Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg
Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg , actually Hetzendorfer (born February 7, 1732 in Josefstadt (today the 8th district of Vienna ); † December 14, 1816 in Vienna) was an early classical architect from Austria .
Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorfer was the son of the painter Johann Samuel Hetzendorfer from the Upper Palatinate and his wife Theresia Ursula Nefzer. He was born in the Viennese suburb of Josefstadt. After studying at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna , he traveled to Germany and Italy , where he initially worked as a theater and decorative painter. In 1758 he became an honorary member of the newly founded Augsburg Academy. He came to architecture through theater decoration. He was sponsored by State Chancellor Maria Theresa , Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz , so that in 1765 he was entrusted with the architectural management of Schönbrunn Palace , which was redesigned by Maria Theresa after the death of her husband, Emperor Franz Stephan of Lorraine . In 1766 he was ennobled and since then has been called Hetzendorf von Hohenberg. From 1769 to 1772 he was professor at the architecture school of the Vienna Academy, from 1773 until his death its director. In 1773 he also became a member of the Académie de France in Rome. In 1775 he was appointed court architect, in 1776 he was appointed real court architect. In 1804 he became an honorary citizen of the city of Vienna.
His first work was the interior design of the Schönbrunn Palace Theater , which he furnished in a style that was still rococo . However, his later neo-classical renovation proposals were not implemented. Hetzendorf was particularly important as the designer of the palace gardens, which he laid out according to strict French principles. Some sculptures were designed according to his plans, such as the Neptune Fountain .
The most striking building in the palace gardens, the Gloriette , also comes from his plans. It was built between 1772 and 1775 and is considered the first classical building in Austria . It is a triumphal arch on the highest castle hill, which functions both as a vantage point and as a visual closure of the castle garden. It is intended as a war memorial, therefore it is draped with war trophies that come from Johann Baptist Hagenauer and Benedikt Hainrizi (the name "Henrici" is wrong).
The obelisk in the palace garden and the Roman ruins (using decorative parts from the Neugebauten palace), which were the first work of this kind to bring him international recognition, are already very clear classical quotations . This artificial staging of the dilapidated already points to the Romantic era .
In 1783 he rebuilt the Palais Pallavicini '(then Palais Fries) on Josephsplatz , opposite the Hofburg . The front of this building is downright “anti- baroque ”: it is not accentuated towards the entrance and remains purely additive, which is reinforced by the fact that the obligatory caryatids next to the entrance portal are not the only sculptures , but the entire front along vases in regular intervals were provided. This was sharply rejected, and the owner Moritz Reichsgraf von Fries gave in to the pressure of public opinion and commissioned Franz Anton von Zauner (who also designed the monument to Joseph II opposite ) to equip the entrance portal with caryatids.
In the following years, Hetzendorf von Hohenberg dealt primarily with the redesign of churches, namely the Vienna Minorite Church and the Augustinian Church , both originally Gothic churches that had been converted to Baroque style. Most of the baroque interior was removed, which earned him the reputation of being a “regotizer”. But this is definitely double-edged, as he had some modifications made that run counter to the Gothic: for example, he had oratorios built in the Augustinian church in the choir, which seriously disturbs the feeling of height, which is important for the Gothic. In the Minorite Church, he had the Ludwig Choir, an authentic Gothic choir, walled up (it was demolished at the beginning of the 20th century). Even if these changes were inspired by the classical style, he was primarily concerned with a harmonious overall impression that also brought out the Gothic.
This tendency towards neo-Gothic made itself felt more and more in his last projects, for example in his plans (not built in this form) for Laxenburg Palace , where he designed something like an artificial medieval castle.
Hetzendorf von Hohenberg embodied the diverse possibilities of his time like no other. Thoroughly familiar with baroque architecture, he helped classicism to make its breakthrough in Austria, in order to anticipate something like historicism , whose pragmatism - allowing different aesthetic solutions for different types of buildings - had already been anticipated by him.
- Interior of the Schönbrunn Palace Theater , Vienna (1766/67)
- Festive scaffolding on the occasion of canonizations in front of the Piarist Church (founder of the order Saint Joseph von Calasanz) and the Salesian Church , Vienna (1768)
- Altars of the parish church of St. Josef zu Margareten , Vienna (1771)
- Gloriette , Schönbrunn Palace Park, Vienna (1775)
- Obelisk Cascade , Schönbrunn Palace Park, Vienna (1777)
- High altar of the Lichtentaler Church , Vienna (1777)
- Roman ruins , Schönbrunn Palace Park, Vienna (1778)
- Palais Fries (later Pallavicini), Vienna (1783/84)
- Regotisation of the Augustinian Church , Vienna (around 1784)
- Changes to the interior of the Minorite Church in Vienna , (around 1785)
- Changes to the interior of the Michaelerkirche , Vienna (1792)
- Design for the Church of St. Anna , Verl (1792–1801)
- Stucco ceilings in the Schwarzenbergpalais , Vienna (1802)
- various garden structures for Laxenburg Castle
- Triumphal doors, mourning scaffolding, theater brochures
The imperial-royal quarry
- Constantin von Wurzbach : Hetzendorf von Hohenberg, Johann Ferdinand . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 8th part. Imperial-Royal Court and State Printing Office, Vienna 1862, p. 447 f. ( Digitized version ).
- Karl white: Hetzendorff von Hohenberg, Johann Ferdinand . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 12, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1880, p. 323.
- Wilhelm Maximilian Kisch : The old streets and squares of Vienna and their historically interesting houses . Volume 1. 1883, Fig. 186
- Announcements from the Architects' Association Wiener Bauhütte , Vol. 25 (1902), Plate 61/62
- Hans Tietze : Viennese Gothic in the XVIII. Century Art History Yearbook of the kk Central Commission . Volume 3, 1909
- Christine Touaillon: Old Viennese picture book . 1909, p. 48
- Austrian art topography . Volume 2. 1909
- Hans Tietze: The Monuments of the City of Vienna XI. – XXI. District . Volume 14. 1914
- Alfred Schnerich: Vienna's churches and chapels in art and cultural history . 1921
- Moritz Dreger : Building history of the Imperial and Royal Hofburg in Vienna up to the XIX century . Volume 18. 1924
- Dagobert Frey : The monuments of the political district of Baden . 1924
- Austrian construction and craftsmanship . Volume 1 (1924), p. 28 ( digitized version )
- Erwin Hainisch : The classicism of the architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorff von Hohenberg . Dissertation, Vienna 1925
- Erwin Hainisch: The architect Johann Ferdinand von Hetzendorff . 1949
- Erwin Hainisch: The architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorff von Hohenberg , in: Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte . Volume XII (1949)
- Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 2, Publishing House of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1959, p. 307 f. (Direct links on , ). In:
- Renate Wagner-Rieger: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 9, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-428-00190-7 , p. 35 f. ( ). In:
- Entry on Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Entry on Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg in the database of the state's memory for the history of the state of Lower Austria ( Museum Niederösterreich )
- Crafts of the stonemasons and masons in Kaisersteinbruch # Empress Maria Theresia confirmed the craft regulations in 1747
- Helmuth Furch , Historisches Lexikon Kaisersteinbruch. Volume 2 I – Z, Kaiserstein index: Hohenberg buildings, Gloriette Hetzendorf von Hohenberg, garden staircase. Museum and cultural association Kaisersteinbruch , Bruckneudorf-Kaisersteinbruch 2004.
- Historical lexicon Kaisersteinbruch. Volume 2 I-Z. PDF.
|SURNAME||Hetzendorf von Hohenberg, Johann Ferdinand|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Hetzendorf, Johann Ferdinand|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian early classicist architect|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 7, 1732|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Josefstadt (district of Vienna)|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 14, 1816|
|Place of death||Vienna|