioned to manage the building activities in Pavlovsk. The classicist design was approved for execution by the Crown Prince couple in 1782 and completed in 1786.

Above all, Sophie Dorothee von Württemberg , who, as the Russian Crown Princess and later Tsarina, took the name Maria Fjodorovna , took care of the expansion of the complex. The international reputation of the gardens and palaces is inextricably linked with this woman who drove the design of the complex for over forty years. After Paul's death, the palace remained the widow's seat of Maria Fyodorovna, later the property went to the Konstantinovich branch of the Romanov family .

The interiors of the Grand Palace are less designed than the other baroque, large tsarist residences for absolute representation and the development of power. The Pavlovsk Palace is designed in the classicism style. Despite its size, it appears correspondingly more modest and more intimate.

In addition, in contrast to the other residences in Pavlovsk, the park is in the foreground. The classicism of the architects Charles Cameron , Vincenzo Brenna , Andrei Woronichin , Pietro Gonzaga and Carlo Rossi created a unique ensemble with the palace and garden.


Maria Fjodorovna had an English-style landscape park of more than 600 hectares created from the untouched wilderness , which largely reflects an untouched natural landscape.

In 1817, part of the pillars that form a semicircle around the statue of Apollo collapsed and remained in ruins for a long time. They were not fully restored until the 1970s.

The park is considered the founding place of the Russian scouts . On April 30, 1909, Oleg Pantyukhov organized the first meeting, and the campfire took place in the park near Tsarskoye Selo. A Russian song still commemorates this event today.


The town

Pavlovsk Palace, main building
Pavlovsk, bandstand and train station

With the accession of Paul I to the throne in 1796, the settlement at the residence was elevated to a town.

Before the October Revolution , Pavlovsk was a popular summer retreat for the wealthy capital city dwellers. Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel The Idiot is set in part in the town of Pavlovsk surrounding the palace and portrays its Datschniki .

On November 11, 1837, Russia's first railway line was opened between St. Petersburg and Pavlovsk. The station building, which was erected right next to the palace (in the area of ​​the "Großer Stern"), also served as a kind of Kursaal and concert building, in which, among other musical celebrities, Johann Strauss (son) , Franz Liszt and Robert Schumann performed.

The origin of the Russian word вокза́л / woksal for station (now more correctly: station building ) is attributed to this connection between the music pavilion and the station building . The most likely explanation is that the building was named after the British Vauxhall Gardens near London - in a detailed (German) report from 1842 on the construction and operation of the railway, the term "Vauxhall building" is used - and later the name is used for all stations passed over. According to another derivation, the word is supposed to represent an abbreviation of “Wokalny Sal”, meaning “choir room”. But even in this case, the word comes from the combination of the functions of the station and concert building in Pavlovsk.

Despite the re-gauging of the railway line to Russian broad gauge and the relocation of the station building to its current location in 1897, the "music station" continued to be used artistically.

From 1918 to 1944 the city was named after the revolutionary Wera Sluzkaja (1874–1917), who died not far from the city .

Pavlovsk was conquered by the Wehrmacht in World War II and suffered severe damage during the occupation from 1941 to 1943. The bandstand was also burned down. The reconstruction of the heavily damaged palace, which was not officially finished until 1978, began as early as 1944. Isolated restoration work in the park continues to this day.

The unique ensemble, consisting of the castle, a large number of pavilions, the largest castle park in Europe and the historic old town, was included in the list of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 1990.

Population development

year Residents
1897 5.113
1939 30,798
1959 16.605
1970 20,969
1979 25.186
1989 25,536
2002 14,960
2010 16,087

Note: census data


sons and daughters of the town

  • Maria Pawlowna (1786–1859), Grand Duchess of Russia and Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
  • Fyodor Iordan (1800–1883), engraver, copperplate engraver, professor and rector of the Russian Art Academy
  • Bogdan Willewalde (1818 / 19–1903), Russian painter and teacher
  • Maria Romanowa (1819–1876), Grand Duchess of Russia
  • Olga Romanowa (1851–1926), wife of George I of Greece
  • Eugène Znosko-Borovsky (1884–1954), chess master
  • Roman Vishniac (1897–1990), biologist and pioneer of scientific photography
  • Fred Müller (1913–2001), German communist, interbrigadist, officer in the German People's Police and sports official in the GDR

Personalities related to the city


  • Suzanne Massie: Pavlovsk - The Life of a Russian Palace. Hodder & Stoughton, London 1990, ISBN 0-9644184-0-1 .
  • Hubertus Gaßner (Ed.): War and Peace - A German Tsarina in Pavlovsk Castle. Dölling and Galitz, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3-935549-09-1 , table of contents .
  • Ossip Mandelstam : "Music in Pawlowsk", in ders .: Das Rauschen der Zeit , Fischer, Frankfurt / Main 2005 (1925), 4th edition, pp. 9-13.


  • The Pavlovsk Landscape Park. Documentary, Germany, 2013, 52 min., Book: Inga Wolfram, Helge Trimpert, director: Inga Wolfram, moderation: Wladimir Kaminer , production: telekult, MDR , arte , series: Diesseits von Eden, first broadcast: September 15, 2013 on arte , Table of contents by arte.

Web links

Commons : Pavlovsk  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
  2. L. Klein: The first Russian railway . In: General Bauzeitung , born in 1842, S. 112 and panel 451 on . Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  3. Вейнман I. А. , (Russian)