1881

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1881
President Garfield with James G. Blaine.
The US President James A. Garfield dies as a result of an attack by Charles J. Guiteau .
Illustration of the "Battle of Majuba Hill" in the Illustrated London News
The battle of Majuba Hill decides the First Boer War in favor of the Boers .
The fire ruins of the Ringtheater at Schottenring 7 in Vienna on December 8, 1881
The ring theater fire in Vienna cost at least 384 lives.
The assassination attempt on Emperor Alexander II (gouache, Russia, 19th century)
Alexander II of Russia is murdered in an assassination attempt.
Carol's coronation as King of Romania on May 10th in Bucharest
Prince Carol I proclaims the Kingdom of Romania .
1881 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1329/30 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1873/74 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 37/38 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1286/87 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2424/25 (southern Buddhism); 2423/24 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Metal Snake辛巳 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Dragon 庚辰)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1243/44 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4214/15 (2-3 October)
Iranian calendar 1259/60 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1298/99 (November 23/24)
Japanese calendar Meiji 14 ( 明治 14 年);
Kōki 2541
Jewish calendar 5641/42 (23/24 September)
Coptic calendar 1597/98 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1056/57
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1296/97 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2191/92 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2192/93 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1937/38 (April)

Events

Politics and world events

Boer War

Other events in Africa

United States of America

James A. Garfield
Sitting Bull

Latin America

Europe

Charter of the Kingdom of Romania

economy

science and technology

astronomy

biology

Title page of the first edition

medicine

physics

Technical achievements

  • April 1 : The first telephone network is opened in Berlin with 48 subscribers. There is much greater demand in Hamburg , whose first telephone network will open on April 16 with 206 subscribers.
First electric tram from Siemens & Halske, 1881

Other scientific events

Culture

Visual arts

literature

Music and theater

Libretto of the revised version
The Prague National Theater 1881 ( woodcut )

society

Newspaper report about the shooting at OK Corral

Disasters

Chios earthquake

Illustration of earthquake damage by Charles Barbant
  • April 3 : A severe earthquake devastates the island of Chios , which belongs to the Ottoman Empire, and the Çeşme peninsula. The epicenter of the quake is probably southeast of the island. The death toll is given as 5058 to 7866, and thousands are injured. Three quarters of all buildings on the island are destroyed or damaged, and the city ​​of Chios is devastated. A minor tsunami may occur as a result of the earthquake events. Sand found away from the coast, which is interpreted as an indication, could also come from soil liquefaction. Several strong aftershocks occur in the following weeks.

Fire disasters

Depiction of the Vienna Ringtheater fire by Karl Pippich

Other disasters

nature and environment

Sports

Born

January

February

March

Helene Weber, 1919
Hermann Staudinger
Béla Bartók, 1927

April

May

June

July

Hans Fischer, 1930

August

Alexander Fleming

September

Ettore Bugatti, around 1900

October

Pablo Picasso, 1962

November

December

Antonio Granjo
Max Pechstein, 1920

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

First quarter

Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostoevsky, 1872
Emperor Alexander II of Russia

Second quarter

Benjamin Disraeli
Mary Seacole, 1869
Franz von Dingelstedt

Third quarter

Billy the Kid

Fourth Quarter

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1881  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files