from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Portal history | Portal Biographies | Current events | Annual calendar

| 19th century | 20th century | 21st century  
| 1900s | 1910s | 1920s | 1930s | 1940s | 1950s | 1960s |
◄◄ | | 1930 | 1931 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | | ►►

Heads of State · Elections · necrology · Literature Year · Music Year · Movie Year · broadcast year · sports year

Johan Laidoner at a young age
Johan Laidoner
is the leader of a
coup in Estonia .
Alexander I.
King Alexander I of Yugoslavia is murdered by
Vlada the chauffeur .
February fights in Vienna
In Austria it comes to civil war .
1934 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1382/83 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1926/27 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 90/91 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1339/40 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2477/78 (southern Buddhism); 2476/77 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 77th (78th) cycle

Year of the Wood Dog甲戌 ( since February 14 , before that water tap癸酉)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 23
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1296/97 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4267/68 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1312/13 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1352/53 (April 15/16)
Japanese calendar 昭和Shōwa 9;
Kōki 2594
Jewish calendar 5694/95 (9/10 September)
Coptic calendar 1650/51 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1109/10
Minguo calendar (China) Year 23 of the republic
Seleucid era Babylon: 2244/45 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2245/46 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2476/77 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1680
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1990/91 (April)

The year 1934 is by the Nazis used to their power in Germany to consolidate and get rid of other political opponents, for example, during the Nazi propaganda designated as Rohm Putsch . The publication of the Marburg speech , the last public speech critical of the regime by Vice Chancellor Franz von Papen , was prevented by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels . After the death of Reich President Paul von Hindenburg , Adolf Hitler united the offices of Reich President and Reich Chancellor and from then on called himself Führer and Reich Chancellor .

Civil war breaks out in Austria . The February uprising of the Social Democratic Republican Protection Association against the Austro-Fascist dictatorship is quickly and bloodily suppressed with the help of the military and the Christian Home Guard. At the end of July the National Socialists tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the Dollfuss government (“ July coup ”). Around 200 people died, including Chancellor Dollfuss . His successor will be the previous Minister of Education, Kurt Schuschnigg .

The Yugoslav King Alexander I and the French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou fell victim to an attack by right-wing Ustashas . He is succeeded by his son Peter II. In a coup d'état , head of state Konstantin Päts and army chief Johan Laidoner take power in Estonia . Päts bans political parties and suspends freedom of expression and freedom of the press . Two months later, a coup d'état by Prime Minister Kārlis Ulmanis follows in Latvia, and four days later the elected government in Bulgaria is also overthrown by a military coup and an authoritarian regime is installed. Belgium's King Albert I dies in a climbing accident; he is followed by his son Leopold III. on the throne.

In China , under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the long march of the Red Army begins, which lasts almost a year and not even 10% of the originally almost 100,000 marchers will survive.

The opera Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk by Dmitri Dmitrijewitsch Shostakowitsch celebrates one success after another after its premiere in the Mariinsky Theater in Leningrad , Italy wins the soccer world championship in its own country, Donald Duck has his first appearance in the short film The Wise Little Hen and off the Philippines, The Pearl of Allah is found, to this day the largest pearl in the world.


Politics and world events

January 1st

Switzerland : Marcel Pilet-Golaz becomes Federal President .
German Empire : The state of Mecklenburg is founded.

January 26th German-Polish non-aggression pact
February 9 The Balkan Entente against Bulgaria is closed.
12 - February 15 Austria : The February uprising is bloodily suppressed.
February 23 Leopold III. becomes king of the Belgians .
March 12th Estonia : Coup d'état by Konstantin Päts and Johan Laidoner .
17. March Roman protocols between Italy, Austria and Hungary
1st of May Austria: The May constitution comes into force.
May 11th German Reich: " Action against bad guys and criticism "
May 15 Latvia : Coup by Kārlis Ulmanis .
May 19th : Military coup in Bulgaria
May 20th The Saudi-Yemeni war ends with the Taif Agreement .
14th June Adolf Hitler on a state visit to Italy.
June 30th " Röhm Putsch " in the German Empire
July 25th July coup in Austria, Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss is murdered.
30th July Austria: Kurt Schuschnigg becomes Federal Chancellor.
August 2nd German Empire: Reich President Paul von Hindenburg dies.
August 19th Referendum on the head of state of the German Reich
September 18 The Soviet Union is accepted into the League of Nations .
9th October Kingdom of Yugoslavia : King Alexander I is murdered.
October 27 China : The Long March of Mao Zedong's Communist Party begins.
Ongoing events

German Empire

Mecklenburg 1815-1934
Law on State Emergency Defense Measures of July 3, 1934


Kurt Schuschnigg 1934

France / Andorra

Police on the Place de la Concorde, February 7, 1934
  • February 6th : Third French Republic : Following a large anti-government demonstration in Paris, the unrest of February 6th, 1934 ensues . In street battles, members of the right-wing extremist leagues almost manage to storm the Palais Bourbon , where the Chamber of Deputies is currently in session. The police use firearms, 15 demonstrators are killed and over 2,000 injured. The unrest was triggered by a corruption affair and the related dismissal of the Paris police prefect.
  • February 7 : The left cabinet of Daladier II resigns as a result of the unrest of February 6, 1934 ; he is followed by the conservative Doumergue II cabinet .
  • July 7th : The exiled Russian nobleman Boris Michailowitsch Skossyrew is proclaimed king by the Andorran parliament. He received 23 votes out of 24. Boris I had 10,000 copies of his constitution printed and sent them to Spanish and French personalities. France does not intervene, not being too interested in Andorran affairs, leaving matters to the General Council and considering the monarchy valid. The Spanish Council of Ministers also sees no need for action. On July 21, however , the Bishop of Urgell, as co-prince of Andorra , sends four Spanish police officers into the country and arrests the pretender to the throne.
  • November 8 : Pierre-Étienne Flandin succeeds the resigned Gaston Doumergue as Prime Minister of France.


Leopold III. of Belgium

Other events in Central and Western Europe


Record of the attack

Baltic States and Soviet Union

Ulmanis in 1934



The long march

Saudi-Yemeni War


science and technology


The Sikorsky S-42
The Zaschka muscle power aircraft

More inventions and discoveries

Mount Sidley


Visual arts

Amrita Sher-Gil, self-portrait as a Tahitian



Music and theater

Program sheet of the world premiere


Governor's Palace in Williamsburg


Alcatraz satellite image
  • January 1 : The former fort on Alcatraz Island off San Francisco is converted into a federal prison . The first inmates, 53 men from Atlanta State Prison, will arrive later this year. Alcatraz functions as a maximum security prison until 1963 , accommodating prisoners who have been deemed incorrigible and difficult in other prisons.
  • May 28th : The Dionne quintuplets are born in the Canadian province of Ontario . You will be the first babies to manage a one in 57 million chance of survival.
  • Founding of the youth association of the Gray Order



Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment


Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics not awarded
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Harold C. Urey
United States 48United States United States "For his discovery of heavy hydrogen " Harold C. Urey
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine George Hoyt Whipple
United States 48United States United States "For your liver therapy against anemia "
George Richards Minot
United States 48United States United States
William Parry Murphy
United States 48United States United States
Nobel Prize in literature Luigi Pirandello
Italy 1861Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946) Italy "For his bold and ingenious new creation of drama and stage art" Luigi Pirandello
Nobel Peace Prize Arthur Henderson
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom Chairman of the Conference on the Disarmament of the League of Nations (1932–1934) Arthur Henderson




Murtasa Rachimow (2006)
Niklaus Wirth, 2005
Rue McClanahan 2007


Yuri Gagarin
Richard Chamberlain


Jane Goodall (2010)
Roman Herzog (2006)
Shirley MacLaine (1987)


Harlan Ellison (1986)


Albert II of Belgium, 2010
Mikel Laboa, 2007


Sydney Pollack, 2006
Alfred Biolek (2009)
Giorgio Armani, 2009


Valery Bykowski (2008)
Armi Kuusela (1959)
Norman Schwarzkopf (1988)



Amiri Baraka (center)
Nana Mouskouri, 2012


Klaus Richtzenhain
Carl Sagan, 1980


Tarcisio Bertone
Judi Dench, 2007
Rudi Carrell, 1980
Larissa Latynina
John N. Bahcall

Exact date of birth unknown


January February

Herbert Chapman
Fritz Haber, 1918

March April

May June

Alfred Bruneau

July August

Marie Curie, 1920
Paul von Hindenburg
Tannatt William Edgeworth David

September October

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

November December

Walther Bensemann 1896
Joachim Ringelnatz, before 1925

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1934  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. (RGBl. I, p. 91, full text )