Four Hills Tournament

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Four Hills Tournament
status active
genre Ski jumping world cup
date 29/30 Dec - 6 Jan
frequency Yearly
Host countries GermanyGermany Germany / Austria
AustriaAustria 
Venues 1. Oberstdorf 2. Garmisch-Partenkirchen 3. Innsbruck 4. BischofshofenGermanyGermany 
GermanyGermany 
AustriaAustria 
AustriaAustria 
Ski jumps 1. Schattenbergschanze
2. Large Olympic hill
3. Bergiselschanze
4. Paul-Ausserleitner-Schanze
First edition 1953
organizer FIS
Website www.vierschanzentournee.com

The Four Hills Tournament brings together four ski jumping World Cup events that have been held annually in Germany and Austria since 1953 at the turn of the year . Alongside the Olympic Games , the Nordic World Ski Championships and the Ski Jumping World Cup , the tour is considered to be the most prestigious ski jumping competition .

history

idea

Venues of the Four Hills Tournament

Forerunner of the Four Hills Tournament is since 1921/22 in today Garmisch-Partenkirchen performed New Year's event - the first winner jumped it 76 yards. The idea of ​​jumping on four different hills on several days in quick succession was developed in 1949 by members of the Partenkirchen and Innsbruck ski clubs . Since it was not yet possible for foreign jumpers to participate in Germany and German jumpers abroad after the Second World War , the implementation of the idea of ​​such a tour had to be postponed until 1952, whereby only German and Austrian venues could be included.

On May 17, 1952, on the occasion of a night jump on the Seegrube above Innsbruck, the "German-Austrian Springer Tour" was founded; The founding fathers were Toni Glos, Emmerich Pepeunig (Innsbruck), Beppi Hartl, Franz Rappenglück (Partenkirchen), Andi Mischitz, Fred Triebner (Bischofshofen) and Alfons Huber and Xaver Kaiser (Oberstdorf).

The three stations of Partenkirchen, Innsbruck and Bischofshofen were set as venues from the start. In order to achieve parity between Germany and Austria, a second German venue was desired. The SC Partenkirchen (SCP) was therefore commissioned by the tour organizations to find one. Initially, Berchtesgaden , Füssen and Oberammergau were considered. These cities or places already had experience with the staging of ski jumping competitions on the existing ski jumping hills. That meant that no new jumps were necessary there and the SCP would not have been responsible for the organization. On the other hand, there was also a large overlap between the catchment area of ​​the audience and that of Partenkirchen and the SCP feared loss of income. That is why it was decided in favor of Oberstdorf as the second German location.

The official foundation of the "German-Austrian Springer Tour" (short: the tour) took place on December 14, 1952 in the Posthotel in Partenkirchen.

1950s: The first tours

The first tour is the only one that took place within a calendar year. It started on January 1, 1953 with the New Year's competition in Partenkirchen. 20,000 spectators came to the first competition, in which a total of 50 jumpers started: In addition to many Germans and Austrians, there were also four jumpers from Yugoslavia , four from Sweden , three from Norway and three from Switzerland .

Asgeir Dølplads from Norway won the New Year's competition with jumps of 78.5 and 80 meters. On January 4th the second competition took place in Oberstdorf, which was won by Erling Kroken from Norway, before the Epiphany on January 6th in Innsbruck, where the Austrian Sepp Bradl won. The last jumping of the tour in 1953 was held on January 11th in Bischofshofen. Another Norwegian won with Halvor Næs . Overall winner of the first German-Austrian tour was the Austrian Sepp Bradl ahead of the Norwegians Halvor Næs and Asgeir Dølplads.

The audience was very popular, although not all of the world's elite took part and, for example, the entire strong Finnish team was missing. The income for the ski clubs involved was high and the athletes' praise for the organization was enormous. Many athletes raved about the newly created tour at the following major events, and so other jumpers became aware of it. Only a short time after the tour ended in 1953, planning began on the next one. The procedure should be changed this time. The New Year's competition in Partenkirchen should be retained, but no longer as a first competition, but as a second competition. The opening competition was moved to Oberstdorf and from then on always took place on December 29th or 30th. So the tour began in 1953/1954 in the old and ended in the new year. The jumping at Bergisel in Innsbruck was brought forward to January 3rd or 4th, and the Epiphany Jumping took place in Bischofshofen at the end of the tour.

In the following years the tour became the most important event in the ski jumping calendar. The field of participants grew stronger and the audience and media interest increased steadily. The New Year's competition was broadcast on ARD as early as 1956 . A year later, ARD broadcast all of the tour's jumping competitions, which in turn further increased awareness in Germany . The first podium place for a German jumper on the 1956/1957 tour , when Max Bolkart took third place, also made a significant contribution to this .

Another innovation was introduced for the 1956/1957 tour. The GDR ski association was guaranteed a jumping on Christmas Day in Oberhof . This should be the new opening jump of the tour. However, only Germans and Austrians competed in the first Christmas competition. All other nations did not compete in Oberhof due to transport and travel difficulties as well as the unclear payment for the transport.

Also on the 6th tour in 1957/1958 a jumping in Oberhof was planned on December 26th. However, until then there was no snow in Oberhof and a good preparation of the ski jump with delivered snow, as was done at the same time in Oberstdorf and Partenkirchen, was not possible. The jumping should therefore be relocated to the snowier Oberwiesenthal . However, this would have meant even greater travel and transport strains for the onward journey to Oberstdorf. Thus, the renewed attempt to extend the tour to the GDR failed. Nevertheless, the ski jumpers of the GDR had something to celebrate on this tour. Helmut Recknagel from Steinbach-Hallenberg won the tour, in the absence of the strong Norwegians (training problems in the run-up to the tour) and Finns (preparation for the Nordic World Ski Championships in Lahti in 1958 ), in front of two jumpers from the USSR . It was the first overall victory for a jumper from Germany. Recknagel repeated the victory on the 1959 tour and the 1961 tour . During the tour in 1959/1960 , Max Bolkart was the first German to celebrate an overall victory, the jumpers from the GDR, Poland, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Norway and Finland were absent.

Flag dispute

The eighth edition in 1959/1960 saw the first big scandal in the young history of the tour. The Federal Republic of Germany did not recognize the flag of the German Democratic Republic used by GDR athletes from October 1, 1959, also known as the "splitter flag", and forbade them to start under this state emblem. The jumpers and supervisors of the GDR national team insisted on hoisting their national flag at sporting events. Since this was not allowed, the GDR jumpers initially did not take part in the jumping in Oberstdorf and Garmisch-Partenkirchen. A start on the ski jumps in Innsbruck and Bischofshofen was initially planned, as the Austrians saw no reason to ban flags. Due to German diplomatic pressure, the ban was issued shortly before the start of jumping in Innsbruck for both competitions taking place in Austria. Thereupon, the teams from Poland , the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia also declared in solidarity that they were foregoing the jumping competitions in Oberstdorf and Garmisch-Partenkirchen and, following developments, later also for Innsbruck and Bischofshofen. Since the Norwegians and Finns were also absent due to the preparation for the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley , this tour was relatively weak. The winner was Max Bolkart .

The dispute over the flag of the GDR continued in the summer of 1960. The organizers of the tour thought about how they could solve the problem, as they did not want to hold another event without the strong jumpers from the GDR. As political circumstances meant that no possibility was seen of allowing the GDR flag to be raised, they decided to hoist the flag of the ski club for which the jumper started instead of the national flag. The GDR team agreed to this compromise and so it traveled to the tour with the best cast. It was victorious like Helmut Recknagel before the flag dispute ; this was the last German tour victory for the time being.

In the same year there was also a one-off event in the tour: Since Innsbruck had been awarded the contract for the Olympic Winter Games in 1964 , the ski jump on Bergisel was rebuilt. Since the construction work also continued during the tour, the jumpers carried out their competition on a construction site.

1960s: Düsseldorf resolutions and Scandinavian dominance

The anniversary tour in 1961/1962 was again dominated by German-German sports politics. After the Berlin Wall was built , the German NOK and the DSB adopted the so-called Düsseldorf resolutions on August 16, 1961 . This meant a “general ban on all sports traffic” between the Federal Republic and the GDR; they forbade any sporting events with GDR participants in the Federal Republic. Thus, the jumpers from the GDR could not take part in the two jumping tournaments in Oberstdorf and Garmisch-Partenkirchen until the tour in 1965/66 . It remains idle to speculate whether Helmut Recknagel would have been able to add more to his three tour victories without these sport-political quarrels. The 10th tour in 1961/1962 also heralded a long series of successes for jumpers from Finland and Norway, jumpers from these two countries won eight times in a row.

Since the tour in 1964/65 , computers have been used to determine results. At the New Year's competition on January 1, 1965, Heini Ihle was announced as the winner. An hour later, however, the jury announced that it had miscalculated a tenth of a point, which means that Erkki Puikka was the winner with 216.0 points ahead of Heini Ihle with 215.9 points.

1970s: Dominance of the GDR and commercialization

Only Horst Queck from the GDR was able to interrupt the dominance of the Scandinavians with his victory in the 1969/70 tour . The years of the GDR followed. East German jumpers have won five times in nine years: 1969/70 Horst Queck; 1972/73 Rainer Schmidt ; 1973/74 Hans-Georg Aschenbach ; 1975/76 and 1976/77 Jochen Danneberg .

In addition, the commercialization of touring and ski jumping in general advanced. With Intersport the tour found the first main and name sponsor and the previous amateur sport of ski jumping developed more and more into a professional sport.

1980s: Nykänen versus Weißflog

The 1980s were shaped by Matti Nykänen (FIN) and Jens Weißflog (GDR), who each achieved five podium positions in that decade. After the Austrian Hubert Neuper had succeeded in winning the tour twice in a row in 1979/80 and 1980/81, Manfred Deckert from the GDR won in 1981/82 . In 1982/83 Matti Nykänen won the tour for the first time ahead of Jens Weißflog, who then secured victory in each of the following two years, first ahead of Klaus Ostwald (GDR) and Matti Nykänen, then ahead of Nykänen and Ostwald. In 1985/86 and 1986/87 the Austrian Ernst Vettori was able to secure the overall tour victory twice in a row. In 1987/88 Nykänen won again in front of Weißflog, while the following year the Finn Risto Laakkonen pushed Nykänen to 2nd and Weißflog to 3rd in his victory.

1990s: development of the V-style

Dieter Thoma won the Four Hills Tournament in 1989/90 30 years after Max Bolkart as the second West German athlete ahead of František Jež from Czechoslovakia and Jens Weißflog from the GDR. With the "introduction" of the V-style in the early 1990s, the leaps and bounds became larger and larger. The profile of the jumps had to be continuously expanded, but their equipment also had to be modernized and adapted to the new conditions. Jens Weißflog, now starting for Germany as a whole, was the only jumper who won overall victories in both parallel and V-style and also competed for two countries. He was the first to win the tour four times, namely in 1983/84, 1984/85, 1990/91 and 1995/96.

Schattenbergschanze in Oberstdorf at the opening jump of the Four Hills Tournament on December 30, 2006

Since 2000: Hannawald's historic triumph, Ahonen's record and Austrian dominance

By the turn of the millennium, 13 jumpers had managed to win three out of four competitions within a tour, the Norwegian Bjørn Wirkola even managed to do this twice. However, no one was able to win all four competitions of a tour, so it was considered a special myth of the Four Hills Tournament whether this was even possible. The German Sven Hannawald was the first jumper to achieve this historic success at the 50th Four Hills Tournament 2001/2002.

In 2006, for the first time, there were two winners with the same number of points in the overall standings: Jakub Janda from the Czech Republic and Janne Ahonen from Finland . Ahonen succeeded two years later with his fifth overall victory (1998/99, 2002/03, 2004/05, 2005/06, 2007/08) to break the record of Weißflog with four overall victories.

After that, the dominance of the Austrians, which continued until 2015, began, who were the first nation in the history of the Four Hills Tournament to achieve overall victory for seven consecutive years - Wolfgang Loitzl (2009), Andreas Kofler (2010), Thomas Morgenstern (2011 ), Gregor Schlierenzauer (2012 and 2013), Thomas Diethart (2014) and Stefan Kraft (2015) were the respective winners.

In 2016 Peter Prevc from Slovenia won, in 2017 the Polish ski jumper Kamil Stoch . Stoch was able to repeat his overall tour victory of the previous season in 2018, being the second jumper after Sven Hannawald to win all four individual competitions in the 2001/02 season. A year later, the Japanese Ryoyu Kobayashi also succeeded in doing this .

organization

Events

Jumping of the Four Hills Tournament
Place
(date)
Jump Hill record
(year)
GermanyGermany Oberstdorf
(December 29 or 30)
Schattenbergschanze Sigurd Pettersen 143.5 m
(2003)
GermanyGermany Garmisch-Partenkirchen
(January 1st; New Year's Jumping )
Big
Olympic hill
Simon Ammann 143.5 m
(2010)
AustriaAustria Innsbruck
(January 3rd or 4th)
Bergiselschanze Michael Hayböck 138.0 m
(2015)
AustriaAustria Bischofshofen
(January 6th or 7th; Epiphany jumping)
Paul-Ausserleitner-
Schanze
Dawid Kubacki 145.0 m
(2019)

At the beginning of its history, the Four Hills Tournament did not take place permanently in the sequence of stations established today. In the first year of the tour, 1953, the New Year's competition in Garmisch-Partenkirchen opened the event. In 1956, 1961 and 1962 the jumping in Innsbruck took place as the second competition in the old year. In 1971/72 the dates of Oberstdorf and Innsbruck were swapped. In the beginning, jumping in Oberstdorf often only took place on New Year's Eve .

Since the 1972/73 tour, the order of the jumping has not changed. The Four Hills Tournament usually starts on December 29th or 30th in Oberstdorf , the New Year's Jumping takes place on January 1st in Garmisch-Partenkirchen , followed by the jumping in Innsbruck on January 3rd or 4th and the Dreikönigsspringen on January 6th in Bischofshofen . The dates of Oberstdorf and Innsbruck depend on the days of the week, while the dates of Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Bischofshofen are usually fixed.

The New Year's event took place with one exception always on New Year's, only in 1979 was due to the weather on January 2nd postponed. The jumping from Bischofshofen was postponed to January 7th in 2007 at the request of the television, as it was a Sunday.

In 2008, the jumping in Innsbruck was canceled for the first time in the history of the Four Hills Tournament due to a foehn storm and was rescheduled in Bischofshofen on January 5th. Since the tour was so discharged only three jumps, although with four jumping was jokingly already by a three-Hills Tournament spoken. It was the first time that the tour was not held on four hills, because when the Epiphany Jumping in Bischofshofen could not take place due to lack of snow in 1956, a jump was held on January 11th on the Zinkenschanze in nearby Hallein .

Host

The tour is organized by the ski clubs of the venues. These are the Skiclub 1906 Oberstdorf e. V. , the New Year's Ski Jumping Organizing Committee of SC Partenkirchen e. V. , the Bergisel Sport Club and the Bischofshofen Ski Club .

Finances

The financial cost of hosting the tour was in 2003/2004 with 3.6 million euros given.

The FIS stipulates a (minimum) prize money of 70,000 Swiss francs (CHF) for the winners, which is divided as follows: 1st place = 30,000 CHF, 2nd = 15,000 CHF, 3rd = 10,000 CHF, 4th = 6,000 CHF, 5th = 3,000 CHF, 6th = 2,000 CHF, 7th – 10th = CHF 1,000 each. In addition, sponsors often provide valuable material prizes, e.g. B. from Nissan (2004 a special X-trail car, 2005 a Nissan Pathfinder ).

marketing

In the 2010/2011 season, the Four Hills Tournament received a new logo , a new trophy and, for the first time, a uniform event layout in a new design.

For the first time an official song was presented for the Four Hills Tournament 2013/2014: The German pop singer Juliette Schoppmann interpreted the title To The Sky .

Participating countries

country Number
of participations
first participation Remarks
GermanyGermany Germany 1953
AustriaAustria Austria 1953
SwedenSweden Sweden 1953
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 1953
Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Yugoslavia 1953
NorwayNorway Norway 1953
FinlandFinland Finland 1953/54
CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 1955/56
PolandPoland Poland 1956/57
Soviet UnionSoviet Union Soviet Union 1955/56
Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR GDR 1955/56
United StatesUnited States United States 1962/63
JapanJapan Japan 1966/67
CanadaCanada Canada 1955/56
HungaryHungary Hungary 1961/62
FranceFrance France 1959/60
ItalyItaly Italy 1957/58
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 1988/89
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands 1986/87
China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China
SpainSpain Spain 1978/79
KazakhstanKazakhstan Kazakhstan
BulgariaBulgaria Bulgaria 1971/72
GreeceGreece Greece
EstoniaEstonia Estonia 1997/98
GeorgiaGeorgia Georgia 2001/02
SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia
KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 1998/99
Korea SouthSouth Korea South Korea 1998/99
SlovakiaSlovakia Slovakia 1992/93
RomaniaRomania Romania 1985/86
BelarusBelarus Belarus 1996/97

mode

Valuation principles

The overall ranking of the tour is determined by adding up the results of the four competitions. The number of points achieved for width and posture counts, not the placement or the associated World Cup points.

The score is made up of:

  • Jump distance: Jump to the K-point of the hill = 60 points. Every additional meter gives 1.8 plus points or minus points when landing in front of the K point.
  • Posture: The three average posture points are added by the 5 judges. The respective highest and lowest score will be deleted.
  • Wind factor: Depending on the wind conditions, points can be credited or deducted from the jumpers (tail wind leads to additional points and updraft leads to point deduction).
  • Gate: While the competition is running, the jury can extend or shorten the approach. If the run-up is extended, points will be deducted from the following jumpers or vice versa. This can be the case if the jumpers can jump too far down onto the landing hill due to strong updrafts. Because of the flat slope of the landing area, there is an increased risk of falling.

The wind factor and gate were used for the first time at the Four Hills Tournament 2010/2011. This system creates more objective results, although the external influences can never be fully compensated.

Knockout system

Principles

One of the special features of the Four Hills Tournament is that it is held in the controversial knockout system , while in the other World Cup competitions the best 30 jumpers from the first round get into the second round. The knockout mode is only used if the qualification takes place the day before the jump. If, due to the weather, the qualification has to be held on the day of jumping or if it has to be omitted entirely, the rules of normal World Cups will be used. This was last the case on January 6, 2019 in Bischofshofen.

qualification

In the mode used for the first time in the 1996/97 season, the 50 jumpers qualified for jumping are divided into 25 pairs so that two jumpers always jump against each other. The 1st of the qualification jumps against the 50th, the 2nd against the 49th, etc. Therefore, the qualification is more important than in other competitions, as it not only decides on participation in the first round, but also that through the achieved placement sets the appropriate duel.

By 2017, the ten best in the overall World Cup ranking (the 15 best by 2006/07) were automatically qualified. For them, the qualification was not about participating in the competition, but simply about which opponent they had to face in the knockout system.

competition

The winner of each of the 25 knight duels goes straight to the second round. In addition, the five most points loser, the so-called come Lucky Loser ( English : happy loser further so that the number of participants for the second passage 30 of jumpers is). If the fifth-best loser has a tie with other jumpers, they are also qualified for the second round, so that more than 30 jumpers can reach the second round.

In this mode it is possible, for example, for the twelfth of the first round to be eliminated (if he loses his duel and there are five better "losers"), while the forty-ninth of the first round can advance (if he wins his duel). It therefore happens again and again that jumpers who would have been eliminated after the normal mode qualify for the second round, but actually qualified jumpers are eliminated.

However, if the weather conditions change significantly during a competition, the knockout mode can also lead to more justice. Thus, jumpers whose chances of reaching the second round are reduced by external influences such as tail wind or cross wind, the opportunity to qualify in a direct duel. Your opponent in the duel would then be a jumper who has to jump under similar (as timely) conditions. Conversely, athletes with favorable weather conditions usually have to contest their direct duel against jumpers with similar weather conditions, so that their advantage is limited.

winner

The earlier cup for the winner of the Four Hills Tournament by Joska Kristall . Since 2013, the overall winner has received a golden eagle on a transparent base. The above glass cup is now for the 2nd and 3rd in the overall ranking.
Kamil Stoch with the 2016/17 overall winner's cup

Overall winner

Janne Ahonen (Finland) has been the most successful participant in the Four Hills Tournament with five overall victories since the 2007/2008 tour, ahead of Jens Weißflog (GDR, Germany) with four and the two jumpers Helmut Recknagel (GDR) and Bjørn Wirkola (Norway) with three overall victories each . There are a total of 12 multiple winners, nine of which were able to repeat a previous year's victory. Bjørn Wirkola was the only one who managed to do this twice, one after the other. At 12 years of age, Jens Weißflog has the longest time between his first and last overall victory, nine years for Janne Ahonen and five years for Matti Nykänen (Finland):

Record winner of the Four Hills Tournament
Overall victories Surname Tours *
5 FinlandFinland Janne Ahonen 1998/99 , 2002/03 , 2004/05 , 2005/06 , 2007/08
4th Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR/ Jens WeißflogGermanyGermany  1983/84 , 1984/85 , 1990/91 , 1995/96
3 Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR Helmut Recknagel 1957/58 , 1958/59 , 1960/61
NorwayNorway Bjørn Wirkola 1966/67 , 1967/68 , 1968/69
2 FinlandFinland Veikko Kankkonen 1963/64 , 1965/66
Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR Jochen Danneberg 1975/76 , 1976/77
AustriaAustria Hubert Neuper 1979/80 , 1980/81
FinlandFinland Matti Nykänen 1982/83 , 1987/88
AustriaAustria Ernst Vettori 1985/86 , 1986/87
AustriaAustria Andreas Goldberger 1992/93 , 1994/95
AustriaAustria Gregor Schlierenzauer 2011/12 , 2012/13
PolandPoland Kamil Stoch 2016/17 , 2017/18
* Tours that follow one another are linked with an underscore.

On the 54th tour (2005/06) there were two tour winners for the first time. After eight jumps Jakub Janda (Czech Republic) and Janne Ahonen had exactly the same number of points with 1081.5 points. At that time, this number of points also represented the record number of points achieved by a jumper in the history of the Four Hills Tournament, but was later improved even further by Ahonen himself (2008 with 1085.8 points) and Wolfgang Loitzl (2009 with 1123.7 points). On the 2015/16 tour , Peter Prevc set a new point record with 1139.4 points.

At 18 tours there were overall winners who could win on at least three of the four hills. Only Sven Hannawald from Germany in the 50th Four Hills Tournament 2001/02, Kamil Stoch from Poland in the 66th Four Hills Tournament 2017/18 and Ryoyū Kobayashi from Japan in the 67th Four Hills Tournament 2018/19 succeeded in winning all four individual competitions of a tour to create the so-called Grand Slam in ski jumping:

Overall winner with at least three individual wins
tour 1 2 3 4th Surname
1953/54 S. S. S. 3. NorwayNorway Olaf B. Bjørnstad
1958/59 S. S. S. 15th Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR Helmut Recknagel
1959/60 S. S. S. 5. GermanyGermany Max Bolkart
1962/63 S. S. S. 4th NorwayNorway Toralf Engan
1966/67 3. S. S. S. NorwayNorway Bjørn Wirkola
1968/69 S. S. S. 2. NorwayNorway Bjørn Wirkola
1983/84 2. S. S. S. Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR Jens Weißflog
1987/88 2. S. S. S. FinlandFinland Matti Nykänen
1991/92 S. 2. S. S. FinlandFinland Toni Nieminen
1997/98 S. S. S. 8th. JapanJapan Kazuyoshi Funaki
1999/00 3. S. S. S. AustriaAustria Andreas Widhölzl
2001/02 S. S. S. S. GermanyGermany Sven Hannawald
2003/04 S. S. 4th S. NorwayNorway Sigurd Pettersen
2004/05 S. S. S. 2. FinlandFinland Janne Ahonen
2008/09 2. S. S. S. AustriaAustria Wolfgang Loitzl
2015/16 3. S. S. S. SloveniaSlovenia Peter Prevc
2017/18 S. S. S. S. PolandPoland Kamil Stoch
2018/19 S. S. S. S. JapanJapan Ryoyu Kobayashi

Eight times there was an overall winner who was not the winner of any of the hills:

Overall winner without an individual victory
tour Surname
1954/55 FinlandFinland Hemmo Silvennoinen
1955/56 Soviet UnionSoviet Union Nikolai Andreevich Kamensky
1969/70 Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR Horst Queck
1970/71 CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Jiří Raška
1971/72 NorwayNorway Ingolf Mork
1986/87 AustriaAustria Ernst Vettori
1988/89 FinlandFinland Risto Laakkonen
1998/99 FinlandFinland Janne Ahonen

Individual winner

Sven Hannawald , Ryōyū Kobayashi and Kamil Stoch ( highlighted in yellow) are the only ones who managed to win all of the competitions within a tour. Eight other jumpers ( highlighted in orange) also managed to win at least once on all four hills, but they needed at least two tours for this. Eight jumpers managed to win the first three competitions of a tour, but failed in the last competition (see Tables 1 and 2 ). !!

With the jumping in Oberstdorf in December 2002 following his overall victory in 2001/2002, Hannawald became the first jumper to win all four competitions within one calendar year. Kobayashi achieved this in calendar year 2019 as well. Helmut Recknagel (Innsbruck 1958, Bischofshofen 1958, Oberstdorf 1958, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1959 and Innsbruck 1959) and Stoch (Bischofshofen 2017, Oberstdorf 2017, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 2018, Innsbruck 2018 and Bischofshofen 2018) also achieved 5 victories in a row.

All jumpers with at least three individual successes are listed below (active jumpers are printed in bold ):

Surname country Number of victories Number of jumps Oberstdorf Garmisch-Partenkirchen innsbruck Bischofshofen Overall victories
Jens Weißflog Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR GDR / GermanyGermanyGermany  10 4th 2 4th 1 3 4th
Bjørn Wirkola NorwayNorway Norway 10 4th 1 3 3 3 3
Janne Ahonen FinlandFinland Finland 9 4th 2 2 2 3 5
Gregor Schlierenzauer AustriaAustria Austria 9 4th 2 3 2 2 2
Matti Nykänen FinlandFinland Finland 7th 4th 1 2 3 1 2
Sven Hannawald GermanyGermany Germany 6th 4th 2 1 1 2 1
Helmut Recknagel Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR GDR 6th 4th 1 1 2 2 3
Kazuyoshi Funaki JapanJapan Japan 5 3 1 1 3 - 1
Andreas Goldberger AustriaAustria Austria 5 2 - - 3 2 2
Thomas Morgenstern AustriaAustria Austria 5 3 2 - 1 2 1
Kamil Stoch PolandPoland Poland 5 4th 1 1 1 2 2
Ryoyu Kobayashi JapanJapan Japan 5 4th 2 1 1 1 1
Jochen Danneberg Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR GDR 4th 3 1 2 1 - 2
Toni Innauer AustriaAustria Austria 4th 3 2 1 - 1 -
Jacobsen is different NorwayNorway Norway 4th 3 1 2 1 - 1
Veikko Kankkonen FinlandFinland Finland 4th 4th 1 1 1 1 2
Hubert Neuper AustriaAustria Austria 4th 4th 1 1 1 1 2
Jiří Raška CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 4th 2 - 1 - 3 2
Martin Schmitt GermanyGermany Germany 4th 2 3 1 - - -
Dieter Thoma GermanyGermany Germany 4th 2 3 - - 1 1
Andreas Widhölzl AustriaAustria Austria 4th 3 - 1 1 2 1
Simon Ammann SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 3 2 2 1 - - -
Olaf B. Bjørnstad NorwayNorway Norway 3 3 1 1 1 - 1
Max Bolkart GermanyGermany Germany 3 3 1 1 1 - 1
Willi Egger AustriaAustria Austria 3 3 - 1 1 1 -
Toralf Engan NorwayNorway Norway 3 3 1 1 1 - 1
Andreas fields AustriaAustria Austria 3 2 - 2 - 1 -
Noriaki Kasai JapanJapan Japan 3 2 - 2 1 - -
Yukio Kasaya JapanJapan Japan 3 3 1 1 1 - -
Eino Kirjonen FinlandFinland Finland 3 2 2 - - 1 1
Wolfgang Loitzl AustriaAustria Austria 3 3 - 1 1 1 1
Ingolf Mork NorwayNorway Norway 3 3 1 1 - 1 1
Dieter Neuendorf Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR GDR 3 2 2 - 1 - -
Toni Nieminen FinlandFinland Finland 3 3 1 - 1 1 1
Sigurd Pettersen NorwayNorway Norway 3 3 1 1 - 1 1
Peter Prevc SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia 3 3 - 1 1 1 1
Karl Schnabl AustriaAustria Austria 3 3 - 1 1 1 -
Willi Egger AustriaAustria Austria 3 3 - 1 1 1 -

Four of these jumpers won on three of the four hills within a tour, but without being able to secure the overall victory: Yukio Kasaya had to return to Japan before the last competition on the instructions of the team management - like the entire Japanese contingent - to take part in the Olympic Preparing the 1972 Winter Games in his own country, where he was then able to win the gold medal on the normal hill. The other three athletes were placed too badly in the jumping they did not win:

Three individual wins and no overall victory
tour 1 2 3 4th Surname
1970/71 S. S. 16. S. NorwayNorway Ingolf Mork
1971/72 S. S. S. - JapanJapan Yukio Kasaya
1974/75 35. S. S. S. AustriaAustria Karl Schnabl
1975/76 S. S. 24. S. AustriaAustria Toni Innauer

In 19 tours there were four different daily winners, most recently in 2014/15 .

Most successful nations

The previous winners of the Four Hills Tournament came from the following nations:

space nation number Jumper
1 AustriaAustria Austria 16 Andreas Goldberger , Hubert Neuper , Gregor Schlierenzauer , Ernst Vettori (2 × each)
Sepp Bradl , Thomas Diethart , Andreas Kofler , Stefan Kraft , Wolfgang Loitzl , Thomas Morgenstern , Willi Pürstl , Andreas Widhölzl (1 × each)
FinlandFinland Finland 16 Janne Ahonen (5 ×)
Veikko Kankkonen , Matti Nykänen (2 × each)
Eino Kirjonen , Pentti Kokkonen , Risto Laakkonen , Toni Nieminen , Hemmo Silvennoinen , Pentti Uotinen , Kari Ylianttila (1 × each)
3 Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR GDR 11 Helmut Recknagel (3 ×)
Jens Weißflog , Jochen Danneberg (2 × each)
Hans-Georg Aschenbach , Manfred Deckert , Horst Queck , Rainer Schmidt (1 × each)
4th NorwayNorway Norway 10 Bjørn Wirkola (3 ×)
Olaf B. Bjørnstad , Torgeir Brandtzæg , Espen Bredesen , Toralf Engan , Anders Jacobsen , Ingolf Mork , Sigurd Pettersen (1 × each)
5 GermanyGermany Germany 5 Jens Weißflog (2 ×)
Max Bolkart , Sven Hannawald , Dieter Thoma (1 × each)
6th PolandPoland Poland 4th Kamil Stoch (2 ×)
Adam Małysz , Dawid Kubacki (1 × each)
7th SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia 2 Primož Peterka , Peter Prevc
JapanJapan Japan 2 Kazuyoshi Funaki , Ryōyū Kobayashi
9 Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic 1 Jakub Janda
CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 1 Jiří Raška
Soviet UnionSoviet Union Soviet Union 1 Nikolai Kamensky

All four daily winners
Six nations have so far managed to provide the four daily winners of a tour: Austria was three times ( 1974/75 , 2009/10 , 2011/12 ), once each for the GDR in 1983/84 and Norway in 1962/63 , and - each with a Grand Slam - Germany with Sven Hannawald 2001/02 , Poland with Kamil Stoch 2017/18 and Japan with Ryoyu Kobayashi 2018/19 .

Television broadcasts

History and current situation

The television broadcasts contributed significantly to the rapid popularization of the Four Hills Tournament. As early as 1956, Bayerischer Rundfunk broadcast the New Year's competition on ARD , and from 1960 the other stations of the tour were also broadcast on television. For the 1974/75 tour, the ORF only showed the beginning of December 29th from Oberstdorf as a summary from 5 p.m., which was justified with the performance of the ÖSV jumpers that had become weaker in recent years (this meant that a large part of the TV viewers could, except those in the regions to the border to Germany , did not experience Willi Pürstl's surprise victory live).

With the qualification for New Year's ski jumping 2000 on December 31, 1999, the cooperation with the public television broadcasters in Germany ended. After that, the private broadcaster RTL was the broadcasting station in Germany. Shortly before the start of the 2007/08 season, RTL withdrew from all winter sports events, whereupon Das Erste and ZDF received the broadcasting rights for Germany. In Austria, the tour has always been broadcast by ORF .

Up to 25 television stations are broadcasting the tour today.

Commercialization

In the last 20 years there has been an increasing commercialization of the Four Hills Tournament, which in some cases has brought about drastic changes in rules and procedures. In 1996/97, for example, the previously jumped mode was replaced by the often criticized knockout system.

The acquisition of the television rights by RTL brought further serious changes: from the 2004/05 tour onwards, the jumping competitions in Oberstdorf and Bischofshofen were held as floodlit competitions, as the broadcaster promised higher audience ratings by broadcasting the evening program. The final “Dreikönigsspringen” traditionally held on January 6th in Bischofshofen was even postponed once to January 7th at the request of the broadcaster in 2007 in order to be able to broadcast both the qualification and the jumping over the weekend.

In particular in the years of the broadcast by RTL, advertising was also broadcast during the passages. This was done on the one hand through so-called split-screen advertising , in which the jumping continued and individual, rather weaker jumpers were only shown in a small window at the edge of the picture while the commercials were broadcast. On the other hand, the course of the jumps was interrupted after the first 25 jumpers in the first round and after every ten jumpers in the second round for advertising blocks. Although it was initially emphasized that no jumper had to wait to jump due to commercial interruptions, these non-weather-related interruptions were only introduced during this period. However, they were retained even after the contract with the private broadcaster expired and were also used by ORF and ZDF for commercials.

Until the 2016/17 season, the 10 best placed (up to 2006/07 the 15 best) of the World Cup were allowed to skip the qualification and then jumped in a direct duel against the best in qualifying (the best placed jumper in the World Cup who missed the qualification, against the best qualified, etc.) . Participation in the qualification has been mandatory for all jumpers since the 2017/18 season. The change is intended to enhance qualifications and generate more audience interest. This was already considered after the 2001/02 Four Hills Tournament, when Sven Hannawald, as a qualified jumper, skipped all four qualifications and these did not bring the expected number of spectators.

literature

  • Katharina Scholz: The Four Hills Tournament - The Tour as a Discontinued Model? In: Lars Nuschke: Marketing potentials of top-class sport. A consideration of selected case studies. Sierke Verlag, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-940333-31-5 , pp. 37-54.

Web links

Commons : Four Hills Tournament  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Four Hills Tournament  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Supplement to the Four Hills Tournament in the TV Movie from December 2003 / January 2004.
  2. ^ ARD sports text of December 28, 2003
  3. Magazine ski ., 2001
  4. Supplement to TV Movie from December 2003 / January 2004 and supplement to TV Movie from December 2004.
  5. Four Hills Tournament in a new guise . skijumping.de
  6. With "To The Sky" she presents the official song for the Four Hills Tournament!
  7. Schlierenzauer in 2013 with the eagle ( January 6, 2013: Schlierenzauer gets one tour victory with a single victory in Bischofshofen. In: sportsplanet.at. January 6, 2013, accessed on 16 January 2018 . ) And 2012 (with Glaspokal Schlierenzauer wins Four Hills Tournament. in: . salzburg.ORF.at January 7, 2012, accessed on January 16, 2018 . ).
  8. Tour on television - Dreikönig is now called January 7th . sueddeutsche.de