Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science
The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science e. V. ( KWG , sometimes also called Kaiser Wilhelm Society when it was founded ) was the sponsor of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (KWI) , leading research institutes that primarily served basic research in Germany, until the end of the Second World War . The KWG had its headquarters in Berlin-Dahlem , but moved it to Göttingen in the final phase of the Second World War.
After the Second World War there was initially a dichotomy. The central administration was still in Göttingen, but in Berlin Robert Havemann was appointed by the magistrate to head the institutes and departments of the KWG that remained in Berlin. He claimed leadership for the entire KWG, including the South and West German institutes, and denied any legitimacy to the Göttingen general administration under Ernst Telschow. Conversely, Max Planck , who was acting president of the “Göttingen” KWG, made the same accusation .
Initiated by Havemann, Fritz Karsen developed a new model for the KWG institutes in Berlin for their future work, which was established on June 3, 1947 by the state agreement between the states of Bavaria, Württemberg-Baden and Hesse on the establishment of a German research university in Berlin-Dahlem and the financing of German research institutes was established. Contrary to the original intentions, however , the German Research University actually only acted “as a transitional society to rescue the Dahlem institutes until they were taken over by the Max Planck Society in 1953”. The other West German KWG institutes were gradually taken over by the newly founded Max Planck Society , which sees itself as the successor and heir of the KWG. The final dissolution of the KWG did not take place until June 21, 1960 .
All "Scientific Members" of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society are listed in the list of Scientific Members of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society , all department heads in the list of department heads in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society , the senators of the KWG are in the list of Senators of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society recorded.
Kaiser Wilhelm Society
The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science was founded on January 11, 1911, the lecture was given by Nobel Prize winner Emil Fischer on “Recent successes and problems in chemistry and biology”. Its Senate elected Adolf Harnack as its President . Three years earlier, based on the model of the “ Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt ”, the “Chemische Reichsanstalt” association was founded with President Ernst Beckmann . In the same year, both institutions signed a contract to build two research institutes,
- the " Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry " and
- the " Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry "
The history of science Dieter Hoffmann attributes the formation of a non-university research institution that was only supposed to be committed to basic research as a reaction to the rapidly growing number of students at the time, to the extraordinarily increased effort for top-level scientific research and to increasing American competition. The institutes were usually privately financed because of the state's financial shortage, the patrons were mainly the “technical and industrial upper middle class as well as Jewish banking capital”. The state, on the other hand, usually took over the salaries of researchers and employees. Fritz Haber , who headed the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical and Electrochemistry , was appointed as the first director . In 1948, numerous institutes of the former KWG became the Max Planck Institutes .
The highest steering committee of the KWG was the Senate; all members of the senate of the KWG are shown in the list of senators of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society .
The decentralized Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes were intended to be used for basic research by a scientific elite. For this, the scientists were released from any teaching obligation, received the most modern equipment and a large staff. It was under these comfortable conditions that groundbreaking scientific discoveries were made. Institutes were founded according to what was later known as the “Harnack Principle”, which was not based on a topic but on an exceptional scientist. An institute was then founded around this person.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes were of different sizes and had different numbers of employees in the positions of scholarship holders , doctoral students , visiting researchers (from Germany and abroad), assistants , laboratory managers and department heads. The directors of some Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes were less misogynistic than usual in their time, so that in ten institutes there were a total of 14 heads of department ; three of them were only unofficial. Three of the 14 heads of department were appointed Scientific Members . Five of them were expelled from their positions during the Nazi era , including the two Scientific Members Lise Meitner and Cécile Vogt .
The work of the society was significantly supported by patrons, including Elise Koenigs .
The fission of the uranium atom was discovered in the Berlin Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry on December 17, 1938 by the chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Straßmann . The role of the other nuclear research programs of the Institute for Nuclear Weapons Research under National Socialism is controversial.
The participation of the biological and medical Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes in National Socialist race research such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics became known . It is known that Professor Julius Hallervorden from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research received brains from Gekrat in quantities of 150 to 250 as part of the T4 campaign . Likewise, poison gas research in the tradition of Fritz Haber at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry ( Peter Adolf Thiessen ) and at the KWI for Medical Research ( Richard Kuhn ) and other war research such as B. the herb campaign and the one at the KWI for Biology by Fritz von Wettstein .
On the initiative of its then President Hubert Markl , in 1997 the Max Planck Society launched the program History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism, which was felt to be "overdue", for self-critical research into its history. Historians Reinhard Rürup and Wolfgang Schieder were in charge of the commission ; the research program was completed at the end of 2005. From this, 17 volumes have been presented on their various fields of research, the corruption of their representatives by Nazi politics, their growing focus on arms research and the cooperation in the criminal human experiments in the extermination camps . This was followed by a volume about the scientists expelled from the circle of the KWG.
The files of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society as well as numerous legacies of outstanding scientists are located in the archive of the Max Planck Society founded in 1975 at the KWG's founding place in Berlin-Dahlem .
Nobel Prize Winner of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
The Max Planck Society assigns the following 15 Nobel Prizes to its predecessor KWG: (alphabetical order, subject and year): Carl Bosch Chemie 1931, Adolf Butenandt Chemie 1939, Peter Debye Chemie 1936, Albert Einstein Physik 1921, James Franck Physik 1925, Fritz Haber Chemistry 1918, Otto Hahn Chemistry 1944, Werner Heisenberg Physics 1932, Richard Kuhn Chemistry 1938, Max von Laue Physics 1914, Otto Meyerhof Medicine 1922, Max Planck Physics 1918, Hans Spemann Medicine 1935, Otto Heinrich Warburg Medicine 1931 and Richard Willstätter Chemistry 1915.
Several of these scientists received a shared Nobel Prize; the relationship between these Nobel Prize winners and the KWG varies: Adolf Butenandt, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, James Franck, Fritz Haber, Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, Richard Kuhn, Otto Meyerhof, Hans Spemann, Otto Warburg and Richard Willstätter were "Scientific Members" of Kaiser Wilhelm Society. Planck was the "permanent secretary" of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and later president of the KWG. Carl Bosch was a member of the Senate of the KWG; he had developed the Haber-Bosch process together with Fritz Haber . He received the Nobel Prize together with Friedrich Bergius for the development of chemical high pressure processes.
President of the KWG
- Adolf von Harnack (1911–1930)
- Max Planck (1930-1936)
- Carl Bosch (1937–1940)
- Albert Vögler (1941–1945)
- Max Planck (1945–1946)
- Otto Hahn (1946–1948)
General secretaries or general directors of the KWG
- Ernst von Simson (1911–1912)
- Ernst Trendelenburg (1912–1920)
- Friedrich Glum (1920–1937)
- Ernst Telschow (1937–1951)
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and Research Centers
The various Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes (KWI) and research centers are listed in the order of their founding year or the year they were taken over by the KWG:
- KWI for chemistry : founded in 1911 in Berlin-Dahlem. Today: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, relocation in 1944 (after being partially bombed in February and March 1944) first to Tailfingen , then to Mainz 1949. The original building is now part of the Institute for Biochemistry as the "Hahn-Meitner-Bau" of the FU Berlin .
- KWI for physical chemistry and electrochemistry : founded in 1911 in Berlin-Dahlem. Today: Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society .
- Rovigno Zoological Station (Istria): Bought in 1911, confiscated by Italy in 1918, from 1930 German-Italian Institute for Marine Biology . 1943 Due to the war, the German branch of the institute was relocated to the Institute for Lake Research and Lake Management of the KWG in Langenargen on Lake Constance. 1946 Continuation as the Hämmerling department of the KWI for Biology. The Italian branch of the institute fell to Yugoslavia in 1945. Re-establishment in 1947 as KWI for Marine Biology in Wilhelmshaven, which was taken over by the Max Planck Society in 1948.
- KWI for Biology : Founded in 1911 in Berlin-Dahlem. Building today: Institute for Biology at FU Berlin . Building use 1948–1994: Main building of the Free University of Berlin, since then used by legal institutes. Later MPI for Biology, Tübingen (closed).
- KWI for Coal Research : Founded in Mülheim an der Ruhr in 1912. Today Max Planck Institute for Coal Research .
- KWI for Occupational Physiology : Founded in Berlin in 1912, relocated to Dortmund in 1929 (today's building of the B1st Software Factory) and merged into today's Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology , located in the TechnologieZentrumDortmund .
- KWI for experimental therapy : founded in 1912 in Berlin-Dahlem, expanded in 1922 (KWI for experimental therapy and biochemistry), 1925 separation of the two sub-institutes to the KWI for experimental therapy and KWI for biochemistry.
- Bibliotheca Hertziana in Rome (KWI for Art and Cultural Studies ): accepted into the KWG in 1913.
- KWI for brain research : founded in 1914 in Berlin-Buch by Oskar Vogt .
- KWI for Physiology : Founded in 1914 in Berlin-Dahlem, but not realized. Only financial support for Emil Abderhalden's research in Halle / Saale until 1944.
- Aerodynamic research institute : Founded in 1915 in Göttingen as a model research institute for aerodynamics with the participation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, which took over as sole sponsor of the aerodynamic research institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (AVA) in 1924; in 1924 it was converted into a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow research, connected with the aerodynamic research institute or since 1936 Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for flow research and aerodynamic research institute, 1937 separation of the institute from the institute and renaming as Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt Göttingen e. V. in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, 1945 confiscated by the US occupation forces, 1946 the Institute for Instrument Science in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society emerged from the AVA, 1947 the central workshop in Göttingen, 1953 reopening as the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt Göttingen e. V. in the Max Planck Society (not fully integrated until 1956), spun off in 1969 at its own request and carried out by the German Research and Research Institute for Aviation and Space Travel. V. taken over.
- KWI for Psychiatry : founded in 1917 by Ludwig III. from Bavaria in Munich, founding director and initiator was Emil Kraepelin ; affiliated to KWG 1924. Today: Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry .
- KWI for Physics : Founded in 1917 in Berlin-Dahlem. Today: Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich. 1943–44 move to Hechingen, 1946 to Göttingen and 1958 to Munich. Use of the original building: 1948–1982: Institute for Physics at the Free University of Berlin , since 1982: University Archives.
- Hydrobiological Institute of the KWG: 1917 Takeover of the Biological Station founded in 1891 in Plön as the Hydrobiological Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society.
- KWI for iron research : founded in 1917 in Aachen . 1921 move to Düsseldorf . Located there since 1948 as the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research .
- KWI for German History : Founded in Berlin-Mitte in 1917 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for German History, closed in 1944, re-established in Göttingen in 1955 as the Max Planck Institute for History.
- Silesian Coal Research Institute of the KWG: founded in 1918 as Fritz v. Friedlaender-Fuld'sches Institute for Coal Research of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society.
- KWI for Fiber Chemistry : Founded in 1920 by Reginald Oliver Herzog , until 1934 in Berlin-Dahlem. Outsourcing of the textile department of the KWI for physical chemistry and electrochemistry, which has existed since 1919. Closed in 1934.
- KWI for Metal Research : Founded in 1921 in Neubabelsberg . 1933 closure due to lack of money. 1934 re-establishment in Stuttgart. Today: Max Planck Institute for Metals Research in Stuttgart .
- KWI for Leather Research : Founded in Dresden in 1921 by Max Bergmann .
- German Entomological Museum / Institute of the KWG: 1922 Takeover of the previous foundation from the City of Berlin.
- KWG ornithological station Rossitten : 1923 Takeover of the ornithological station founded in 1901 in Rossitten on the Curonian Spit in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. Today: Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen with the Radolfzell ornithological station .
- KWI for Foreign Public Law and International Law : Founded in Berlin in 1924. Today: Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg .
- KWI for flow research : founded in 1924 in Göttingen by Ludwig Prandtl .
- Biological station Lunz of the KWG: founded in 1906 by Carl Kuppelwieser, taken over in 1924 by the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the Academy of Sciences in Vienna.
- KWI for Biochemistry : emerged in 1925 from the separation of the KWI for experimental therapy and biochemistry.
- Research institute for hydraulic engineering and hydropower of the KWG: founded in 1925/26 in Munich with a research institute in Obernach / Upper Bavaria.
- Meteorological observatories of the Sonnblick Association : Association founded in 1925/26 with the participation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, with observatories on the Obir near Klagenfurt and the Hohen Sonnblick near Bad Gestein. Partly taken over by the Reich Weather Service in 1939, participation abandoned in 1945.
- KWI for Silicate Research : Founded in 1926 in Berlin-Dahlem by Wilhelm Eitel .
- KWI for foreign and international private law : founded in 1926 in Berlin by Ernst Rabel . Today: Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law .
- KWI for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics : Founded in 1926 in Berlin-Dahlem. Opened in 1927. Use of the building: Otto Suhr Institute of the Free University of Berlin.
- Research center for microbiology : 1923 establishment of a department for microbiology of the KWI for experimental therapy and biochemistry in São Paulo / Brazil, 1927 outsourcing as an independent research center for microbiology of the KWG, closed in 1950.
- KWI for Breeding Research : Founded in Müncheberg in 1929 by Erwin Baur .
- KWI for medical research : Founded in Heidelberg in 1929 by Ludolf von Krehl . Today: Max Planck Institute for Medical Research .
- KWI for Cell Physiology : founded in 1930 in Berlin-Dahlem by Otto Warburg and the Rockefeller Foundation . Building use since 1975: Archive on the history of the Max Planck Society .
- KWG Meteorological Institute : founded in Danzig-Langfuhr in 1933, closed in 1936.
- Institute for Lake Research and Lake Management (KWG): 1936 Takeover of the institute in Langenargen on Lake Constance, which was founded in 1920 and has been run by a registered association, into the administration of KWG. Not accepted into the Max Planck Society.
- KWI for Biophysics : Founded in Frankfurt am Main in 1937 through the transformation of the university institute for the physical foundations of medicine. 1938–1945: Branch in the Oberschlema radium bath. Today: Max Planck Institute for Biophysics .
- KWI for Animal Breeding Research: Founded in 1937 as KWI for Animal Nutrition Research and Animal Breeding under the direction of Gustav Frölich . 1939 Start of work as KWI for animal breeding research in Rostock and on the Dummerstorf experimental farm.
- Limnological station of the KWG: 1937 Takeover of the Limnological Station Niederrhein in Krefeld-Hülserberg, founded in 1928, into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society.
- KWI for bast fiber research : 1938 takeover of the German Research Institute for bast fibers e. V. in Sorau in Niederlausitz (today: Żary / Poland ) from the Association of German Linen Industry. V. with trial roasting facilities in Christianstadt / Bober, under the direction of Ernst Schilling , relocated several times, most recently in 1955 as a Max Planck Institute in Cologne-Vogelsang, closed in 1957.
- Research center for physics of the stratosphere in the KWG: 1938 Takeover of a private facility in Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance as a research center for physics of the stratosphere in the KWG. 1944 war-related destruction and relocation to Weissenau / Württemberg, taken over by the Max Planck Society in 1949.
- Institute for agricultural work science (and agricultural technology) in the KWG: founded in 1940 in Breslau under the direction of Gerhardt Preuschen , moved to Gut Imbshausen in 1945 as an institute for agricultural work science and agricultural technology, taken over by the Max Planck Society in 1948.
- German-Bulgarian Institute for Agricultural Research : founded in 1941, abandoned in 1944 before starting work, in 1948 the research center for plant cultivation and plant breeding was founded in the Max Planck Society at Gut Neuhof near Gießen as a follow-up facility.
- KWI für Phonometrie (German Language Archive) : 1941 Takeover of the German Language Archive, which emerged from the Phonometric Department of the KWI for Brain Research, into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society.
- Workplace for Virus Research of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry and Biology: 1941 merger of the since 1937 operating in Berlin-Dahlem working groups for Virus Research in a workplace for Virus Research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry and Biology with Entomological branch in Oppau / Ludwigshafen .
- KWI for grapevine breeding research : founded in 1942, director Bernhard Husfeld , inventory moved to Würzburg in 1945, not incorporated into the Max Planck Society until 1949.
- German-Greek Institute for Biology in the KWG: Founding and starting work in Piraeus in 1942, abandoned in 1944 due to the war.
- KWI for Crop Plant Research : Founded in 1943 in Tuttenhof near Vienna Today: Leibniz Institute for Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Gatersleben .
- Research center "D" in the KWG: established in Bisingen / Hohenzollern in 1943, occupied and dismantled in 1945, not continued.
- Institute for Instrument Science in the KWG: Founded in Göttingen in 1946, emerged from the Aerodynamic Research Institute, incorporated into the Max Planck Society in 1948.
- Gmelin Institute for Inorganic Chemistry and Border Areas in the KWG: 1946 Takeover of the institute in Clausthal-Zellerfeld, founded in 1940, into the KWG, in 1948 taken over into the Max Planck Society.
- Medical research institute of the KWG: founded in 1947 in Göttingen, incorporated into the Max Planck Society in 1948.
- Research center (Dr.) von Sengbusch in the KWG: Established in Göttingen in 1948 and incorporated into the Max Planck Society in the same year.
- Bernhard vom Brocke , Hubert Laitko (ed.): The Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society and its institutes. Studies on their history: the Harnack principle. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1996, ISBN 3-11-015483-8 .
- Rüdiger Hachtmann : Science Management in the "Third Reich". History of the general administration of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. 2 volumes. Wallstein, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-8353-0108-5 .
- Günter Hartung: Authors from institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society 1924 to 1943. Patent statistics in the historical analysis of institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. In: Bernhard vom Brocke, Hubert Laitko (ed.): The Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society and its institutes. Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1996, pp. 521-542 ( PDF ).
- Eckart Henning , Marion Kazemi : Chronicle of the Kaiser Wilhelm, Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science: 1911–2011. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-428-13623-0 ( 100 years Kaiser Wilhelm, Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science. Part 1).
- Eckart Henning, Marion Kazemi: Handbook on the history of the institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science 1911–2011 - data and sources , Berlin 2016, 2 volumes, volume 1: Institutes and research centers A – L ( online, PDF, 75 MB ), Part 2: Institutes and Research Centers M – Z ( online, PDF, 75 MB ) (Complete title: 100 Years of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, Part 2)
- Ulrike Kohl: The Presidents of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism. Max Planck, Carl Bosch and Albert Vögler between science and power. Steiner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-515-08049-X .
- Rolf-Ulrich Kunze: Ernst Rabel and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Comparative and International Private Law 1926–1945. Wallstein, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-89244-798-5 .
- Günther Luxbacher: Raw materials for self-sufficiency. Textile research in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. 2004 ( PDF ).
- Helmut Maier (Ed.): Community research, authorized representatives and knowledge transfer. The role of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in the system of war-relevant research under National Socialism. Wallstein, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-8353-0182-5 .
- Helmut Maier: Research as a weapon. Armaments research in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Metal Research 1900–1945 / 48 (= History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during National Socialism. Volume 16). 2 volumes. Wallstein, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-8353-0109-2 .
- Kurt Nowak : The Kaiser Wilhelm Society. In: Hagen Schulze, Etienne Francois (Ed.): German places of memory. Volume III. Beck, Munich 2001 ( partially accessible via Google books ).
- Reinhard Rürup : Fates and Careers. Memorial book for the researchers expelled from the Kaiser Wilhelm Society by the National Socialists. (= History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in National Socialism. Volume 14) Wallstein, Göttingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-89244-797-9 .
- Wolfgang Schieder : The military-industrial-scientific complex in the “Third Reich”. The example of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. In: Noyan Dinckal, Christof Dipper , Detlev Mares (eds.): Self- mobilization of science. Technical universities in the "Third Reich". Darmstadt 2010, ISBN 978-3-534-23285-7 , pp. 47-62.
- Ulrich Sucker: The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology. Its founding history, its problem-historical and scientific-theoretical prerequisites (1911–1916). Steiner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-515-07912-2 .
- Florian Schmaltz: Research on warfare agents under National Socialism. For cooperation between Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes, the military and industry. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-880-9 .
- Rudolf Vierhaus , Bernhard vom Brocke (ed.): Research in the field of tension between politics and society. History and structure of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society. DVA, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-421-02744-7 .
- Rudolf Vierhaus: The Kaiser Wilhelm Society as an example for the non-university scientific institutions in the Third Reich. In: Christoph J. Scriba (ed.): The elite of the nation in the Third Reich. The relationship of academies and their scientific environment to National Socialism (= Acta historica Leopoldina. 22). Halle (Saale) 1995, pp. 57-73.
- Annette Vogt : From the back entrance to the main portal? Lise Meitner and her colleagues at the Berlin University and in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. Steiner, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-515-08881-7 ( Pallas Athene 17).
- Annette Vogt: Scientists in Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes. A – Z. 2nd expanded edition. Archive for the history of the Max Planck Society, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-927579-12-5 ( publications from the archive for the history of the Max Planck Society. 12).
- Günter Wendel: The Kaiser Wilhelm Society 1911–1914. On the anatomy of an imperialist research society. Academy, Berlin 1975.
- Inga Meiser: Die Deutsche Forschungshochschule (1947-1953) , publications from the archive of the Max Planck Society, Volume 23, Berlin, 2013, ISBN 978-3-927579-27-9 . The study is the revised version of a dissertation submitted in 2010; it is available online at Inga Meiser: Die Deutsche Forschungshochschule .
- Publications of the research program "History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism"
- Publications of the commission on the history of the KWG under National Socialism in the eDoc server of the Max Planck Society
- Documents and newspaper articles on the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Promotion of Science in the 20th Century Press Kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- The Einstein Association. In: Der Tagesspiegel , January 9, 2011
- Jürgen Renn, Horst Kant, Birgit Kolboske: Stations of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society , Berlin, 2013.
- Category: Scientific member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
- Category: External Scientific Member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
- Inga Meiser: Die Deutsche Forschungshochschule (1947-1953) , p. 77
- The foundation ceremony took place on October 11, 1910 in the Neue Aula of the then Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin, the constituent meeting of the Society took place on January 11, 1911 in the large conference room of the Royal Academy of Arts on Pariser Platz in Berlin . According to Kurt Nowak, Die Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft , see bibliography (p. 55 and subtitle photo p. 59 and p. 58)
- Chronology of the KWI for Chemistry (PDF; 3.6 MB)
- Dieter Hoffmann : Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The Einstein Association. In: Der Tagesspiegel , January 9, 2011.
- For the special post-war history of the Berlin KWG institutes, compare: German Research University and the publication by Inga Meiser.
- Annette Vogt: From the exception to normality? Scientists in academies and in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in: Theresa Robbe (ed.): Between the front stage and the back stage. Bielefeld 2003, pp. 159–190, here p. 164 f.
- Ernst Klee : Euthanasia in the Nazi state
- Peter Hertel on our doorstep. A childhood in the Nazi state - experienced early, explored late , p. 132ff, agenda Verlag Münster 2018, ISBN 978-3-89688-596-8
- Memorial Book
- see publications of the commission at http://www.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/KWG/publications.htm
- see page of the Max Planck Society Nobel Prizes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
- see page of the MPG archive with an overview of the publications in the archive