Ski jumping is a winter sport in which an athlete slides down a ski jump on skis to gain speed, then jumps off the jump table and tries to fly as far as possible before touching down on the ground. In addition to the length of the jump, the jury also evaluates the flight position and the elegance of the landing. As a discipline of the Olympic Winter Games , ski jumping is also known as jumping or special jumping .
Ski jumping is an individual sport, in connection with cross-country skiing it is also part of the Nordic combination . Team competitions have also been held since 1988, with four jumpers starting for each participating country. The team's result corresponds to the sum of the scores of the four individual jumpers.
Ski jumping in a particularly large jumps (from a hill size of 185 m, so-called flying hills ) is Skifliegen called.
A ski jumping competition usually consists of a qualification round and two evaluation rounds. The 50 best jumpers of the qualification can take part in the main competition. This will be held in two rounds, with only the 30 best jumpers from the first round being allowed to participate in the second round.
Each jump is assessed with a number of points, which is made up of points for distance and posture marks (see assessment ). For the placement, the points of the two evaluation runs are added. The winner is the jumper with the highest number of points.
Since 2017, the ten best jumpers of the overall World Cup are no longer automatically qualified for World Cup competitions.
During ski jumping, athletes slide down the inrun of the ski jump on skis in a prepared snow or ice track (or ceramic, metal or mat track in summer). First, the ski jumper sits on the beam that is in the approach of the jump, pushes himself off the beam with his hands and takes the approach position; the upper body is placed on the thighs and a squatting position is achieved. After he has run down the hill, he takes off from the take-off at around 90 km / h. The ski jumper stands up with a powerful jump, pulls the ski tips towards the upper body and at the same time spreads them out in the form of a "V". This part of the jump is very important for the further course of the experiment.
During the flight, the ski jumper maintains this posture until he comes so close to the slope that he has to initiate the landing. To do this, the jumper places the skis parallel to each other again. To get better posture marks, the jumper puts his feet in a step position and spreads his arms. This landing technique is called Telemark . The maximum theoretically achievable distance is determined by the hill itself. The hill- size mark is used to identify the “type of jump” .
The total number of points that a jumper receives for his jump is made up of the points for distance and posture in equal parts:
The distance is measured in video distance measurement using still images from a video camera. In this case, a wide line is on the video image on the landing point extrapolated , that is made of specially entered measurement points is calculated, and thus the width to 0.5 m exactly determined. Judges are available for the risk of a system failure. The distance mark is calculated from the K point of the hill and the measured distance. Measurements are made in the inclined landing track (earlier by estimating the width judge, today with a digital camera and computer evaluation). The K point (construction point) describes the specified distance (e.g. K120 = 120 m) from the edge of the take-off table to the beginning of the radius that represents the end of the landing zone, “as if you were laying an imaginary tape measure along the slope ". For a jumper, the measuring point is the center of the foot, for a telemark jump it is the center between both feet.
For a jump exactly on the K-point, 60 distance points (120 for flying hills) are awarded. For each meter above or below the K-point, depending on the size of the hill, width points are added or subtracted. For large hills, which are most frequently represented in the World Cup, this is 1.8 points per meter, and 1.2 points for flying hills. This gives the total number of points for the jumped distance.
The judges, usually five (but at least three), give marks for the three categories to be assessed: flight, landing and exit. From the ideal grade of 20.0, 0 to 5 points are deducted in each error group or 7 points in the exit group in steps of 0.5. Of the five point values, the highest and lowest points are deleted so that the jumper can receive a maximum of 60 points (posture grade).
Example for calculating the overall grade: (Schanze: K120, meter value: 1.8 points / m)
|125 m||60.0 + (125-120) × 1.8||69.0|
|Distance note||Posture grade||Overall grade|
Wind and gate rule
A wind and a gate factor were introduced in the 2009/10 season. The rules that were tried out during the 2009 summer competitions were tested by the judges at competitions as part of the FIS Team Tour (January 30th to February 7th), the Nordic Tournament (March 6th to 14th) and the Ski Flying World Championship (19th . until March 21). They were also used in the Nordic Combined World Cup competitions . The rules have officially been in effect since summer 2010.
- Wind factor
The wind factor makes it possible to compensate for changes in wind conditions between individual jumps. With every jump, the wind speed and direction are measured at five different points and an average value - the wind value - is determined. The points are calculated from the wind value.
- Gate factor
With the width or goal factor (f-value) it is possible to change the inrun length in the competition without having to restart the round. It is calculated individually for each ski jump and indicates how the jump width changes when the inrun is extended by one meter. The number of points is determined according to the formula changed infeed length in centimeters as a percentage of the f-value × point value per meter . If the inrun length is modified during the competition, the corresponding number of points will be credited or deducted from the subsequent athletes.
With the red button , since the 2012/13 season, coaches can also change the run-up length for their jumpers.
World Cup points
In the Ski Jumping World Cup , the 30 best placed jumpers receive World Cup points. These are usually the 30 participants who have qualified for the second round of a jump. If a second run cannot be carried out for weather or other reasons, only the first run will be counted for the competition. If two jumpers are tied in 30th place after the first round, then 31 jumpers go into the second round and the last one in this competition does not receive any World Cup points. This can also be someone other than one of the two jumpers placed 30th after the first round.
The first news about ski jumping dates back to 1796. The Dutch naval officer Cornelius de Jong reported on an exercise by Norwegian soldiers: “Starting from the mountains, they ran on the plain. Then there was a heap of wood and snow of considerable height that they had to jump over, […] I estimate the jump, including the incline of the slope, to be 12 cubits. ”(About 6–7 m) - But even before that, sliding boards were in Snow used by the mountain people of Telemark Province , but not primarily for jumping. The carpenter from Telemark, Sondre Norheim , reached a distance of 30.5 m from an improvised rock jump at the end of a cross-country ski run from his hometown to Christiania (since 1924 Oslo ). The first pictorial representation of ski jumping in Norway is from February 16, 1862. In 1808 or 1809 Lieutenant Olaf Rye jumped 9.5 m from an artificially raised snow hill. After that, ski jumping became known in Central Europe and North America mainly through Norwegian emigrants . In the Scandinavians' enthusiasm for this new sport, the Swedish-Norwegian royal family donated a “Royal Cup”, which was awarded for the first time in 1882 on the Holmenkollen. The first major annual ski jumping competition took place in 1879 on Husebybakken in Oslo. In 1892 the competition moved to Holmenkollbakken , which is still considered the Mecca of Nordic winter sports to this day.
Europe-wide ski jumping began on February 2, 1891 with the Styrian ski jumping in Mürzzuschlag , where people jumped from a snow-covered dung heap. In Germany, the first competition took place in 1893, where modest jumping distances were achieved: e.g. B. in the Harz 8 m or at the first German championships in February 1900 17.5 m. In the Black Forest, at the heart of the rapid development of skiing in Germany, the first ski jump (Max-Egon-Schanze), which was used for a long time, was built at Feldberghof around 1900; more followed: u. a. 1937 the Great Black Forest Hill. With the development of the inclined landing slope, larger jumping distances were achieved in the 20th century and more and more refined materials and equipment were used.
Men's ski jumping has been part of the Olympic program since the first Winter Games in 1924 . Up to and including the 1964/65 season there were three decisive rounds for the evaluation, whereby the two best (better) jumps were included in the evaluation before the World Ski Association (jumping and table committee and the board) at a meeting in Hamburg in early August 1965 Decided to reduce to two passes. A new rating system was introduced, according to which the previously progressive system was replaced by a linear one. International competitions were now carried out in two rounds. A grade of 60 was awarded for the longest jump of each round (previously it was the mean of the three longest jumps). The quick evaluation had to take place according to a fixed point that was previously known for each hill (the “critical point” = “K point” plus 10% - with an 80 m hill, 88). For the new scoring tables, reference points were set: For jumps up to 40 m there were 2 points for each meter jumped, from 40 to 60 1.8 and from 60 to 75 1.4 points. On large hills with a K-point between 75 and 90 m, every meter jumped was rated with 1.4 points, on flying hills with a K-point over 90 m, 1 point was awarded. Nothing changed in the assessment of the posture. In the Nordic Combined, the old rating remained valid for the time being, but without a shift in value within the distance tables, as was usual in the progressive system.
In the 21st century, ski jumping became popular as a women's sport and has been an Olympic sport since 2014 .
The technique of ski jumping has changed significantly over the decades. In the early days, ski jumpers rowed their arms while jumping while holding their skis in parallel. Later, you would stretch your arms out or hold them close to your body. The last technical revolution for the time being came at the beginning of the 1990s, when the flying style with V-shaped spread skis (V-style) prevailed over the parallel style . The new style, first practiced by the Swede Jan Boklöv , allows significantly more jumps due to the improved aerodynamics . Originally, Boklöv had to accept high points deductions for the flight technique, but the much greater distance still allowed him to achieve top positions. Later all jumpers adopted this technique.
There is also a special style to be used when landing, the " telemark ". Telemark, named after the Norwegian province of Telemark because it was first jumped there, is a kind of lunge step in which the back leg is bent significantly lower than the front leg. The so-called Kacherllandung, also known as parallel landing, in which the skis touch down parallel and flush at the front, is often carried out by jumpers at particularly large distances for safety reasons, but rated significantly worse.
As is typical in sports, the improvements in technology, material and training concept have led to a rapid record development. The first statistically recorded distance record from 1879 was 23 m. Until 1927, only Norwegians improved the distance record, then the Swiss Bruno Trojani broke the world record with 72 m. In 1936 there was the first jump over 100 m by the Austrian Sepp Bradl (101 m). In 1962 the world record was improved by the German Peter Lesser to 141 m, in 1965 to 145 m. In 1967 the Norwegian Lars Grini jumped 150 m .
The first successful flight over 200 m was made in 1994 by Toni Nieminen from Finland with 203 m. Andreas Goldberger (Austria) reached this distance earlier on the same day; but the jump was considered to have fallen because Goldberger grabbed the snow when landing. That being said, there were officially no such flights at the time. For safety reasons, the FIS decided in 1986 to limit flights to 191 m. Each flight over this mark was therefore only rated at 191 m. This restriction was lifted again in the mid-1990s.
The current world record is 253.5 meters and was set by Austrian Stefan Kraft on March 18, 2017 . The Austrian Daniela Iraschko-Stolz set the women's world record with 200 m on the Kulm . This record, which was set as part of the men's ski flying in 2003, is not officially recognized.
If a ski jumper receives the maximum mark of 20 from all five judges for his jump because no points are deducted in the three categories of flight, landing and exit to be assessed, this is considered a perfect jump . So far, only seven jumpers have received this highest rating in the history of ski jumping:
|Anton Innauer||March 7, 1976||Oberstdorf||Ski Flying (International Ski Flying Weeks)||168 m||1st place|
|Kazuyoshi Funaki||January 24, 1998||Oberstdorf||Ski flying world championship, ski jump, 1st round||187.5 m||2nd place|
|Kazuyoshi Funaki||January 25, 1998||Oberstdorf||Ski flying world championship, ski jump, 2nd round||205.5 m||1st place|
|Kazuyoshi Funaki||February 15, 1998||Nagano||Olympic Games, large hill, 2nd round||132.5 m||1st place|
|Kazuyoshi Funaki||January 17, 1999||Zakopane||World Cup jumping, large hill, 1st round||119 m||2nd place|
|Sven Hannawald||February 8, 2003||Willingen||World Cup jumping, large hill, 1st round||142 m||1st place|
|Hideharu Miyahira||February 8, 2003||Willingen||World Cup jumping, large hill, 2nd round||135.5 m||6th place|
|Wolfgang Loitzl||January 6, 2009||Bischofshofen||Four Hills Tournament 2008/09 , large hill, 1st round||142.5 m||1st place|
|Peter Prevc||March 20, 2015||Planica||World Cup jumping, flying hill, 2nd round||233 m||1st place|
|Jurij Tepeš||March 22, 2015||Planica||World Cup jumping, flying hill, 2nd round||244 m||1st place|
Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl as well as twice Kazuyoshi Funaki received four times the posture mark 20 and one time 19.5 points for their second jump and were thus given the highest mark of 20 nine times within one jumping event . Kazuyoshi Funaki is the only ski jumper who has made multiple jumps five times with the highest grade.
Ski jumping is a dangerous and technically demanding sport. Since the maintenance of the jumps and the material for the ski jumper are quite expensive, ski jumping is not a popular sport. There are only a few thousand active ski jumpers worldwide. In Germany, the centers of ski jumping are the Bavarian Alps , the southern Black Forest , the Bavarian Forest , the Ore Mountains , the Vogtland , the Thuringian Forest , the Sauerland and the Fichtel Mountains .
Ski jumping is currently practiced professionally in 31 countries in Europe (24 countries), Asia (5 countries) and North America (2 countries). By far the most successful are nine nations, eight of them European. Most of the titles have Austria , Germany , Finland , Norway and Poland , Slovenia , the Czech Republic , Russia and, as the only Asian country, Japan are also among the classic ski jumping nations. Jumpers from France , Italy and Switzerland have also been among the world's best .
The “smaller” European nations include Estonia , Sweden , Slovakia and the Ukraine . Sweden has a special meaning insofar as Jan Boklöv developed the V-style , which has been widely used since 1990 . In addition, attempts are being made in Romania and Turkey to build up a team, and to a lesser extent in Bulgaria , Croatia and Latvia . There are also a handful of jumpers in Hungary , Belarus , the Netherlands and Greece .
In North America there are jumps in the United States , but with a few exceptions, the jumpers there were not successful. In Canada , ski jumping is a small fringe sport, which is why there are hardly any successful ski jumpers there. Exceptions in the 1980s were Horst Bulau and Steve Collins .
From Asia, mainly ski jumpers in Japan, Kazakhstan and South Korea have been internationally active so far . There are very few jumpers in China and Georgia .
Amateur jumpers are known in some countries, including Lithuania and Serbia , where there are small jumps. In Australia , a Slovenian immigrant and enthusiastic hobby jumper named Tony Mihelcic tried to build a team. In 2004 the project for the construction of a ski jumping complex and the establishment of the Ski Jumping Institute Australia was published. The only Greek ski jumper so far is Nico Polychronidis . There used to be ski jumpers in other countries such as Denmark , Iceland and Spain .
Ski jumping has been represented in the competitive disciplines since the first Olympic Winter Games in 1924. Two individual competitions have been held since 1964, one on the normal hill and one on the large hill. Until 1988 the construction point of the normal hill was set at 70 m, that of the large hill at 90 m. The 90 meter hill has been the normal hill since 1992, the large hill has a construction point of 120 m. A team competition has also been held since 1988. Until 1984 the Olympic Games were also world championships.
Nordic World Ski Championships
The Nordic World Ski Championships were first held as part of the 1924 Winter Olympics and are now held every two years from January to March. Ski jumping was one of the competitive disciplines from the start. In addition to jumping on the normal hill, there has also been an individual competition on the large hill since 1962.
At the Nordic World Ski Championships in Lahti in 1978 , an unofficial team competition was held for the first time, and in 1982 in Oslo , medals were awarded in the team competition for the first time. However, the regulations were such that the worst grade of four jumpers per round was deleted, so only three grades remained in the rating. Only at later world championships (and other competitions) did all four remain in the rating, so a total of eight grades. A separate team world championship was also held
at the 1984 World Cup in Engelberg . At the World Championships in 2001 and 2005 there was not only the usual team competition on the large hill but also one on the normal hill, which Austria won both times.
The team competition on the normal hill, however, is not an integral part of the program for Nordic World Championships; the organizer must apply to the FIS for it. “After they had been awarded the World Cup, the Finns and Germans asked the FIS Jumping Committee whether they could host two team competitions. But it's not the rule, ”confirmed FIS Race Director Walter Hofer . At the next two World Championships in Sapporo 2007 and Liberec 2009 , only team medals were awarded on the large hill.
Ski flying world championship
There has been a ski flying world championship since 1972, which alternates annually with the Nordic World Ski Championships.
The best ski jumpers take part in the Ski Jumping World Cup, a series of around 30 events held by the FIS since 1979 throughout the winter in nine countries, primarily in Northern and Central Europe, but also in Japan and the USA. Some of the World Cup competitions take place on larger ski jumping hills. In addition to the individual competitions, team competitions are also held by nation. The ranking list of ski jumpers in the World Cup is determined by the FIS points system . The end of the World Cup season traditionally takes place in March with ski flying on one of the world's largest ski jumps in Planica, Slovenia .
Since the 2011/2012 season , women have also been staging their own series of competitions at World Cup level. In August 2012 the first mixed competition took place in Courchevel as part of the Summer Grand Prix, on November 23, 2012 it was held for the first time as a World Cup competition in Lillehammer .
Four Hills Tournament
(December 29 or 30)
Sigurd Pettersen 143.5 m
(January 1st; New Year's Jumping )
Simon Ammann 143.5 m
(January 3rd or 4th)
Michael Hayböck 138.0 m
(January 6th or 7th; Epiphany jumping)
Dawid Kubacki 145.0 m
Since 1952 the Four Hills Tournament has taken place annually at the turn of the year on four ski jumps in Germany and Austria. Since 1979 the tour has been organized as part of the World Cup. Your win is considered to be at least as prestigious as a world championship title, as the jumpers have to adjust to four different hill profiles in a comparatively short time. In 2001/02 Sven Hannawald was the first jumper to win all four competitions on a tour. With Kamil Stoch 2017/18 and Ryōyū Kobayashi 2018/19 , two other jumpers have succeeded so far. Janne Ahonen was able to achieve the overall victory five times, Jens Weißflog four times. At the Four Hills Tournament 2005/06 there were two winners for the first time in history with the two jumpers Janne Ahonen and Jakub Janda with the same points .
From 1997 to 2010 four individual World Cup competitions were held as part of the so-called Nordic Tournament , a Scandinavian equivalent of the Four Hills Tournament. This series of competitions included the jumping in Lahti, Kuopio and Lillehammer as well as the most prestigious jumping on the Oslo Holmenkollbakken . In the 2004/05 World Cup season, Matti Hautamäki was the first ski jumper to win all four competitions in the Nordic Tournament.
In 2017, the so-called Raw Air was held in Norway for the first time . On the three large hills in Oslo , Lillehammer and Trondheim as well as on the flying hill in Vikersund there will be jumps every day for ten days in March. A special feature is that the qualification jumps called "Prolog" are included in the final ranking of the Raw Air, but no World Cup points are awarded for them.
As a result, other competitions with this system, such as the Willingen Five and the Titisee-Neustadt Five , were launched.
FIS team tour
From 2009 to 2013 there was the FIS Team Tour, which was held in Germany. It was part of the ski jumping world cup. It consisted of two team and three individual competitions. The overall winner was not an individual jumper, but the nation with the most points in the overall ranking.
Since 1994 there has been a series of six to twelve competitions in summer, the Summer Grand Prix, which is held on plastic covered hills. This corresponds to the sporting level of the World Cup.
The Continental Cup, abbreviated to COC, is the second highest competition class after the World Cup. Younger jumpers usually compete here in order to secure a place in their country's World Cup team. In contrast to the World Cup and Grand Prix, which only take place in winter or summer, a COC season includes summer and winter jumping completely. A women's Continental Cup has also been held since 2004.
The FIS Cup, which has only been held since 2005, is the lowest competition series in ski jumping held by the International Ski Association. Although there is no age limit, the FIS Cup mainly takes part in young athletes. Before the introduction of the FIS Cup, so-called FIS competitions were held at this level , but there was no overall rating for them.
The FIS Junior World Championships are held annually. Ski jumping competitions are also held as part of the Universiade . Then there is the Alpencup , a series of young talents organized by the OPA . Every major ski jumping nation organizes national championships. There are also many competitions organized at club level, as well as junior and senior competitions.
First own competitions
Women's ski jumping developed around the turn of the millennium; In 2002, around 300 women from countries active in winter sports took part in jumping competitions, including around 200 Norwegians, 40 Japanese, 40 Austrians and some Germans. Although there was still a lack of a sufficiently broad base for special women’s competitions, the FIS organized the first official women’s jumping competition in the 2003/04 season as part of the Junior World Championships in Stryn (Norway). Female ski jumpers start with an extended run-up in order to achieve a sufficient jump-off speed despite their usually lower body weight, and thus achieve distances that are not less than those of male ski jumpers. In media reports it is repeatedly pointed out that this could physiologically overwhelm the knee and ankle joints of jumpers.
In 2009 the FIS hosted the first official women's ski jumping world championship in Liberec as part of the Nordic World Ski Championships . The American Lindsey Van became the first world champion .
In 2006 the first official junior world championship for women was held. At the following world championships , women's team jumping was introduced.
Between 1999 and 2011, the FIS Ladies Grand Prix with individual and team competitions took place in Germany and Austria . The FIS Continental Cup (Ladies) has been taking place since 2004/05 and the Women's Ski Jumping World Cup since 2011/12 .
Women's ski jumping has been Olympic since the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi . The normal hill is used for jumping. Carina Vogt from Germany became the first Olympic champion . An application for inclusion in the women's competition had already been submitted for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver , but the IOC rejected it.
Rules for equipment and jumping clothing
In ski jumping there is mainly fixed equipment consisting of special jump skis and protective helmets. The ski length is very important and has to be shortened if the jumper falls below a body mass index of 20. Since the 2011 summer season, a body mass index of at least 20.5, including suit and shoes, has been required to take advantage of the full length of the ski.
It was not until the last decades of the 20th century that clothing was regulated and since then has been constantly adapted to new developments. The athletes now wear one-piece suits with specified maximum air permeability values (30 l / min – 40 l / min), the material used is chintz fabric, which must be 3–5 mm thick; There are different suits for tailwind or headwind situations. At the beginning of the season, the suits are measured and then " sealed ", while random checks are carried out during the season. Since 2003, the jump suits can be individually adapted to the jumpers on 6 parts of the body (upper arms, armpit, chest circumference, buttocks, torso, thighs) (deviation max. 6 cm). Suits and athletes are measured with a digital body scanner. - These stipulations were necessary because the Austrians achieved advantages for their starters at the Four Hills Tournament 2002/03 through a mix of materials (fish skin suits) and a longer step for their jumping suits. Loops are attached to the ends of the sleeves, which are tightened between the fingers, thus ensuring a crease-free fit. The condition of the underwear is now also prescribed.
The start numbers are mandatory. Without a number, you will be disqualified, as happened to the US American Bill Demong in the Nordic Combined team competition in 2009 . Skis that are too long and suits that are too wide also lead to disqualification.
In 2011, the FIS Material Commission adopted new rules to improve the safety of athletes. These concern the length and the sidecut radius of the alpine skis as well as the clothing of the ski jumpers. The most important change from the details is that the suits must now be much closer.
In television ski jumping to be Euro Sport and the pay-TV channel Euro Sport 2 shown. In Germany, ski jumping is broadcast alternately on ARD and ZDF every weekend during the winter season . In Austria the broadcast is carried out by the ORF , in Switzerland by SRF two .
- Skispringen.com Current news and general information about ski jumping
- Berkutschi.com results, statistics, facts, information (trilingual DE / EN / POL)
- Skispringen-News.de News about international and national competitions as well as background information
- ↑ FIS Fact Sheet: Fundamentally new regulations in the Summer Grand Prix of Ski Jumping and Nordic Combined, ( Memento of the original from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. July 28, 2009 (PDF document; 150 kB).
- ↑ New Fairness on the Schanze, spox.com, January 29, 2010, accessed on February 15, 2013.
- ↑ Ski jumpers argue about new wind rules, Die Welt online, February 1, 2010, accessed on February 15, 2013.
- ↑ New rule comes at selected events, Berkutschi.com, November 14, 2009, accessed on February 15, 2013.
- ↑ Official: New rules are being used, Skispringen.com, June 7, 2010, accessed on February 15, 2013.
- ↑ New rules for the Four Hills Tournament, Der Tagesspiegel online, December 28, 2010, accessed on February 15, 2013.
- ↑ Start of the ski jumping season - Roter Knopf, Süddeutsche.de, November 23, 2012, accessed on February 15, 2013.
- ^ History. In: berkutschi.com. Retrieved June 15, 2020 .
- ^ History. In: skispringen.com. Retrieved June 15, 2020 .
- ↑ a b Journal Skilanglauf (2002) 2: The Feldberg Story.
- ↑ Study: Ski jumping, the most important ski sport on television, skispringen.com, June 27, 2013, accessed on June 27, 2013.
- ↑ FIS decided on a new evaluation system for ski jumping . In: Tiroler Tageszeitung , No. 187 of August 16, 1965, page 9; Column 4, middle box
- ↑ POS. Column 5, third title: Only two ski jumps . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna August 15, 1965, p. 15 ( berufer-zeitung.at - the open online archive - digitized).
- ↑ Thomas Karny: The leap into a new era, on wienerzeitung.at.
- ↑ And now the woman goes up in the air, Der Standard , February 17, 2009.
- ↑ From Olympus to the fish on faz.net .
- ↑ Olympic Games 1998: Review of the Australian Olympic Committee.
- ↑ 98/99 FIS World Cup Ski-jumping 16th World Cup Competition ( Memento of the original from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b Official FIS results list from February 8, 2003, 1st place Hannawald, 6th place Miyahira (PDF file, 379 kB).
- ↑ Official FIS results list from January 6, 2009, 1st place Loitzl (PDF file, 273 kB).
- ↑ Official FIS results list of jumping from March 20, 2015, rank 1 Prevc (PDF file)
- ↑ Official FIS results list of jumping from March 22, 2015, rank 1 Tepeš (PDF file)
- ↑ One Man's Australian Dream on the archive page of skisprungschanzen.com (English).
- ↑ «World Cup gold just missed» . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna February 27, 1982, p. 8 ( berufer-zeitung.at - the open online archive - digitized).
- ↑ Ski jumping: Mixed celebrates its premiere, Sport1, August 13, 2012, accessed on February 18, 2014.
- ↑ Berliner Zeitung of February 1, 2003.
- ↑ Nordic Sports Magazine, October 2003.
- ↑ Women's ski jumping should be Olympic. In: Berliner Zeitung. dated March 2, 2007.
- ↑ FIS is planning another BMI increase on skispringen.com.
- ^ Supplement to the TV movie from December 2003 / January 2004.
- ↑ Detailed specifications of the FIS for ski jumping for 2012 (English) ( Memento of the original from October 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 738 kB): Skis (1st), bindings (2nd), shoes (3rd), clothing (4th); Retrieved December 1, 2012.