Atomic shell


from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The articles atomic shell and atom # atomic shell overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. King Muli 12 ( discussion ) 16:07, May 13, 2020 (CEST)
A helium atom . The atomic nucleus (shown in pink) is embedded in a comparatively large cloud of electrons (gray). If the representation were to scale, the gray cloud would have about 5 m in diameter. The core, which is actually spherically symmetrical, is enlarged again at the top right .

The atomic shell or electron shell is the outer part of an atom that consists of electrons . The division of an atom into an atomic nucleus and an atomic shell goes back to Ernest Rutherford , who in 1911 showed in scattering experiments that atoms consist of a tiny, compact core surrounded by a shell.

Ionic radii of atoms

Because of the low mass of the electrons, the uncertainty principle means that the atomic shell is about 20,000 to 150,000 times larger than the atomic nucleus . Despite this large spatial expansion, the atomic shell houses only about 1/2000 to 1/6000 of the mass of the entire atom.

The structure of the electron shell largely determines not only the size of the atoms, but also the chemical properties. The outer part of the atomic shell, the valence shell, is responsible for the chemical bonds . The distribution of electrons in the electron shell of an atom to different energy states or lounges (the quantum mechanical model is the atomic orbital ) is dealt with in the articles electron configuration or in the corresponding section of the article atom .

literature

The electron shell of an atom is explained in detail in many introductory books on atomic physics. Examples are mentioned here

Web links

Commons : Atomic Shell  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. atomic shell. In: Spektrum.de. Retrieved May 13, 2020 .