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Calendar overview 1881
|US President James A. Garfield dies as a result of an attack by Charles J. Guiteau .|
|battle of Majuba Hill decides the First Boer War in favor of the Boers .||ring theater fire in Vienna cost at least 384 lives.|
|Alexander II of Russia is murdered in an assassination attempt.||Carol I proclaims the Kingdom of Romania .|
|1881 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1329/30 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1873/74 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||37/38 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1286/87 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2424/25 (southern Buddhism); 2423/24 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle
Year of the Metal Snake辛巳 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Dragon 庚辰)
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1243/44 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4214/15 (2-3 October)|
|Iranian calendar||1259/60 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1298/99 (November 23/24)|
Meiji 14 (
明治 14 年);
|Jewish calendar||5641/42 (23/24 September)|
|Coptic Calendar||1597/98 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1296/97 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2191/92 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2192/93 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1937/38 (April)|
Politics and world events
- February 27: The battle on Majuba Hill decides the First Boer War in favor of the Boers .
- March 23rd: Great Britain signs a peace treaty with the South African Republic that ends the First Boer War .
- August 3rd: The Pretoria Convention is signed. The South African Boer Republic of the Transvaal received extensive self-government from Great Britain after an uprising triggered by the British annexation in 1877 . The treaty will enter into force on October 25th after ratification.
Other events in Africa
- February 16: The French officer and Africa explorer Paul Flatters and his companions are lured into a trap and killed during an expedition to explore a route for a Trans-Saharan railway from Tuareg .
- May 12: After the invasion of French troops is the date the Ottoman Empire associated Tunisia by the Treaty of Kasr el Said, also Treaty of Bardo called a protectorate of France . Muhammad III Al-Husain , Bey of Tunis, is forced to sign the treaty.
- June 29: Muhammad Ahmad declares his mission to the Egyptian government and thus triggers the Mahdi uprising .
United States of America
- March 4: Inauguration of James A. Garfield as 20th President of the United States . He replaces Rutherford B. Hayes .
- July 2: Charles J. Guiteau shoots US President James A. Garfield .
- July 20: Sioux chief Sitting Bull and his companions surrender to the United States Army at Fort Buford (North Dakota) . Hunger, longing for their homeland and little chance of success in the further struggle have induced the Indians to return from exile in Canada.
- September 19: US President James A. Garfield dies from injuries sustained in the July 2 attack. His successor as the 21st US President will be the previous Vice President Chester A. Arthur .
- July 23: Chile and Argentina contractually agree on their territories in Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia .
- January 1st: Numa Droz becomes President of Switzerland .
- March 26th: The Principality of Romania proclaims itself a kingdom , Prince Carol I becomes king. The coronation will take place on May 10th in Bucharest.
- March 13: The Russian Tsar Alexander II is assassinated. His son Alexander III. follow him to the throne. One of his first acts is the foundation of the secret police Okhrana .
- June 18: The secret three emperor's union between the German Reich , Austria-Hungary and Russia obliges the contracting parties to remain neutral in the event of a conflict with a fourth party. The alliance has a term of three years and replaces the three emperor agreement of 1873 , which was terminated by Russia .
- October 27: In the Reichstag election , the German Center Party receives the highest share of the vote and has around a quarter of the members of the new Reichstag .
- France establishes the first free public elementary schools for the “general” population.
- The Seaforth Highlanders Regiment is launched.
- February 13: The first issue of the radical feminist magazine La Citoyenne by Hubertine Auclert appears in Paris. The main focus of the publication is the legal discrimination against French women anchored in the Civil Code .
- March 8: Eduard Breuninger opens the Breuninger department store on Stuttgart's market square .
- May 14th: Rudolph Karstadt opens his first shop in Wismar under the name Tuch-, Manufactur- und Confectionsgeschäft Karstadt . Karstadt has been successful right from the start with low fixed prices instead of the usual bargaining, so that branches quickly open in 24 cities in northern Germany.
- October 1st: The river Wey feeds the first electricity station on earth with its energy in Godalming in the English county of Surrey . Street lighting , among other things, is operated with alternating current .
- December 4: The Los Angeles Daily Times appears for the first time. After a bankruptcy, the paper becomes a high-circulation US daily under the current name of Los Angeles Times .
science and technology
- October 21: Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan sees the galaxy later known as NGC 5 in the constellation Andromeda .
- October 24: Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan is the first to see the galaxy NGC 11 in the constellation Andromeda .
- October 25: Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan discovers the galaxy NGC 38 in the constellation Pisces .
- November 19: A meteorite falls in the Ukraine near Großliebenthal , southwest of Odessa .
- October 10: The first edition of the work The Formation of Vegetable Mold through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits ( The Formation of Vegetable Mold Through the Action of Worms ) by Charles Darwin appears. With this book, Darwin concludes his decades of studies on the interrelationships between earthworms and soil conditions, as well as on the behavior of these animals.
- September 25: Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer performs the first conservative caesarean section.
- August 10: The first international electricity exhibition is held in Paris . The visitors are fascinated by the light bulbs developed by Thomas Alva Edison together with Sigmund Bergmann .
- September 21st: The First International Electricity Congress specifies ohms as the unit of measurement for electrical resistance . He is honoring the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm and his work.
- April 1: The first telephone network is opened in Berlin with 48 subscribers. There is much greater demand in Hamburg , whose first telephone network will open on April 16 with 206 subscribers.
- May 16: In Lichterfelde near Berlin, the world's first electrically operated tram , the Lichterfelde – Kadettenanstalt electric tram , begins its trial operation.
- June 14th: The first German telephone directory appears in Berlin , one day later the first in Vienna .
- August 7th: The Aspangbahn begins operations as far as Pitten; on October 28th this will be completed as far as Aspang.
- The Gotthard tunnel is blessed.
- Thomas Alva Edison builds the world's first power station.
Other scientific events
- April 18: The Natural History Museum opens in London .
- In Athens which is American School of Classical Studies at Athens founded.
- Pope Leo XIII makes the Vatican Secret Archives accessible to scholars.
- In the Valley of the Kings in Egypt is Emil Brugsch-Bey a grave with 40 Egyptian royal mummies.
- The first delivery of the Swiss Idiotikon appears.
- Wilhelm Leibl paints the oil painting Three Women in the Church in the style of realism .
- July 7th: In Rome, the weekly newspaper Giornale per i bambini published the first story about The Adventures of Pinocchio , written by Carlo Collodi, under the title Le Avventure Di Pinocchio: Storia Di Un Burattino .
- The novel The Portrait of a Lady ( Portrait of a Lady ) by Henry James appears for the first time in book form.
- The Norwegian Henrik Ibsen writes the play Ghosts. A family drama in three acts .
Music and theater
- February 10: Four months after the death of the composer Jacques Offenbach's opera Les contes d'Hoffmann (Hoffmann's Tales) , in which he incorporated some melodies from his earlier opera Die Rheinnixen, premiered at the Paris Opéra-Comique . The Opéra-comique becomes Offenbach's only successful opera.
- February 25: The premiere of the opera The Maid of Orléans by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky takes place at the Court Opera in Saint Petersburg.
- March 24th: The opera Simon Boccanegra by Giuseppe Verdi is premiered at La Scala in Milan in an extensively revised version after it failed the audience in 1857. The second version met with great acclaim.
- June 11: The world premiere of Bedrich Smetana's opera Libuše , the Prague National Theater opened. The libretto comes from Josef Wenzig in the Czech translation by Ervín Špindler and is based on the Königinhofer manuscript, which was probably forged by Václav Hanka .
- August 9th: In Paris, the theatrophone for the stereophonic transmission of opera and theatrical performances over a telephone is presented for the first time.
- November 25th: The operetta The Merry War by Johann Strauss (son) is premiered at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna. The libretto comes from the tried and tested team of F. Zell and Richard Genée .
- December 7th: The world premiere of the opera Das Käthchen von Heilbronn by Karl Reinthaler based on a libretto by Heinrich Bulthaupt , based on the play of the same name by Heinrich von Kleist , takes place in Frankfurt am Main.
- DECEMBER 19: The opera Hérodiade of Jules Massenet is the Théâtre de la Monnaie premiered in Brussels.
- February 27: Prince Wilhelm of Prussia wed Auguste Viktoria in Berlin . Both later become the German imperial couple.
- MAY 21: The initiative of Clara Barton resulting American Red Cross is founded.
- October 26: In Tombstone ( Arizona ) that will gunfight at the OK Corral held in which the McLaury brothers and the Clanton brothers Wyatt Earp and his brothers and Doc Holliday faced.
- April 3: A severe earthquake devastates the island of Chios , which belongs to the Ottoman Empire, and the Çeşme peninsula. The epicenter of the quake is probably southeast of the island. The death toll is given as 5058 to 7866, and thousands are injured. Three quarters of all buildings on the island are destroyed or damaged, and the city of Chios is devastated. A minor tsunami may occur as a result of the earthquake events. Sand found away from the coast, which is interpreted as an indication of this, could also come from soil liquefaction. Several strong aftershocks occur in the following weeks.
- March 23: A fire from the limelight destroys the Nice Opera, killing over 200. - This catastrophe and the theater fires of August 12th in Prague and December 8th in Vienna mean the end of gas lighting in the theater and the beginning of its electrification .
- August 12: In a fire in the Prague National Theater , which only opened on June 11, the brass roof, the stage and the auditorium burn down completely.
- December 8: In Vienna , when the gas lighting is ignited, the Ringtheater burns down, the building is completely destroyed. The ring theater fire is one of the worst fire disasters in the 19th century with over 450 deaths . After that, the iron curtain becomes compulsory in theaters . The Vienna Voluntary Rescue Society is founded the day after the fire . At their head are Johann Nepomuk Graf Wilczek as Honorary President, Eduard Lamezan-Salins as President and Jaromír Mundy as General Secretary.
- August 30: The British passenger steamer RMS Teuton rams a reef at Danger Point on the coast of the South African Cape Colony and sinks while attempting to reach the port city of Simon's Town . Of the 272 passengers and crew, only 36 survive.
- September 11th: In the Elm am Tschingelberg landslide in the Swiss canton of Glarus , around 10 million m³ of rock break off as a result of improper slate mining and spill part of the village of Elm ; 114 people die and 83 buildings are destroyed.
- October 14: 189 Scottish fishermen lose their lives in a hurricane on the east coast of Scotland in the Eyemouth disaster .
- December 15: The El Habra dam in Algeria breaks; around 250 people are killed.
nature and environment
- August 4th: A temperature of 50 ° C is reportedly measured in Seville , Spain . That would be the European peak, but 46.6 ° C is confirmed.
- July 23: With the European Gymnastics Federation ( Fédération Européenne de Gymnastique - FEG), one of the oldest international associations at sport level is established, after renaming in 1921 through the inclusion of non-European members today: Internationaler Turner-Bund ( Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique - FIG).
- November 20: The Villach rowing club is founded.
- November 23: Foundation of EV Ravensburg
- The Norwegian Sveinung Svalastoga reached the world record distance of 22 meters in ski jumping on Husebybakken in Kristiania (Oslo) .
- Vajiravudh , King of Siam (1910–1925) († 1925) January 1:
- Carry van Bruggen , Dutch writer († 1932) January 1:
- Paul Gustav Bernhard Assmann , German geologist and paleontologist († 1967) January 3:
- Ernst Epstein , Austrian architect († 1938) January 4:
- Cyril de Vère , French racing car driver († 1964) January 4th:
- Wilhelm Lehmbruck , German sculptor († 1919) January 4:
- Nikolaj Velimirović , Serbian Orthodox Bishop († 1956) January 4:
- Nikolai Andrejewitsch Roslawez , Ukrainian composer († 1944) January 4:
- Pablo Gargallo , Spanish sculptor († 1934) January 5:
- Paul Arnold Walty , Swiss football player († 1969) January 5:
- Henrik Galeen , German screenwriter, director and actor († 1949) January 7th:
- Felix Rütten , German Roman Catholic priest, historian and teacher († 1961) January 7th:
- Lascelles Abercrombie , English writer († 1938) January 9:
- January 10: Auguste Le Guennant , French organist, composer and music teacher († 1972)
- January 12: Léon Fabert , French racing car driver († 1936)
- January 12: Léon Molon , French racing car driver and aircraft pioneer († 1952)
- January 13: Friedrich Knutzen , German politician († 1938)
- January 14: Wassili Michailowitsch Alexejew , Russian sinologist († 1951)
- January 17: José André , Argentine composer and music critic († 1944)
- January 17: Alfred Radcliffe-Brown , British social anthropologist († 1955)
- January 17th: Karl Scharnagl , Lord Mayor of Munich († 1963)
- January 17th: William Ewart Napier , American chess master of English origin († 1952)
- January 21: Fritz Freisler , Austrian actor and film director († 1955)
- January 22nd: Sigismund Freyer , German show jumper and officer († 1944)
- January 25: Elly Heuss-Knapp , German politician, founder of the maternal recovery organization († 1952)
- January 25: Emil Ludwig , German writer († 1948)
- January 26: Forrest Lamont , Canadian singer and music teacher († 1937)
- January 26: Alfons Paquet , German journalist, writer and poet († 1944)
- January 28: Juan José de Amézaga Landaraso , Uruguayan lawyer († 1956)
- January 28: Siegfried Jacobsohn , German journalist and theater critic († 1926)
- January 31: Irving Langmuir , American chemist, physicist and Nobel Prize winner († 1957)
- Achim Konstantin Rudolf Ferdinand von Arnim , German officer († 1940) February 1:
- Otto Baer , local politician and Lord Mayor of Magdeburg († 1966) February 1:
- José Ignacio Quintón , Puerto Rican composer and pianist († 1925) February 1:
- Alfredo Accorsi , Italian gymnast († 1951) February 2:
- Lorenz Ludwig Maximilian Ernst von Angerer , German physicist († 1951) February 2:
- Gustav Herglotz , German mathematician and astronomer († 1953) February 2:
- Fernand Léger , French painter, graphic artist and ceramicist († 1955) February 4:
- Jakow Protasanow , Russian-Soviet film director († 1945) February 4:
- Kliment Voroshilov , Russian party and state official, Marshal of the Soviet Union († 1969) February 4:
- Richard Meister , Austrian classical philologist and pedagogue († 1964) February 5:
- Gladys Marie Deacon , mistress († 1977) February 7th:
- February 11: Carlo Carrà , Italian painter and art writer († 1966)
- February 11: Anselm Wütschert , Swiss criminal († 1915)
- February 12: Anna Pavlova , Russian master dancer of classical ballet († 1931)
- February 13: Eleanor Farjeon , British children's author, poet and playwright († 1965)
- February 14: František Čech-Vyšata , Czech travel writer († 1942)
- February 16: Hans Meiser , Protestant regional bishop of Bavaria († 1956)
- February 16: Hans Vogel , German wood sculptor and politician († 1945)
- February 19: Armin Knab , German composer († 1951)
- February 19: Paul Zech , German writer and publicist of Expressionism († 1946)
- February 21: Kenneth J. Alford , British composer († 1945)
- February 21: Heinrich Mendelssohn , German building contractor († 1959)
- February 21: Walter Scharwenka , German composer and organist († 1960)
- February 22nd: Josef Scheuber , Swiss clergyman and educator († 1961)
- February 24: Per Askim , Norwegian naval officer († 1963)
- February 24: Gustav Hillard , German writer, dramaturge and critic († 1972)
- February 25: Alexei Rykov , Soviet politician († 1938)
- February 26: Hans Strobel , German architect and building officer († 1953)
- February 26: Janus Djurhuus , Faroese poet († 1948)
- February 27: Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer , Dutch mathematician († 1966)
- February 27: Sveinn Björnsson , first Icelandic President († 1952)
- Léon Derny , French car and motorcycle racing driver († 1963) March 1:
- Jakob Rauch , German clergyman († 1956) March 2:
- Richard C. Tolman , American physicist († 1948) March 4:
- Philip Allen Bennett , American politician († 1942) March 5:
- Hildegard Maria von Bayern , Bavarian Princess († 1948) March 5:
- Jack C. Walton , American politician († 1949) March 6:
- Ernest Bevin , British union leader and politician († 1951) March 9:
- Wera Tubandt , German chemist († 1944) March 9:
- March 11th: Ladislav Zelenka , Czech cellist († 1957)
- March 13: Gustav Karl Wilhelm Aubin , German-Austrian economist and economic historian († 1938)
- March 14: Eduard Ludwig Alexander , German politician († 1945)
- March 14: Paul Köttgen , German soil scientist († 1956)
- March 15: John Peter Barnes , American lawyer († 1959)
- March 16: Vicente Tosta Carrasco , President of Honduras († 1930)
- March 17: Walter Rudolf Hess , Swiss physiologist († 1973)
- March 17th: Helene Weber , German politician, one of the four "Mothers of the Basic Law" († 1962)
- March 18: Paul Le Flem , French composer († 1984)
- March 18: Josef Suttner , Czech horn player († 1974)
- March 19: Peter Pringsheim , German physicist († 1963)
- March 20: Leberecht Migge , German landscape architect († 1935)
- March 20: Madame d'Ora , Austrian photographer († 1963)
- March 20: Fritz Pfleumer , German-Austrian engineer († 1945)
- March 20: Eugène Schueller , French chemist and founder of L'Oréal († 1957)
- March 21: Karl Fischer , German founder of the Wandervogel movement († 1941)
- March 23: Gaetano Azzariti , Italian lawyer and politician († 1961)
- March 23: Roger Martin du Gard , French writer († 1958)
- March 23: Egon Petri , Dutch pianist († 1962)
- March 23: Hermann Staudinger , German chemist († 1965)
- March 25: Béla Bartók , Hungarian composer († 1945)
- March 28: Martin Sheridan , American athlete († 1918)
- March 31: Otto Stolz , Austrian historian and folklorist († 1957)
- Octavian Goga , Romanian poet, playwright and politician († 1938) April 1:
- Wilhelm Sollmann , German journalist and politician († 1951) April 1:
- Diran Alexanian , Armenian cellist, composer and music teacher († 1954) April 2:
- Alcide De Gasperi , Italian statesman and politician († 1954) April 3:
- Hans Kniep , German botanist and university professor († 1930) April 3:
- Wilhelm Büning , German architect († 1958) April 4:
- Marie Madeleine von Puttkamer , German writer († 1944) April 4:
- Wilhelm Dachauer , Austrian painter († 1951) April 5:
- Olga Limburg , German actress († 1970) April 5:
- Rudolph Wolken , German-American wrestler († 1956) April 7th:
- Fernand Lamy , French conductor, composer and music teacher († 1966) April 8:
- Peter Rohr , Romanian-German composer and conductor († 1956) April 8:
- April 11: Harvey Bartlett Gaul , American composer and organist († 1945)
- April 12: Walther Adam , German industrialist and art collector († 1964)
- April 12: Earle Bradford Mayfield , American politician († 1964)
- April 12: Rudolf Ramek , Austrian lawyer and politician († 1941)
- April 13: Ludwig Binswanger , Swiss psychiatrist († 1966)
- April 13: Ernst Heilmann , German politician († 1940)
- April 13: Hermann Thorade , German oceanographer († 1945)
- April 14: Henryk Grossmann , German-Polish economist, statistician and historian († 1950)
- April 16: Wilhelm Ernst Asbeck , German writer († 1947)
- April 17: Anton Wildgans , Austrian playwright and poet († 1932)
- April 18: Ferdinand Habacher , Austrian veterinarian and university professor († 1971)
- April 19: Hans Löscher (own Gustav Robert Löscher), German writer and educator († 1946)
- April 19: William von Simpson , German writer († 1945)
- April 20: Nikolai Myaskovsky , Russian composer († 1950)
- April 20: Marc de Ranse , French composer, organist, conductor and music teacher († 1951)
- April 20: Leopold Rückert , Baden politician († 1942)
- April 21: Günther Jacoby , German philosopher († 1969)
- April 24: Ernesto Buonaiuti , Italian theologian († 1946)
- April 24: Jakob Kneip , German homeland poet in the Hunsrück († 1958)
- April 24: Paul Merker , German literary historian († 1945)
- April 30: Julian F. Abele , American architect († 1950)
- Pierre Teilhard de Chardin , French Jesuit, geologist and paleontologist († 1955) May 1:
- Wilhelm Ferch , Romanian-German composer and choir director († 1922) May 3:
- Alexander Kerensky , Russian politician († 1970) May 4:
- Jonathan Petersen , Greenlandic composer, songwriter, poet, writer, linguist, organist and university lecturer († 1961) May 7:
- Rudolf Staechelin , Swiss entrepreneur and art collector († 1946) May 8:
- Hermann Aichele , German administrative officer († 1940) May 9:
- May 10: Karl Brückel , German actor, theater director, singer and radio play speaker († 1980)
- May 11: Theodore von Kármán , Hungarian pioneer of modern aerodynamics († 1963)
- May 12: Achmed Abdullah , American writer and screenwriter of Russian origin († 1945)
- May 15: Hugo Zuckermann , German writer and Zionist († 1914)
- May 16: Breckinridge Long , American diplomat († 1958)
- May 16: Hans Tichi , German expellee politician († 1955)
- May 19 (symbolic): Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , Turkish state founder and first president († 1938)
- May 20: Władysław Sikorski , Polish officer and politician († 1943)
- May 21: Heinrich Haslinde , German politician († 1958)
- May 21, Iosif Iser , Romanian painter († 1958)
- May 23: Ludwig Kaas , German politician (center) († 1952)
- May 24th: August Konermann , German Roman Catholic pastor and journalist († 1950)
- May 26: Rudolf Berg , German industrialist († 1955)
- May 26: Adolfo de la Huerta , singer, politician and President of Mexico († 1955)
- May 27: Adolf Erbslöh , German painter († 1947)
- May 27: Edward V. Robertson , American politician of Welsh descent († 1963)
- May 28: Augustin Bea , German cardinal and theologian († 1968)
- May 30: Georg Kohl , German politician († 1952)
- May 30: Georg von Küchler , German Field Marshal General in World War II († 1968)
- May 31: Heinrich Burger , German figure skater († 1942)
- Heinrich Achenbach , German politician († 1966) June 2:
- Marcel Chailley , French violinist and music teacher († 1936) June 3:
- Arthur Henney , German racing car driver and entrepreneur († 1958) June 3:
- Mikhail Fyodorowitsch Larionow , Russian painter († 1964) June 3:
- Barthélémy Bruyère , Belgian racing driver († 1950) June 4:
- Richard Kurt Donin , Austrian art historian († 1963) June 4:
- Axel Leonard Wenner-Gren , Swedish industrialist († 1961) June 5:
- François Coli , French aviation pioneer († 1927) June 5:
- Próspero Bisquertt , Chilean composer († 1959) June 8:
- Felix Graf von Luckner , German navigator and writer († 1966) June 9:
- June 10: Ed Sol , Dutch football player († 1965)
- June 10: Leopold von Hoesch , German diplomat († 1936)
- June 12: Johann Jakob Ammann , Austrian politician († 1955)
- June 13: Mary Antin , American author and activist († 1949)
- June 14th: George Alan Thomas , British chess, badminton and tennis player († 1972)
- June 14: Karl Müller , German botanist and oenologist († 1955)
- June 15: Milly Steger , German sculptor († 1948)
- June 16: Natalija Sergejewna Goncharova , Russian-French painter († 1962)
- June 17: Leonhard Adelt , German bookseller, writer and journalist († 1945)
- June 18: Zoltán von Halmay , Hungarian swimmer and swimming coach († 1956)
- June 18: Jimmy Walker , Mayor of New York († 1946)
- June 25: Robert Gilbert Vansittart , British diplomat († 1957)
- June 26: Marie Schlieps , German-Baltic deaconess and evangelical martyr († 1919)
- June 27: Paul Fauchet , French organist and composer († 1937)
- June 29: Curt Sachs , German music theorist and teacher († 1959)
- June 29: Louis Trousselier , French cyclist († 1939)
- June 30: Leopold Petznek , Austrian politician, President of the Court of Auditors († 1956)
- June 30: Friedrich Zucker , German classical philologist and papyrologist († 1973)
- Franz Heinrich Achermann , Swiss clergyman and author († 1946) July 1:
- Eduard von Steiger , Swiss politician († 1962) July 2:
- Egenolf von Berckheim , German submarine commander († 1915) July 2:
- Simeon Dooley , American blues singer and guitarist († 1961) July 3:
- Paul Augé , French publisher, Romance studies and lexicographer († 1951) July 4th:
- August Hlond , Archbishop of Warsaw and Primate in Poland († 1948) July 5:
- Thomas Parnell , first professor of physics from England at the University of Queensland (Australia) († 1948) July 5:
- Nancy Dalberg , Danish composer († 1949) July 6:
- Hugo Dingler , German philosopher († 1954) July 7th:
- Josef Winckler , German writer († 1966) July 7th:
- July 12: Franz Schrönghamer-Heimdal , German local poet († 1962)
- July 12: Ludwig Rubiner , German poet, literary critic and essayist († 1920)
- July 16: Fernando Ortíz Fernández , Cuban scientist, politician and lawyer († 1969)
- July 17: Edmund Bursche , Polish Protestant theologian, church historian and pastor († 1940)
- July 19: Friedrich Dessauer , German physicist, entrepreneur and publicist († 1963)
- July 19: Arnold von Salis , Swiss archaeologist († 1958)
- July 22: Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski , Polish doctor, general, diplomat and politician († 1942)
- July 22nd: Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel , Austrian painter and illustrator († 1965)
- July 23: Georg Freundorfer , German zither player and composer († 1940)
- July 26: Bernhard Bleeker , German sculptor († 1968)
- July 26th: Jean Chassagne , French racing car driver († 1947)
- July 26: Osanai Kaoru , Japanese playwright, translator and theater director († 1928)
- July 27: Hans Fischer , German chemist († 1945)
- July 28: William Bowman , American fencer and lawyer († 1947)
- July 28: Günther Quandt , German industrialist († 1954)
- July 29th: Ignacy Dygas , Polish singer (tenor) († 1947)
- Kornel Abel , Austrian officer († unknown) August 1:
- Aizu Yaichi , Japanese literary scholar and poet († 1956) August 1:
- Stanisław Kazuro , Polish composer († 1961) August 1:
- Otto Toeplitz , German professor of mathematics († 1940) August 1:
- Wenzel Hablik , German painter, graphic artist and artisan († 1934) August 4:
- Alexander Fleming , British bacteriologist and Nobel Prize winner († 1955) August 6:
- François Darlan , French admiral and politician († 1942) August 7:
- Ewald von Kleist , General Field Marshal in the Third Reich († 1954) August 8:
- Adele Bloch-Bauer , Austrian entrepreneur's wife and model of Gustav Klimt († 1925) August 9:
- August 10: Witter Bynner , American poet († 1968)
- August 12: Wolfgang Aly , German classical philologist († 1962)
- August 12: Cecil B. DeMille , American director and film producer († 1959)
- August 13: Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauchhaupt , German legal scholar († 1989)
- August 15: Elisabeth Schiemann , German botanist († 1972)
- August 18: Bruno Adriani , German-American lawyer, art historian and patron († 1971)
- August 18: Hermann Zilcher , German composer, music teacher and pianist († 1948)
- August 19: George Enescu , Romanian composer, violinist and conductor († 1955)
- August 19: Georg Glatzl , German organ builder († 1947)
- August 19: Eva von der Osten , German singer (soprano) († 1936)
- August 20: Rosa Manus , Dutch feminist († 1943)
- August 24: Vincenzo Lancia , Italian automobile designer († 1937)
- August 26: Franz Gürtner , German politician, Minister of Justice during the Nazi era († 1941)
- August 27: Josef Beyerle , Württemberg politician († 1963)
- August 29: Byron Patton Harrison , American politician († 1941)
- August 29: Edvin Kallstenius , Swedish composer († 1967)
- August 29: Valery Larbaud , French writer and literary critic († 1957)
- Octave Aubry , French historian and writer († 1946) September 1:
- Gaby Deslys , French revue dancer, actress, singer († 1920) September 4th:
- Henry Maitland Wilson , British Field Marshal in World War II († 1964) September 5:
- Otto Bauer , Austrian Social Democrat († 1938) September 5:
- Johann Baptist Aufhauser , German theologian († 1963) September 7th:
- Harry Hillman , American athlete and Olympic champion († 1945) September 8:
- René Migeot , French racing car driver († 1934) September 9:
- September 10: Albrecht Oepke , German Protestant theologian († 1955)
- September 11th: Asta Nielsen , Danish actress († 1972)
- September 12: Hendrik Enno Boeke , Dutch mineralogist († 1918)
- September 12: Adolf Hühnlein , leader of the National Socialist Motorist Corps (NSKK) († 1942)
- September 12: Daniel Jones , English English and phonetician († 1967)
- September 13: Rudolf Lasarewitsch Samoilowitsch , Soviet polar explorer and geologist († 1939)
- September 15: Ettore Bugatti , Italian automobile manufacturer and designer († 1947)
- September 16: Ludwig Klitzsch , German publicist and manager († 1954)
- September 18: Sydney Anderson , American politician († 1948)
- September 19: Hermine Peine , German SPD politician († 1973)
- September 21: Ernst Frick , Swiss painter († 1956)
- September 22: Ludwig Pfandl , German writer, Romanist, Hispanist and historian († 1942)
- September 23: Carla Mann , German actress († 1910)
- September 25: Lu Xun , Chinese writer († 1936)
- September 26: Ernst Graefenberg , German medic († 1957)
- September 27: William Clothier , American tennis player († 1962)
- September 28: Eleonora Sears , American tennis player († 1968)
- September 29: Ludwig von Mises , Austrian economist († 1973)
- William Edward Boeing , American aircraft designer († 1956) October 1:
- Theodor Albin Findeisen , German double bass player and teacher († 1936) October 1:
- Walther von Brauchitsch , German soldier, Commander-in-Chief of the Army in the Third Reich († 1948) October 4:
- Henry Potter , American golfer († 1955) October 4:
- Friedrich Syrup , German lawyer and politician († 1945) October 9:
- Victor Klemperer , German writer and literary scholar († 1960) October 9:
- October 11: Eugène Flaud , French racing car driver († 1950)
- October 11: Hans Kelsen , Austrian legal scholar († 1973)
- October 11: Hans Otto Löwenstein , Austrian film director and producer († 1931)
- October 11: Lewis Fry Richardson , British mathematician and peace researcher († 1953)
- October 11: Wilhelm Seedorf , German agricultural economist († 1984)
- October 12: Carlos López Buchardo , Argentine composer, pianist and music teacher († 1948)
- October 15: José Arce , Argentine politician († 1968)
- October 15: PG Wodehouse , British writer († 1975)
- October 16: Vilhelm Buhl , Danish lawyer and social democratic politician († 1954)
- October 19: Kurt von Priesdorff , Prussian major, Privy Councilor, military historian and author († 1967)
- October 20: Josef Ferdinand Kleindinst , German politician († 1962)
- October 22: Clinton Davisson , American physicist († 1958)
- October 22: Johannes Freumbichler , Austrian homeland writer († 1949)
- October 24: Paul Basilius Barth , Swiss painter († 1955)
- October 25: Pablo Picasso , Spanish painter († 1973)
- October 26: Carl Stegmann , German businessman and shipowner († 1967)
- October 26: Paul Röntgen , German university professor and rector of RWTH Aachen University († 1965)
- October 28: Friedrich Hopfner , German geodesist, geophysicist and planetary researcher († 1949)
- October 28: Fritz Spieß , German naval officer († 1959)
- October 30: Lena Christ , German (Bavarian) native writer († 1920)
- October 30: Lukas Christ , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1958)
- Margrethe Klenze , German painter († 1977) November 2:
- Carlo Chiarlo , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1964) November 4:
- Ludwig Christian Haeusser , German traveling preacher († 1927) November 6:
- Robert Esnault-Pelterie , French aviation and rocket pioneer († 1957) November 8:
- Jacob Fleck , Austrian film pioneer, screenwriter, director, producer († 1953) November 8th:
- Walter Riehl , Austrian lawyer and politician († 1955) November 8:
- November 12: Ulrich von Hassell , German diplomat and resistance fighter July 20, 1944 († 1944)
- November 12: Jacob Hergenhahn , German-American gymnast († 1966)
- November 12: Maximilian von Weichs , German Field Marshal General († 1954)
- November 13: Rudolf Minger , Swiss politician († 1955)
- November 14: Nicholas Schenck , American film pioneer († 1969)
- November 14: René Tartara , French swimmer and water polo player († 1922)
- November 15: Franklin Leopold Adams , American journalist, translator and radio announcer († 1960)
- November 16: Hugo Meisl , Austrian national football coach († 1937)
- November 17: Nazzareno De Angelis , Italian opera singer († 1962)
- November 17: Herbert Sanford Walters , American politician († 1973)
- November 17th: Julius Christiaan van Oven , Dutch lawyer and politician. († 1963)
- November 18: Karl Gösta Åsbrink , Swedish athlete († 1966)
- November 22: Enver Pascha , politician, general and Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire († 1922)
- November 22nd: Wilhelm Gustav Damm , Swiss composer († 1949)
- November 23: Edward Leicester Atkinson , British parasitologist, doctor and polar explorer († 1929)
- November 25th: John XXIII. , Pope from 1958 to 1963 († 1963)
- November 25: Peder Gram , Danish composer († 1956)
- November 26: Gaetano Cicognani , Italian nuncio and prefect of the apostolic signature († 1962)
- November 26: Leo Smith , Canadian composer, cellist and music teacher († 1952)
- November 27: Ludwig Frankenthal , German surgeon († 1944)
- November 28: Cecil Healy , Australian swimmer († 1918)
- November 28: Xaver Henselmann , German architect († 1918)
- November 28: Stefan Zweig , Austrian writer († 1942)
- November 29: Hermann Ehrhardt , German National Military and Free Corps Leader († 1971)
- Pierre-Aurèle Asselin , Canadian singer († 1964) December 2:
- Heinrich Barkhausen , German physicist († 1956) December 2:
- Henry Fillmore , American composer, trombonist and conductor († 1956) December 3:
- Felice Nazzaro , Italian racing car driver († 1940) December 4:
- Erwin von Witzleben , German general and resistance fighter of July 20 († 1944) December 4:
- Frances Helen Aitchison , British tennis player († 1947) December 6th:
- Carl Adolf Martienssen , German pianist and music teacher († 1955) December 6th:
- Josef Flegl , Czech composer, cellist and music teacher († 1962) December 7th:
- Albert Gleizes , French painter and writer († 1953) December 8:
- Padraic Colum , Irish writer († 1972) December 8:
- Johanna Sönnichsen , German landscape painter († 1968) December 9:
- December 11: Elise Aulinger , German folk actress († 1965)
- December 15: Eugen Bolz , German politician and resistance fighter († 1945)
- December 16: Henri Fernand Dentz , French Army General († 1945)
- December 18: Clifford Warren Ashley , American painter and author († 1947)
- December 18: Frida Levy , German civil rights activist († 1942)
- December 18: Wilhelm Heile , German politician († 1969)
- December 20: Heinrich Drake , German politician († 1970)
- December 22nd: Franz Springer , German composer and conductor († 1950)
- December 24: Charles Wakefield Cadman , American composer († 1946)
- December 24: Juan Ramón Jiménez , Spanish poet, prose writer and Nobel Prize winner († 1958)
- December 24th: Otto Lukas , German teacher, poet and writer († 1956)
- December 25th: Christian Hülsmeyer , German entrepreneur; Inventor of the radar († 1957)
- December 25: John Dill , British Field Marshal († 1944)
- December 25: Albert Guyot , French entrepreneur and racing car driver († 1947)
- December 27: Kurt Beyer , German civil engineer († 1952)
- December 29th: Swami Sri Ananda Acharya , Indian philosophy professor, yogi, guru and poet († 1945)
- December 27: António Joaquim Granjo , Portuguese Prime Minister († 1921)
- December 31: Max Pechstein , German painter and graphic artist († 1955)
- December 31: Jacob Israël de Haan , Dutch author, lawyer and journalist († 1924)
Exact date of birth unknown
- José Feliciano Ama , indigenous peasant leader in El Salvador († 1932)
- Esra Atja , Israeli rabbi († 1970)
- Mustafa Kemal , Turkish politician, founder of modern Turkey († 1938)
- Seumas O'Kelly , Irish journalist and writer († 1918)
- César Stiattesi , Argentine composer, conductor and music teacher († 1934)
- Hippolyte Auger , French novelist and theater poet (* 1797) January 5th:
- January 11: Giovanni Arrivabene , Italian economist (* 1787)
- January 12: Thomas Watkins Ligon , American politician (* 1810)
- January 18: Auguste Mariette , French Egyptologist (* 1821)
- January 21: Wilhelm Matthias Naeff , Swiss politician (* 1802)
- January 27: Johann Rudolf Kutschker , Archbishop of Vienna (* 1810)
- January 29th: Nikolaus Munich , Provost of Cologne Cathedral (* 1794)
- January 30th: Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens , Belgian organist and composer (* 1823)
- John Gould , British ornithologist and animal painter (* 1804) February 3:
- Thomas Carlyle , British historian and philosopher (* 1795) February 5:
- Fyodor Dostoyevsky , Russian writer (* 1821) February 9:
- February 19: Gerard Krefft , German-Australian zoologist and paleontologist (* 1830)
- February 24: Matthew H. Carpenter , American politician (* 1824)
- February 27: Peter Joseph Rottmann , German (Hunsrücker) dialect poet (* 1799)
- February 27: George Pomeroy Colley , British major general and commander in chief in the First Boer War (* 1835)
- Augustus Bradford , American politician (* 1806) March 1:
- March 13: Alexander II , Russian tsar (* 1818)
- March 19: Arnold Duckwitz , German politician (* 1802)
- March 23: Nikolai Rubinstein , Russian composer, pianist and conductor (* 1835)
- March 24th: Friedrich Hecker , German revolutionary (* 1811)
- March 26: Florian Ceynowa , Kashubian writer and civil rights activist (* 1817)
- March 27th: Anton Ehrlich , German organ builder (* 1814)
- March 28: Modest Mussorgsky , Russian composer (* 1839)
- March 29: Carl Weyprecht , Austro-Hungarian naval officer and Arctic explorer (* 1838)
- Johann Hinrich Wichern , German theologian (* 1808) April 7th:
- April 11: Nathan Fellows Dixon , American politician (* 1812)
- April 11: Karl Friedrich Ferdinand Lachmann , German educator (* 1817)
- April 11th: Johann Claussen Schmid , German organ builder (* 1811)
- April 12th: Karl Traugott Stöckel , German organ builder (* 1804)
- April 18: Max Maria von Weber , Prussian ministerial advisor and railway engineer (* 1822)
- April 19: Benjamin Disraeli , British novelist and Prime Minister (* 1804)
- April 19: Joseph Lane , American politician (* 1801)
- April 27: Émile de Girardin , French publisher (* 1806)
- April 29: Rudolf Christian Böttger , German chemist and physicist (* 1806)
- April 30th: Pauline von Mallinckrodt , German founder of the order of Sisters of Christian Love (* 1817)
- Romolo Gessi , Italian traveler to Africa (* 1831) May 1st:
- António José de Ávila , Portuguese conservative politician (* 1806) May 3:
- Ansel Briggs , American politician (* 1806) May 5:
- Adalbert Kuhn , German Indo-Europeanist and mythologist (* 1812) May 5:
- Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Arndt , German preacher (* 1802) May 8:
- May 11: Henri-Frédéric Amiel , Swiss writer and philosopher (* 1821)
- May 14: Alexander Carl Friedrich von Arentschildt , Hanoverian and Prussian lieutenant general (* 1806)
- May 14th: Mary Seacole , Jamaican nurse (* 1805)
- May 15: Franz von Dingelstedt , first Vienna State Opera director (* 1814)
- May 17: Heinrich Aemilius August Danz , German legal scholar (* 1806)
- May 19: Harry Karl Kurt Eduard von Arnim-Suckow , Prussian diplomat (* 1824)
- May 22: Friedrich Wilhelm Kasiski , Prussian infantry major and cryptographer (* 1805)
- May 22nd: Ludwig Mooser , Austrian organ and piano builder (* 1807)
- May 24: Samuel Palmer , British painter (* 1805)
- May 26: Jacob Bernays , German philologist and philosophical writer (* 1824)
- May 31: Hugh Johnston Anderson , American politician (* 1801)
- Henri Vieuxtemps , Belgian violinist, composer (* 1820) June 6th:
- June 13: Édouard Imer , French painter (* 1820)
- June 22nd: Coronado Chávez , President of Honduras (* 1807)
- June 23: Matthias Jacob Schleiden , German botanist and co-founder of cell theory (* 1804)
- June 26: Philipp Schey von Koromla , Hungarian-Austrian wholesaler and patron (* 1798)
- June 30th: Gustav von Alvensleben , Prussian infantry general (* 1803)
- Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville , French chemist (* 1818) July 1:
- July 13: John C. Pemberton , General in the Confederate Army in the American Civil War (* 1814)
- July 14: Billy the Kid , American gunslinger and outlaw from the wild west (* 1859)
- July 15: Friedrich Schey von Koromla , Austrian banker, wholesaler, landowner and patron (* 1815)
- July 17: Jim Bridger , American trapper, scout and explorer (* 1804)
- July 18: Wilhelm Seyfferth , Leipzig banker, entrepreneur and pioneer of the railway industry (* 1807)
- July 20: Theodor Bergk , German classical philologist (* 1812)
- July 25: Marie Blanc , Franco-German casino director and philanthropist (* 1833)
- July 25: Karl Christian Bruhns , German astronomer (* 1830)
- July 26: Charles Colin , French oboist, organist, music teacher and composer (* 1832)
- July 26th: August Ludwig Viktor , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Koháry (* 1818)
- July 27: Johann Christian Lobe , German composer and music theorist (* 1797)
- July 31: Gove Saulsbury , American politician (* 1815)
- July: Ilja Schumow , Russian chess master and chess composer (* 1819)
- Marcus Clarke , Australian writer (* 1846) August 2:
- James Springer White , American free church, co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventists (* 1821) August 6:
- Pellegrino Matteucci , Italian traveler to Africa (* 1850) August 8:
- August 10: Theodor Bradsky , Czech composer (* 1833)
- August 10: Orville Hickman Browning , American politician (* 1806)
- August 12: William Gosse , British-Australian naturalist and explorer (* 1842)
- August 18: Joseph Labitzky , Bohemian dance composer (* 1802)
- August 29: Jean-Baptiste Auriol , French clown and artist (* around 1800)
- Sidney Lanier , American poet (* 1842) September 7:
- Christian Friedrich Scherenberg , German poet (* 1798) September 9:
- September 13: Ambrose Everett Burnside , American soldier, General in the Union Army in the American Civil War (* 1824)
- September 18: William FM Arny , American politician (* 1813)
- September 18: Julius von Groß , Prussian general of the infantry (* 1812)
- September 19: James A. Garfield , President of the United States of America (* 1831)
- September 20: Martin Hammerich , Danish educator (* 1811)
- September 24: Heinrich Ludolf Ahrens , German classical philologist (* 1809)
- September 24th: Camille Durutte , French music theorist and composer (* 1803)
- September 25: Karl Aulenbach , German poet (* 1813)
- September 29: Jakob Løkke , Norwegian philologist and textbook author (* 1829)
- George G. Fogg , American politician (* 1813) October 5:
- Ehregott Grünler , German painter (* 1797) October 9:
- October 10: Daniele Comboni , Italian canonized priest (* 1831)
- October 16: Louis A. Wiltz , American politician (* 1843)
- October 19: Josef Krejčí , Czech composer (* 1821)
- October 21: Eduard Heine , German mathematician (* 1821)
- October 21: Johann Caspar Bluntschli , Swiss legal scholar and politician (* 1808)
- October 28: Prospero Caterini , Curia Cardinal of the Catholic Church (* 1795)
- November 14: Jodocus Donatus Hubertus Temme , German politician, lawyer and writer (* 1798)
- November 17th: Joseph Eschborn , German composer and Kapellmeister (* 1800)
- November 23: Abijah Gilbert , American politician (* 1806)
- November 23: Gustaw Zieliński , Polish writer (* 1809)
- November 25th: Theobald Böhm , German composer, flautist and master flute maker (* 1794)
- November 26th: Johann Ludwig Krapf , German missionary in East Africa, explorer and traveler to Africa (* 1810)
- Jenny Marx , German socialist and wife of Karl Marx (* 1814) December 2:
- Paul Theodor von Krusenstern , Russian polar explorer (* 1809) December 8:
- Thomas François Burgers , President of the South African Republic (* 1834) December 9:
- Karl Culmann , civil engineer of German descent and professor in Switzerland (* 1821) December 9:
- December 12: Florêncio Carlos de Abreu e Silva , Brazilian lawyer, journalist, author and politician (* 1839)
- December 12th: Christian Wilhelm Bronisch , Sorbian pastor and linguist (* 1788)
- December 17: Isaac Israel Hayes , American doctor and polar explorer (* 1832)
- December 17: Lewis Henry Morgan , American ethnologist (* 1818)
Exact date of death unknown
- Carlo Avanzini , Swiss physician and politician (* 1817)
- Georgiana Zornlin , English painter and writer (* 1800)
Commons : 1881 - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files