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Basic data Sauerland
Federal states : North Rhine-Westphalia , Hesse
Administrative districts : Arnsberg , Kassel
Area : 4,462.04 km²
Residents : 882,505 (Dec. 31, 2013)
Population density : 198 inhabitants per km²
The highest point: 843.2  m above sea level NHN ( Langenberg )
Lowest point: 106.2  m above sea level NHN , on the Ruhr near
Structure: several counties

Location of the Sauerland in Germany

The Sauerland is a low mountain range in Westphalia and, depending on the definition, partly also in Hesse . It covers the northeastern part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains . An exact delimitation is not possible and the definition of the term is subject to constant change. At its core, the region consists of the part of the former, predominantly Catholic Duchy of Westphalia ( Kurkölnisches Sauerland) south of the Möhne and the part of the former, predominantly Protestant Grafschaft Mark (Brandenburg Sauerland) south of the Ruhr . It also includes, at least in one of the common definitions, the Upland in the Hessian district of Waldeck-Frankenberg . The region comprises different mountain ranges. The highest peaks are in the Rothaargebirge . The Ruhr and Lenne also arise there . The region, sparsely populated in relation to the national average, has many forest areas and reservoirs. In addition to agriculture and forestry, the region was economically characterized by ore mining and the iron and metal industry. Today there is a predominantly medium-sized industry. Tourism is particularly important in the higher eastern part of the region, the Hochsauerland .


Location and limits

The Sauerland is located in the south of Westphalia ; it mainly includes the northeastern part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains, which formerly belonged to the county of Mark and the Duchy of Westphalia , and adjacent areas. Since regions are always subject to free demarcation and since the Sauerland region does not go back to historical territory, there is no fixed definition of boundaries. In addition, the term was and is subject to a constant change in meaning (→ see the history of the term ) .

In the west, south and east the demarcation mostly follows historical boundaries, while in the north the change in the landscape is used. One possible borderline in the west is the watershed between Ennepe and Volme and the watershed between Agger and Bigge, which adjoins it to the south, as the border. This corresponds to the historical border between the Grafschaft Mark and the Duchy of Berg or between the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and Rhineland . Part of the western border outlined in this way lies in what is today the Ennepe-Ruhr district ; these areas are increasingly counted as part of the Ruhr area . This also applies to the city of Hagen . Sieger Land and Wittgenstein Land are demarcated in the south ; but despite all the historical differences, these two regions are repeatedly mentioned together with the Sauerland. In general, the three regions are combined with other areas to form the South Westphalia region . Further to the east, the Zechstein depression of Korbach and the southeastern edge of the Rothaargebirge could be used. This corresponds to the historical border with the county of Waldeck ; however, the Waldeck Upland is counted as part of the Hochsauerland . In the north, the Ruhr , Möhne and the southern edge of the chalk layers of the Westphalian Bay can be used, with parts of the Haar and Hellweg area also counting as part of the Sauerland. There are also numerous other definitions of the Sauerland, such as the headwaters of the Ruhr and Lenne.

In the natural-geographic sense, the Sauerland belongs to the main unit group 33 " Süderbergland ", which is also known as the "Bergisch-Sauerland Mountains".

Political organization of the Sauerland

Cities and counties

The most populous city in the Sauerland is Iserlohn with 92,174 inhabitants. Arnsberg (73,456 inhabitants) and Lüdenscheid (72,313 inhabitants) are the next largest cities. The largest cities in terms of area are Schmallenberg (303.07 km²), Brilon (229.01 km²) and Meschede (218.40 km²).

In the Sauerland there was never a city that acted as a center.

The much larger part of the Sauerland , which belongs to North Rhine-Westphalia, includes the Märkische Kreis in the west, the Olpe district in the south and the Hochsauerlandkreis in the middle and east , which makes up the largest part of the Sauerland in terms of area. In addition, the southern part of the Soest district and the Upland in the Waldeck-Frankenberg district are usually included in the Sauerland (see map "Political structure of the Sauerland").

In addition to the areas and cities mentioned, individual communities in the Unna and Paderborn districts , the Ennepe-Ruhr district and the independent city of Hagen are also included in the Sauerland.

Neighboring regions

In the south the Sauerland merges into the Wittgensteiner and Siegerland , in the west into the Bergisches Land . All three landscapes are also part of the Süderbergland and are delimited for historical reasons.

In the northwest the Sauerland borders on the Ruhr area . Historically and naturally, parts of the two regions overlap, but they were subject to different economic developments.

Further to the east, the Sauerland borders the Hellwegbörden , for example the Soester Börde , and to the northeast and east it borders the East Westphalian bishopric of Paderborn . These regions are located in the Westphalian Bay and thus differ in terms of landscape from the Sauerland.

The neighboring region in the south-east and south is Waldeck , which is historically different from the Sauerland. Upland , which is assigned to both regions, has a special position .

The Bergisches Land becomes the Rhineland , Waldeck becomes North Hesse and all other neighboring regions, like the Sauerland, are counted as Westphalia .


Astenturm, Kahler Asten

The highest mountains in the Sauerland, all located in the Rothaargebirge , are the Langenberg ( 843.2  m above sea  level ) between Willingen and Niedersfeld , the Hegekopf ( 842.9  m ) south of Willingen and the Kahle Asten ( 841.9  m ) at Winterberg . The Langenberg is the highest point in the Rothaargebirge, in North Rhine-Westphalia and in northwest Germany . The border between North Rhine-Westphalia and Hesse runs over its summit. The Hegekopf, which lies entirely on Hessian territory, is the second highest mountain in the northern part of northern Hesse after the Langenberg.

In addition to the Rothaar Mountains, the region is characterized by other mountain ranges. These include the Saalhauser Berge ( Himberg , 687.7  m ), the Ebbegebirge ( Nordhelle , 663.3  m ), the Lennegebirge ( Homert , 656.1  m ) and the North Sauerland ( Plackweghöhe , 581.5  m ).

Flowing waters

The Rhine-Weser watershed runs through the Sauerland and over its highest peak, the Langenberg , in a north-south direction . The larger part of the Sauerland to the west of it drains largely via the Ruhr and its left tributaries to the Rhine , while some peripheral areas in the northeast also drain to the Lippe .

Other Rhine tributaries run partly (the Lahn in the Wittgensteiner Land ) or almost entirely (the Sieg in the Siegerland and the Wupper in the Bergisches Land ) in the Southern Mountains, but in parts that do not belong to the Sauerland.

The east of the Sauerland, especially the entire Upland , drains via the Diemel and tributaries of the Eder to the Weser.

Ruhr spring near Winterberg

The most important rivers of the Sauerland are (sorted by river system and inflow height):


As a result of industrialization, the need for drinking and industrial water increased, especially in the Ruhr area . Numerous waterworks were built on the lower reaches of the Ruhr, but they often ran dry in dry summers. The water producers in the Ruhr area founded the Ruhrtalsperrenverein in 1899 for regulation . This organization in particular financed the construction of dams on some of the smaller rivers in the Sauerland. These store the water in autumn and winter and allow it to flow away in a controlled manner in spring and summer in order to always ensure a sufficient water level in the lower reaches of the Ruhr. The largest of these lakes are the Biggesee (with the Listertalsperre ), the Möhnesee , the Sorpesee , the Hennesee and the Versetalsperre . The Diemelsee (partly in North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Aabachstausee are located on the north-eastern edge and only just in the neighboring districts .

The reservoirs are also popular as excursion destinations for residents of the Ruhr area and from the Netherlands . A tourism economy with gastronomy and recreational opportunities for local recreation has developed around most of these lakes.

Population development and settlement density

Population development of the districts 1950–2004
(territorial status: 2005)
area 1950 1961 1970 1987 2004
Hochsauerlandkreis 226.063 237,565 263.920 260.265 277.715
Märkischer Kreis 343,600 399.213 432.405 421,321 451.421
District of Olpe 097.831 108,138 119.184 125,142 142.140
Soest district 222,459 231,687 257.030 266,693 309.013

The Sauerland is considered a rather sparsely populated area; however, depending on economic development, there were and still are considerable differences in population density.

Overall, there is a clear east-west divide in terms of population development and settlement density. The early industrialized area of ​​today's Märkisches Kreis had a considerable population growth in the 19th century due to immigration, also from the Hochsauerland. Iron ore was already being mined there and smelted with local charcoal (e.g. in the Luisenhütte Wocklum ) when the Ruhr area did not even exist as an industrial conurbation. After 1870 the north-western part of today's Hochsauerlandkreis (especially in Neheim and Hüsten) caught up and hardly differed from the development in the Mark.

Settlement density in 2004
circle Inhabitant per km²
Hochsauerlandkreis 141.8
Märkischer Kreis 426.3
District of Olpe 200.0
Soest district 232.8
North Rhine-Westphalia 530.3

In contrast, the less industrialized areas in today's districts of Hochsauerland, Olpe and Soest were temporarily emigration and emigration areas with a correspondingly low increase in population. The district administrator of Brilon estimated at the beginning of the 1870s that between 1845 and 1864 alone, over 500 people had emigrated to America. In the phase of high industrialization , emigration overseas lost its importance in favor of emigration to the neighboring industrial areas. Already at the beginning of the 1860s there were only about 180 emigrations overseas in the Brilon district, but over 600 relocations within the Prussian state. The main target areas were the industrial locations in the western part of the Sauerland and the Ruhr area.

Although economic disparities decreased in the 20th century, population density is still extremely diverse. While the Märkische Kreis is only slightly below the average for North Rhine-Westphalia, the population density is several times lower, especially in the Hochsauerland. Here it is greatest between the two largest cities Arnsberg and Meschede as well as in the Röhr valley towards Sundern.

In general, there has been a significant population decline since 2004. In 2010 the Hochsauerlandkreis only had around 267,000 inhabitants, and the Märkische Kreis in 2012 only around 419,000 inhabitants. In its forecast for 2014/2015 , the State Office for Information and Technology in North Rhine-Westphalia expects a further population decline of 16 percent by 2040 (corresponding to around 40,000 inhabitants) for the Hochsauerlandkreis and for the Märkische Kreis for the same period (2015-2040) in the medium term. by 20 percent (corresponding to around 78,000 inhabitants). For the same period (2014–2040), according to the forecast of the state company, the decline in the labor force due to demographic change is even clearer. For the Hochsauerlandkreis by 27.4% (from 136,400 to 99,700; consequently -36,700) and for the Märkischer Kreis by 28.6% (from 200,500 to 143,100; hence -57,400).


The Sauerland is part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains . Most of the rock was formed during the Devonian when the whole area was a shallow sea. For this reason, slate , sandstone , greywacke and limestone are the most common rocks. In addition, volcanic rocks from the Devonian occur in the eastern Sauerland , and in some places ores such as those mined in Meggen formed on the seabed .

The mountain-forming forces of the Variscan orogeny in the Carboniferous have laid the formerly horizontal layers of rock in folds , which are disturbed in many places by thrusts and faults . The mountains formed at that time were quickly removed again, so that the area of ​​the later Sauerland was almost a plain for a long time. The hills of the Sauerland were created by the uplift of the Rhenish Slate Mountains since the end of the Miocene and especially in the Quaternary . Since then, the rivers have cut into the slate mountains, especially from its edges. The slate mountains and with them the Sauerland are still slowly rising today.

View from the north summit of the Ginsterkopf into the valley of the Gierskoppbach towards the southwest and west: in the left part of the picture the Bruchhauser stones , in the middle of the picture Elleringhausen with the Ruthenberg and behind the massif of Heidkopf and Olsberg , on the right a view towards Olsberg to the Upper Arnsberg Forest with the Arnsberg Forest nature park there , on the right edge of the picture the south-western foothills of the Borberg

Some areas of the Sauerland are karstified due to the occurrence of limestone , and there are hundreds of stalactite caves , especially in the north, between Iserlohn and the Hönnetal and in the area around Attendorn and on the Brilon plateau . Some of them, such as the Dechen cave in Iserlohn, the Atta cave in Attendorn, the Heinrich cave on the rock sea Hemer , the Bilstein cave near Warstein and the Recken cave in Balve, have been expanded into show caves and can be visited.

The numerous larger and smaller ore deposits have led to the development of a traditional mining industry since the Middle Ages . The mining in the Sauerland region was once an important economic factor; it has come to a complete standstill today.

nature and environment

The Sauerland is characterized by a low mountain range landscape with beech and spruce forests. Mixed forests and other deciduous and coniferous forests are rather rare. Because of the many mountains it is sometimes referred to as the land of a thousand mountains .

In the years 1961 to 1965, several stretches of land were designated as nature parks. In the north between the Ruhr and Möhne lies the Arnsberg Forest Nature Park . The Ebbegebirge nature park encompassed most of the southwestern Sauerland, the Homert nature park was located between the Lennetal in the southwest and the Ruhr valley area in the northeast. The Rothaargebirge Nature Park spread across the northeastern Sauerland, Wittgensteiner Land and Siegerland . On May 1, 2015, the last three named were merged to form the Sauerland-Rothaargebirge nature park , which is now the second largest in Germany with an area of ​​3,826 km². In the north-eastern edge of the Sauerland and in the bordering Upland between Brilon and Marsberg, the Diemelsee Nature Park lies on the border with the Hessian district of Waldeck-Frankenberg .

The nature of the Sauerland is very diverse, with many areas worthy of protection and rare plants and animals. Many species have a focus here in Germany. These include B. the bison , the black stork , the eagle owl , the gray shrike and the whinchat . This led to the designation of a large number of protected areas of different sizes next to the nature parks. The Hochsauerlandkreis is one of the very few districts in North Rhine-Westphalia that have drawn up landscape plans for the entire district . All areas outside the localities and existing development plans were designated at least as landscape protection areas and 177 nature protection areas with a total area of ​​approx. 7,800 hectares. Furthermore, 55 FFH areas with an area of ​​approx. 30,000 ha in the Hochsauerlandkreis have been reported to the European Union by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with most of the larger nature reserves also being part of mostly even larger FFH areas. Two bird sanctuaries are entirely and two more partially in the Hochsauerlandkreis, including the European bird sanctuary Medebacher Bucht . The bird protection areas also overlap with nature protection areas and FFH areas. In the north-western Sauerland there is the Lürwald , which is designated as a nature reserve Luerwald on 1618 hectares . The area is part of the 2633 hectare FFH area Lürwald and Bieberbach and the 2637 hectare bird sanctuary Lürwald and Bieberbach . Other biotopes worthy of protection are z. B. designated as natural monuments .

In January 2007, hurricane Kyrill left considerable damage due to wind breaks, especially in the coniferous forests. Of the total area of ​​the Hochsauerlandkreis, the Märkisches Kreis and the Olpe district as well as the communities Ense, Möhnesee, Rüthen, Warstein (all districts Soest), Diemelsee and Willingen (Upland) (both districts Waldeck-Frankenberg), the proportion of forests in 2010 was just over 50 percent. In comparison, the forest area in the Federal Republic was 30.1 percent (2009), in North Rhine-Westphalia 25.6 percent.

Snow landscape in the Sauerland near Meschede

South of Bestwig is the Plästerlegge , the highest waterfall in North Rhine-Westphalia.

The Sauerland is of supraregional importance for the flora and fauna. The Rothaargebirge has its highest elevations in the Winterberg , Olsberg and Brilon area with the Kahler Asten and the surroundings of the Neuer Hagen high heath . Due to the special climatic conditions and the altitudes of over 800 meters, this is the only occurrence of some animal and plant species in North Rhine-Westphalia . Mention should be made of alpine milk lettuce ( Cicerbita alpina ), alpine bear moss ( Diphasiastrum alpinum ) and two-flowered violet ( Viola biflora ). The limestone area of ​​the Brilon plateau with the poor grassland on the limestone peaks is also home to unique vegetation. Quendel summer root ( Orobanche alba ) and steppe fennel ( Seseli annuum ) are special features . Another specialty is the vegetation of the karst springs of the alpine pastures with the occurrence of the Pyrenean spoonweed ( Cochlearia pyrenaica ). The Medebacher Bucht European bird sanctuary is located in the Medebacher Bucht . In particular, the significant occurrences of the great gray shrike , nine killer and whinchat have contributed to this. The Marsberg area with the Diemel area has extensive limestone grasslands on the Zechstein underground . Also known is the sea ​​of ​​rocks in Hemer , which was created by the collapse of the caves that previously existed there.

In the Hochsauerlandkreis, the Association for Nature and Bird Protection in the Hochsauerlandkreis (VNV) is particularly committed to preserving the cultural landscape with its high biodiversity . In the Hochsauerlandkreis, in the Märkischer Kreis and in the Soest district, there are biological stations that look after the protected areas in the respective district with funding from the state.


Concept history

The term Sauerland was first mentioned in 1266 as an epithet of the witness Wesselo de Suderlande. In the following years the name appeared in slightly varying form as a designation of origin in Arnsberg, Stralsund, Greifswald, Cologne, Soest, Lübeck, London, Breslau, Rostock, Riga, Danzig, Kassel and Essen. From the 14th century the term was used to describe local situations in more detail.

In Westphalian , the intervowel d disappeared from the 13th century , so that Suderlande gradually became Suerland . Higher social classes clung to the d ; accordingly, spellings with d can be found in documents written by law firms and clerks. Presumably under the influence of the form south for sud , which was advancing from the Netherlands or from the North Sea coast, the term Süderland caught on in learned circles . Towards the end of the 16th century, written Middle Low German lost its importance and was replaced by High German. As a result, the name of the Sauerland was hyped up: the long vowel u was diphthongized to au , so that the current form of the name Sauerland was created.

The origin of the landscape name Sauerland goes back to pre- territorial times; it probably appeared in the 12th century. In the late Middle Ages it referred to the areas south and north of the middle and lower Lenne ; in the early modern period it extended to the south-west Westphalian mountainous region south of the Haar and Hellweg ; The Sieger Land and the Wittgenstein Land were excluded . Territorially, the area was split into the Protestant County of Mark and the Catholic Duchy of Westphalia ; both domains also included areas outside the Sauerland. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Westphalia, and in particular the Sauerland, got an increasingly bad reputation. Above all, the Sauerland in the Electorate of Cologne was considered backward and poor. From the 19th century, therefore, the bond with the term decreased; In the industrially up-and-coming Sauerland in Brandenburg, the name Süderland was preferred.

The image of the Sauerland only changed with the romantic era . Levin Schücking's travel book, created under the influence of Annette von Droste-Hülshoff , was the first to describe the Sauerland positively. Nevertheless, Friedrich Wilhelm Grimme was motivated to write a defense for the Sauerland. Grimmes script had a decisive influence on the Sauerland picture. With Karl Kneebusch's travel guide and the founding of the Sauerland Mountain Association , which created a marked network of hiking trails from the end of the 19th century , tourist development began. As a result, the term Sauerland expanded: It became popular again in the Sauerland in the Brandenburg region and also extended to include the hairline and the upland , for example .

An etymological dispute arose in the 19th century about the meaning of the name . Even if there were many explanations, two parties emerged: one interpreted the term as a southern country based on various derivations , the other as a difficult country with reference to the Low German form of the name . The dispute was emotional and was mixed up with the question of whether the part of the Electorate of Cologne or the part of the Brandenburg region represented the “real” Sauerland. Today the etymology has prevailed as a southern country . It is assumed that it has a meaning in the sense of south of the Westphalian centers of Dortmund, Soest and Münster.

Despite the anyway free demarcation, which is common to all regions, and the constant change in the meaning of the term Sauerland , efforts have been made to define the Sauerland area more closely. These demarcations all have the problem that the Sauerland lacks cultural or natural unity. Geographically, it belongs to the Süderbergland , part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains ; culturally, the Sauerland is divided into the Mark and Electoral Cologne parts. In general, today the area of ​​the Hochsauerlandkreis , the Märkisches Kreis and the Olpe district is regarded as the core area of ​​the Sauerland; the demarcation also varies.

Prehistory and early history

Finds that speak for a Paleolithic settlement are relatively rare in the Sauerland. After all, tools from the Paleolithic period were found near Stockhausen near Meschede in the early 1990s. From the Middle Paleolithic , among other things, finds were made in the Balver cave .

An important end-Paleolithic site is the Hohle Stein near Rüthen - Kallenhardt . Excavations in the 1930s provided evidence of a hunting station used by the Ahrensburg reindeer hunters from the end of the last ice age, the Vistula ice age.

Skeletal remains of humans date from the early Mesolithic . They were discovered in the Blätterhöhle , a mass limestone cave near Hohenlimburg . It is the oldest evidence of anatomically modern humans in Westphalia .

Tool finds from the Middle Stone Age come from numerous open-air sites on the middle Lenne, in particular on the plateaus of the Attendorn-Elsper Doppelmulde , from the Rüthener area, the Ruhr valley and from the Warsteiner area. “White spots” on the maps, especially from the Mesolithic period, result from the abundance of forests in the area (only relatively small areas of land are used for arable farming, and only there are normally meaningful finds to be made) and the lack of volunteer workers for the preservation of monuments. The many caves of the Sauerland were also visited by people in the Mesolithic. The oldest copper find in the Sauerland comes from the Bilstein cave , a small, grip-tongued dagger from the time of the bell jar, around 4,300 years old .

Burial mounds from the Bronze Age indicate that the Sauerland was also inhabited in this phase. The last phase of the Bronze Age ( Urnfield Age ) is only very poorly documented: a cylinder neck vessel from the Bilstein Cave and - one of the most important bronze finds in Germany - the bronze amphora from Gevelinghausen , which served as a burial vessel . A C14 dating of the organic material, however, showed a much more recent date. Presumably the vessel, which was built around 800 BC. BC probably originated in Southeast Europe, only used as an urn in the Sauerland around 200 years later .

Iron ore was mined in the Sauerland during the Iron Age . In some caves in the Hönnetal , evidence of the use as living space and also as a burial place was found. Other caves with finds from this era are the Veleda cave near Bestwig , the Stein cave near Rüthen-Kallenhardt and the Bilstein cave . According to some scientists, the finds from this period show traces of cannibalism . This thesis now appears to be relatively absurd due to recent investigations of other cave sites (for example the Lichtenstein cave near Osterode am Harz ). The findings speak more in favor of secondary burials. Significant traces of an obviously denser settlement during the pre-Roman Iron Age are also the various hill fortes of the Sauerland , some of which date back to the Iron Age ( e.g. Bruchhauser Steine , Schiedlike Borg near Freienohl , Wilzenberg ). Westphalia's largest weapon find (1950) from the Iron Age comes from Wilzenberg near Schmallenberg.

The Roman camp Kneblinghausen near Rüthen dates from the time of the Roman forays into Germania . While older research dated it to between 78 and 85 AD, modern research tends to attribute it to the time of Augustus (up to 14 AD). Nearby, on the Brilon plateau, the Romans promoted lead mining during the short period of Roman rule or operated it themselves at times. The Plumbum Germanicum was exported to the Mediterranean.

Towards the end of the 7th century, non-Saxon Germanic tribes (partly) of Frankish origin such as the Brukterer and the Sugambrer still lived in the Sauerland region . The weakness of the Merovingian kingdom allowed the Saxon expansion into this area. At its end the Saxon area extended to the lower Ruhr (subjugation of the Brukterer 693/695).

See also: Celtic finds in the Sauerland

middle Ages

Integration into the Franconian Empire and Christianization

Parish church of St. Peter and Paul in Wormbach

The Franconian counter-reaction to the Saxon expansion began under Karl Martell and was continued by his successors. In contrast to the Christianized Franks, the majority of the Saxons still clung to their pagan faith. The conflicts with the expanding Franconian Empire under Charlemagne were also carried out in the region. So the Eresburg at today's Marsberg was conquered by Karl in 772. With the Irminsul one of the most important Saxon sanctuaries was destroyed and a church was built in its place a few years later.

After the final crushing of the Saxon resistance, the Sauerland belonged to the sphere of influence of the Carolingian empire from the end of the 8th century. The Saxon nobility was not eliminated, but since the Reichstag in Lippspringe (782) the country was divided into the judicial and administrative units of the counties.

With the conquest by the Franks, Christianization and the expansion of the region's church organization began. In the beginning there was the division of the Saxon area into mission districts. The Sauerland and Hellweg area were subordinate to the Archbishop of Cologne . The Christian religion was also to be further consolidated by founding monasteries. One of the early foundings was a monastery in Meschede . The establishment of parishes was even more important. Wormbach (near Schmallenberg ) on Heidenstrasse and Eresburg ( Marsberg ) are among the oldest original parishes (founded until 785 ). Menden , Attendorn , Velmede and Medebach were added by 800 . It followed up to 830 Hüsten and Altenrüthen (near Rüthen ).

Territory formation in the High and Late Middle Ages

With the disintegration of the central imperial power that began after the death of Charlemagne, territorialization gradually set in in the Sauerland as well . What the region had in common was largely that they belonged to the Duchy of Saxony . Since the Saxon duke had hardly any material interests of his own, especially in the southern area of ​​his dominion, various territories, initially mainly secular and later also ecclesiastical, could develop below this level. The most important and strongest count house in Westphalia in the 10th and 11th centuries were the Counts of Werl , who also ruled over large parts of the Sauerland. In the investiture controversy , the Westphalian nobility, including the Counts of Werl-Arnsberg , remained on the side of King Henry IV. When the older line of counts died out, the County of Werl-Arnsberg shrank considerably. This power vacuum was used by younger count families such as the Counts of Altena-Mark or the Counts of Isenberg to expand their domain.

Development of County Mark

Almost 150 years after Charlemagne's death, the western Sauerland belonged to the County of Mark , the north around Warstein to the Duchy of Westphalia in Cologne and the eastern part to the County of Arnsberg . A small area in the lower Lenne valley belonged to the county of Limburg . The political history of the Sauerland in the high and late Middle Ages was shaped by the competition between this and neighboring domains for supremacy in this region.

After the fall of Henry the Lion in 1180, the Duchy of Saxony was divided. Large areas of the Sauerland were assigned to the Archdiocese of Cologne . The title of Duke of Westphalia , which now fell to the archbishops, increased their influence even further. This also gave them the right to allow or forbid the counts to build castles and found cities. However, it was ultimately the power that actually existed that decided whether the archbishop could enforce this right. So he could not prevent Count Engelbert I. von der Mark from responding to the establishment of the Cologne city of Menden near the border by raising Iserlohn to the city .

The counties of Arnsberg and Mark in particular resisted the advance of Cologne with varying degrees of success. However, there was no firm alliance against Cologne; the competition between them was too great. Resistance developed especially against the expansion attempts of Archbishop Siegfried von Westerburg . Apart from perhaps the bishops of Minden and Münster, almost all territorial lords of Westphalia were involved, including Count Eberhard II von der Mark . The decision was made in the Battle of Worringen (1288), during which the bishop was taken prisoner. As a result of the battle, Cologne's further rise in Westphalia was broken. Schwelm and Hagen fell to the County of Mark. The castles Volmarstein and Raffenberg were destroyed. From now on the archbishop was only one sovereign among others. In contrast, the Counts of the Mark gained significantly in influence.

In the course of time, the county of Arnsberg in particular fell on the defensive. When it became clear in the last third of the 14th century that Count Gottfried IV of Arnsberg would die childless, Kurköln and the County of Mark faced each other as competitors for the inheritance. Cologne prevailed. The Erzstuhl bought his territory from the count and made it possible for him as the only secular prince to have a burial in Cologne Cathedral .

With this acquisition, the expansion of Cologne in Westphalia had reached its climax. The county of Mark in particular was able to maintain its independence. A considerable weakening of Cologne's position was undoubtedly the loss of the rich trading town of Soest . In 1444 this no longer recognized the sovereignty of the Archbishop of Cologne Dietrich II von Moers and submitted to the Duke of Kleve , who was also Count of Mark. This led to the Soest feud (1444–1449) between the Archbishop of Cologne and the city of Soest. In addition to Kleve / Mark, the Duke of Burgundy and numerous Westphalian cities were on the Soest side. This dispute was no longer just about the rights of a city, but about the distribution of power in southern Westphalia as a whole. In 1447 the city of Soest was besieged by a 12,000-strong mercenary army, but could not be captured. Soest and its immediate vicinity, the Soest Börde , remained with the Duke of Kleve and the county of Mark. On the other hand, Cologne kept the areas around Fredeburg and Bilstein that had been captured during the war . The territorial development of the "Duchy of Westphalia" was thus largely completed. With the acquisition of Soest, the high point of their expansion phase was also reached for the Counts of the Mark.

The centuries-long dispute between the Archbishops of Cologne and the Counts of the Mark had been decided in favor of the Grafschaft Mark since the Battle of Worringen and finally after the Soest feud.

Founding of cities and the Hanseatic League

If one assumes a legal concept of town (town rights), the County of Mark and the Duchy of Westphalia belonged to the areas with a dense network of towns and freedoms (places with town-like rights, but mostly without town walls) in the Middle Ages and early modern times . Apart from exceptions such as the grown town of Medebach , it was a matter of founding by the respective sovereigns to secure their territory and as a base in disputes with neighbors. In this respect, the emergence of cities was a result of the formation of territory in the region. The fact that some of them were so-called “auxiliary towns” of the Hanseatic League speaks for a certain economic importance . In the Sauerland in Cologne these were for example Brilon , Rüthen , Arnsberg , Schmallenberg and Attendorn . In the Sauerland in the Brandenburg region, these were mainly Iserlohn , Lüdenscheid , Neuenrade , Altena , Plettenberg and Breckerfeld .

Early modern age

There can be no talk of a historical Sauerland , especially in the early modern period. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation led to a cultural gap that could hardly be bridged, especially between the Electorate of Cologne and the Brandenburg region. While the Mark became Protestant, the Duchy of Westphalia remained Catholic. The two areas also developed differently in terms of constitutional law, as the representation of both territories shows.

Duchy of Westphalia on a map of Westphalia from the 18th century

Economically, however, there were certainly points of contact, but also considerable contradictions. The mountainous parts of the Duchy of Westphalia and the County of Mark together with the Siegerland formed an early mining industrial compression zone with an intra-regional “division of labor”. Of course, the extent and orientation of ore mining and processing varied widely. The basis in all three territories was the abundant water power, wood for coal production and ore mines. There were mining, ironmaking and processing operations in all regions, but all areas specialized in certain areas. In the Siegerland, iron extraction and production dominated, in the Sauerland in the Electorate of Cologne these products were processed into steel and sheet metal, which were then refined into finished goods in the Sauerland in the Mark region. Above all, increasing deforestation made iron processing more expensive by the end of the 18th century. With the exploitation of the coal mines in the Ruhr area, the location factors water and wood finally lost their importance.

County mark

Through the marriage of Duke Johann III. with a daughter of Duke Wilhelm III. From Jülich and Berg, the Duchies of Kleve, Jülich and Berg and the Counties of Mark and Ravensberg were united in 1521. After the death of Duke Johann Wilhelm in 1609, the Jülich-Klevian succession dispute began , which led to completely new territorial connections in southern Westphalia as well. Only the Treaty of Xanten in 1614 brought a result. After that, Jülich and Berg fell to Pfalz-Neuburg, while the Duchy of Kleve and the counties of Mark and Ravensberg passed to Brandenburg .

Four years later the Thirty Years' War began , which led the economy into a crisis, but hardly changed the balance of power.

The transition to Prussia, however, had considerable effects in the longer term. Similar to Minden-Ravensberg, the Brandenburg Sauerland was increasingly integrated into the comparatively centralized Prussian state. Although some class relics were able to assert themselves, Prussian absolutism tended to prevail .

In the early modern period, the importance of the manufacture of iron and later metal goods increased in the mountainous part of the Mark. A well-known example are the Iserlohn tobacco boxes . On the other hand, the smelting and manufacture of semi-finished goods lost their importance. The Sauerland in the Brandenburg region was undoubtedly a first-class commercial urban area in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

Duchy of Westphalia

The former county of Arnsberg became the actual center of the Duchy of Westphalia. The city of Arnsberg was next to Bonn one of the residences of the electorate. Politically, the development of the Duchy was dominated by feudal steady tendencies of local elites educated middle class , nobility and clergy on the one hand and the attempts of the elector to gain an immediate impact, on the other hand. In 1437, not only did the Arnsberg Reformation of the Feme take place , but a first hereditary union between Kurköln, the neighboring countries of Vest Recklinghausen and the Duchy of Westphalia attempted to balance the conflicting interests. This only succeeded to a limited extent, and in 1463 a second hereditary land association was concluded between the elector, cathedral chapter and estates. This agreement has been confirmed several times. Although the electors tried to expand their influence until the end of the Old Kingdom, the success remained small. This also contributed to the fact that all officials and officials had to come from the duchy itself. Against the resistance of the meeting participants are mostly in Arnsberg estates meeting all attempts had an absolutist enforce state structure to fail. The Duchy of Westphalia therefore remained essentially a corporate state only partially integrated into the Electoral State . While the educated bourgeois elite in the early 19th century praised this situation as a starting point for a future liberal society, the industrial citizens of the Mark, who were now used to a tight Prussian government, viewed the situation in the neighboring region as anachronistic at the end of the 18th century.

Elector Max Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels

In particular, travelers claimed that the primeval constitution was a hindrance to economic life. In fact, the economic situation in the Duchy of Westphalia could not be compared with the proto-industrial boom in the County of Mark. Large parts of the region, which is also not very productive from an agricultural point of view, only had a low level of commercial development. The attempt of the electoral government to promote the textile trade by introducing industrial schools only bore fruit in a few places. A makeshift attempt was made to keep afloat with broom bandages or the manufacture of wooden goods. The large number of migrant traders , especially in the higher regions, is evidence of the lack of local employment opportunities.

The observers from the outside often overlooked the fact that there were also very considerable predominantly iron and metal industrial densification areas. Several mountain orders regulated and promoted the mining of silver, copper and lead. In contrast to the strictly authoritative mountain regulations of the county of Mark, their enforcement encountered considerable problems.

The manufacture of finished goods was - apart from home-made nail smiths in some places - little developed. More important were the mining and the production of wrought iron by hammer mills and semi-finished goods. Iron and metal mining and processing at Balve ( Luisenhütte ) were important on the border with the county of Mark . There was also mining near Sundern , Warstein , Brilon , Marsberg , Winterberg-Silbach and Schmallenberg . However, the commercial center of the duchy was in the Olpe area . The main focus there was the manufacture of sheet metal. What most of the production facilities had in common was that they mainly worked for the needs of the Bergisch and Brandenburg manufactured goods industries.

Especially during the 17th century, the duchy was a center of witch hunts .

19th and 20th centuries

In the process of secularization and the lifting of spiritual principalities the Cologne Sauerland initially fell to Hesse-Darmstadt then before after the Napoleonic Wars, the whole area by the Congress of Vienna as part of the new province of Westphalia in Prussia came. Both the former Grafschaft Mark and the former Duchy of Westphalia became part of the Arnsberg administrative district .

Economic and social history

Excerpt from a trade map of the Arnsberg administrative district from 1855

In the Sauerland region of the Mark, there was a considerable early industrial expansion phase following on from the pre-industrial trade traditions. Even in 1800, the space-Iserlohn Altena-Lüdenscheid formed calamine mining, wire, needle, brass, bronze and silk industry one of the largest industrial areas of that time. For example, Iserlohn was the largest industrial city in Westphalia and one of the richest trading cities in Prussia until well into the 19th century. How strong the commercial density was in the Brandenburg area is shown by the fact that commercial employment was on a par with agriculture, while agriculture was stronger than trade even in other early industrial densification zones. Then, however, the area fell behind compared to the Ruhr area .

The negative economic consequences of the industrial revolution for the former Sauerland in Cologne were even more profound . In many places there was a profound de-industrialization and agrarianization of the economy and society. There was initially a notable industrial development mainly in the border area to the Siegerland and the Sauerland in the Brandenburg region. These included in particular the cities of Neheim ("lighting industry"), Hüsten ( heavy industry " Hüstener union "), Warstein (iron processing, axle production), Olpe (industrial sheet metal production). Especially in the districts of Meschede and Brilon , industrial development remained selective. Mining focused on iron ores (e.g. Sundern, Balve, Warstein, Brilon, and Marsberg) and other metal ores; Ramsbeck , Meggen, and Marsberg should be mentioned here in particular . Slate mining was only of limited importance ( Antfeld , Nuttlar , Schmallenberg ). Much of the rest of the area was largely dependent on agriculture and forestry. Unless you could earn additional money as a commuter or seasonal worker, the sub-farming classes in particular were forced to emigrate or emigrate. During the construction of the Upper Ruhr Valley Railway from 1870 to 1873, workers from abroad (Italy) were deployed on a large scale for the first time in the Sauerland.

Political culture

It is true that especially during the German Empire, especially in the west of the former Duchy of Westphalia (Neheim, Hüsten, Sundern and Warstein), the economic and social structure was brought into line with the development in the Sauerland in Brandenburg; however, the cultural and confessional differences remained powerful. This was particularly evident in the area of political culture . In the Brandenburg Sauerland, Prussian liberalism and conservatism were the strongest political forces for a long time, including during the " Iserlohn Uprising " in 1849. The socialist movement had also been around since the 1860s . Their attempt in the 1870s to also advance into the former Sauerland region of Cologne failed miserably. The reason was that with the Kulturkampf at the latest, almost all population groups voted for the Center Party almost unanimously for decades . Political conflicts between social groups took place there almost exclusively within the Catholic milieu . It was essentially only after the turn of the century that the Social Democrats managed to a modest extent to gain a foothold in the industrial towns of the eastern Sauerland.

National Socialism and World War II

Reichstag election of March 5, 1933 (in%)
area NSDAP SPD KPD center DNVP DVP DDP Others
Iserlohn district 40.35 16.36 16.01 16.58 6.39 0.68 0.46 3.18
City of Lüdenscheid 32.75 20.79 22.85 6.87 9.19 1.61 1.63 4.32
Meschede district 23.14 3.06 6.49 60.99 5.68 0.25 0.13 0.28
District of Olpe 14.34 6.88 5.83 69.12 3.29 0.24 0.09 0.22
Source: Statistics of the German Empire

As in the German Reich as a whole, the successes of the National Socialists in the more Protestant areas of the region were greater than in the Catholic parts of the Sauerland. While the NSDAP was by far the strongest force in the Iserlohn district in the Reichstag election of 1933 with around 40%, it lagged well behind the still dominant Center Party in the Olpe and Meschede districts. However, in the industrial and evangelical Lüdenscheid, for example, the organized workforce also formed an effective counterweight to National Socialism for a long time. Up until 1933, the election results of the NSDAP remained far below the Reich average and those of the two workers' parties, the SPD and KPD together.

During the National Socialist dictatorship, the Sauerland belonged to the Gau Westfalen-Süd , which essentially corresponded to the territory of the Arnsberg administrative district. Gauleiter was Josef Wagner from 1928 to 1941 . One of the consequences of the “Gleichschaltung” between 1933 and 1945 was that regional historical aspects lagged significantly behind general developments. Certain differences can only be made out in the area of resistance . While it was mainly communist and social democratic workers who took part in this in the Brandenburg region, criticism came mainly from the Catholic camp in the eastern part of the region. Otherwise the practice of conformity and political and racial persecution hardly differed from general trends.

Memorial Stalag VI A

This particularly applies to the killing of disabled people and the persecution of Jews . During the November pogroms in 1938 , several synagogues in Sauerland burned down . In the psychiatric clinic in Marsberg, numerous disabled children were murdered in the course of the so-called " Aktion T4 " until the resentment in the population put an end to this. The Jewish population from the Sauerland was also deported to concentration and extermination camps during the Second World War, unless they were able to leave before the start of the war. Only a few like Hans Frankenthal survived this time, came back and reported on their experiences.

During the war, numerous prisoner-of-war and forced labor camps were set up in the Sauerland (for example the Hunswinkel labor education camp near Lüdenscheid , the Möhnewiesen forced labor camp in Neheim or the Stalag VI A in Hemer ). The Stalag VI A was one of the largest prisoner-of-war camps in the entire German Reich. Around 23,900 prisoners of war, including around 23,500 from the Soviet Union, perished during their stay in Stalag VI A. These figures do not include prisoners who perished during a work assignment.

Because of its geographical and geological conditions, underground production facilities were also set up in the region from 1944 to protect against Allied bombing attacks. The Schwalbe I project in the Hönnetal for the production of fuel was one of the largest of its kind.

Shortly before the end of the war, forced laborers were transported from the Ruhr area to the Sauerland. There, in March 1945 in the Warstein area and near Eversberg, over 200 people were murdered during the massacre in the Arnsberg Forest .

Combat operations in the Sauerland

The destroyed Möhnsee dam the day after the attack, recorded by a British reconnaissance aircraft

During the Second World War , the Sauerland was repeatedly attacked by two- and four-engine bombers from September 15, 1940 to April 1945, and from mid-1944 also by fighter-bombers and fighter planes at low altitude. Until autumn 1944 it was mostly only emergency or failed throws by the bombers, for example if they were damaged by German fighters and flak themselves.

The destruction of the Möhnsee dam by a bomb attack on May 17, 1943 led to a tidal wave of up to 12 meters in the Möhnetal . Below the dam and in the adjoining section of the Ruhr valley to Schwerte, there was massive destruction of buildings and 1,284 civilians and prisoners of war, for example from the Möhnewiesen forced labor camp . The main targets of the air raids in the Sauerland until 1945 were various armaments companies such as Honsel (supplier of air armaments) in Meschede. The cities near the industrial plants were also badly hit. In Meschede, practically the entire city center was destroyed. In 1945 the railway lines in the Sauerland were increasingly attacked; One of the main targets was the Arnsberg railway viaduct , which was attacked seven times from February 9 to March 19, 1945. Bombs were dropped on the viaduct until it was destroyed in 1818; among them were six Grand Slam , with 10 tons the largest and heaviest bomb type used in the war so far, and twelve Tallboy , 5.4 tons. The railway facilities and their surroundings in other places such as Bestwig, Neheim and Finnentrop were also badly hit. When the fighting over the Ruhr basin raged from March 29 to April 17, 1945 in the Sauerland, every vehicle, be it truck or horse-drawn cart, even every pedestrian and farmers working in the fields was attacked by enemy aircraft. Large numbers of people were wounded or killed in the Sauerland; Furthermore, many residential buildings and industrial plants were damaged or completely destroyed.

On March 29, 1945 at 9 a.m., Hallenberg was the first place in the Sauerland to be occupied by US troops without a fight. On that day, at 6 a.m., four attackers from the 3rd US Armored Division south of the Sauerland had started to advance 120 km on Paderborn. The attack formations had numerous Sherman and some Pershing tanks; there were also a few light tanks and numerous half-tracks, jeeps and trucks. The attack groups were led by scouts circling in the air. Fighter planes and fighter-bombers attacked all the German soldiers who appeared on the advance route. The route of the US troops, divided into four routes, through the Sauerland was lined with burning German vehicles and destroyed weapons and equipment. The advance was only hampered by individual road blockades and bridges that were too weak for the tanks. In such cases, the attacking troops evaded into open fields and also crossed rivers. On that day, the US troops were able to assemble the first columns of prisoners. The images of this first day of fighting in the Sauerland were repeated until the Ruhr basin was broken up. The US troops reached Brilon and Niedermarsberg on March 29th.

It was only in the area around Paderborn that the German troops, including elite units of the Waffen-SS with Tiger tanks, met with massive resistance as they advanced . Nevertheless, on April 1, the Ruhr basin, including all parts of the Sauerland west of the present-day urban areas Hallenberg, Medebach, Marsberg and Brilon, was closed near Lippstadt. Despite initiated counter-attacks, the boiler could no longer be breached. On the contrary, the US troops could only be stopped for a short time in their further advance to reduce the size of the Ruhr basin. The German troops from the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS and Volkssturm were outnumbered, but too poorly equipped to stop the US troops. So they lacked any air support, while they themselves were attacked almost continuously by US planes. On April 16, the last German troops in the Sauerland capitulated in Iserlohn. On April 18, the last German troops surrendered in the western part of the Ruhr basin outside the Sauerland. Occasionally some soldiers and small groups offered weak resistance up to April 21, 1945. On April 20, 1945, the infantry general in command of the south-east of Schmallenberg, Joachim von Kortzfleisch, was shot by the American troops after being captured near Wulwesort (now the town of Schmallenberg). This ended the war for the Sauerlanders at home. Even today several smaller war graves and war graves in normal cemeteries in the Sauerland tell of the killed German soldiers. Numerous civilians were also wounded or killed. Many buildings were also damaged or destroyed in the fighting over the Ruhr basin. In contrast, because of their superiority, comparatively few US soldiers were wounded or killed.

After the Second World War

The administrative district of Arnsberg became part of the new federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia in 1946 . In 1959 the textile company Falke from Schmallenberg brought 20 women from South Tyrol and 70 women from South Italy, the first so-called guest workers to the Sauerland. In the years up to the recruitment stop in 1973, several thousand more guest workers from southern Europe , Turkey and North Africa followed . In 1975 the law for the reorganization of the municipalities and districts of the reorganization area Sauerland / Paderborn (Sauerland / Paderborn law) came into force. The Sauerland parts of the Soest and Altena districts were reorganized as early as 1969. In part against the resistance of citizens and local politicians, numerous previously independent towns were merged into larger communities. Only the largest are mentioned here: Neheim-Hüsten , Hohenlimburg and Letmathe . Something similar happened at the level of the circles. The Olpe district got off relatively unscathed . Today's Märkische Kreis is largely made up of a large part of the former Iserlohn district , the formerly independent city of Iserlohn and the former Lüdenscheid district , into which the Altena district had already merged in 1969 . The Hochsauerlandkreis emerged from the core components of the Arnsberg, Meschede and Brilon districts . The villages of Neuastenberg, Langewiese, Mollseifen and Hoheleye, formerly part of the Wittgenstein district , changed to the new Hochsauerlandkreis.


South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences in Iserlohn

As the historical overview shows, the Sauerland was, to varying degrees, an old industrial region . Substantial changes also took place in the 20th century and especially after the Second World War.

All Sauerland districts have in common the medium-sized economic structure. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, this allowed them to lag behind the large companies in the Ruhr area, but in the long term the medium-sized company structures proved to be adaptable. The Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Arnsberg reported around the turn of the new millennium that the proportion of industrial workers in the chamber district was greater than in the Ruhr area. A negative factor, especially in the Hochsauerland district, is that the knowledge-based service sector is relatively weak. It is essentially only represented by a few departments at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences .

Agriculture and Forestry

Since the systematic cultivation of Christmas trees began in the 1980s, the Sauerland has developed into the largest cultivation area in Europe with 18,000 hectares of Christmas tree cultivation. In 1990 the area under cultivation was 3,000 hectares. The last time after Hurricane Kyrill in 2007 was 3,000 hectares. Because of the environmental pollution from pesticides and the monotonous landscape as a result of the large plantations, the further expansion of the cultivation area was limited.


Former silversmith "Holländer" in Altena
Warsteiner Brewery

The South Westphalian region is the third strongest industrial region in Germany in terms of more than 40 percent of employees in the manufacturing sector. In the western Sauerland, the highest values ​​are achieved with an industrial workforce of 43–44%. Many hidden champions are based in the region. Today there are few remnants of early industry. The wire production in Altena and the chain production in the Iserlohn and Esloher areas are also important. Numerous small and medium-sized industrial companies have existed in the Sauerland in the Mark region since the beginning of industrialization. (This is where the catchphrase “have a factory shop in the cellar” originated.) Today, suppliers to the automotive industry (including Kostal , Dura Automotive ) are particularly active there. Toolmaking and the aluminum processing industry should also be mentioned. After Carl Berg and Alfred Colsman in Werdohl made the airship construction of Count Zeppelin possible with state-of-the-art materials with their aluminum constructions , today aluminum profiles (for example for window construction) and aluminum rims ( ATS ) are produced in particular . RH Alurad and Borbet are other internationally renowned rim manufacturers from the Sauerland.

The pharmaceutical and chemical industries are represented in Iserlohn. The Sauerland is also known for well-known producers of lights in the Arnsberger, Lüdenscheider and Iserlohn areas as well as for sanitary fittings ( Grohe ), especially in and around Hemer . In the Schmallenberg area there are still significant companies in the Sauerland textile industry , such as the Falke company . Mining in the Sauerland still lives on today as slate mining in Bad Fredeburg ( Magog slate ).

While the Brandenburg Sauerland has always had several economic centers, the economic focus of the Hochsauerlandkreis was for a long time in the area of ​​today's city of Arnsberg. The lighting industry is of particular importance here. Although only a few older companies (such as BJB or Cronenberg) have survived the economic history of the last few centuries, there are still numerous companies with national renown as successor companies or start-ups. These include, for example, the lighting manufacturer Trilux , the household goods manufacturers Wesco and Berndes , the paper manufacturer Wepa and the belt manufacturer Schroth. A second important industrial location in the Hochsauerland district is the district town of Meschede. Industrial development began here as early as the 1870s due to the construction of the railway line. In addition to the Honsel works, Meschede also has several medium-sized companies in the body and vehicle construction as well as plastics processing and screwing technology.

Other commercial focuses are in Brilon ( Hoppecke batteries ), Sundern ( Severin Elektrogeräte ) and Olsberg ( FW Oventrop ) as well as the chain producer KettenWulf in Eslohe. After the Second World War, numerous mostly smaller producing companies settled in the formerly agricultural communities.

The breweries play a special role in terms of the popularity of Sauerland products. In addition to numerous small breweries , Warsteiner and Veltins in the Mesched district of Grevenstein are known nationwide . This means that two of Germany's largest breweries are only a few kilometers apart. The Iserlohn private brewery with its beer specialties from the Grüner Tal and the Westheimer brewery in Marsberg should also be mentioned. The company RC Ritzenhoff Cristall in Marsberg produces internationally known designer glasses. The toy manufacturer SIKU from Lüdenscheid is also known nationwide .



Since the end of the 19th century, the upper Sauerland in particular has been a destination for residents of the industrial district and large cities looking for relaxation. This created new earning opportunities that helped to reduce emigration from these areas. Especially after the Second World War, the (upper) Sauerland became a center of tourism. The forests and the small towns make it very attractive for hiking , and many towns are health resorts because of their good air quality . The higher elevations are also popular winter sports areas, especially for Dutch tourists. The Winterberg bobsleigh run and ski jumping in Willingen, Hesse , are known worldwide . Particularly after the turn of the millennium, major investments were made in this area. The winter sports arena Sauerland with numerous snow cannons, a mountain bike arena and the 154 km long Rothaarsteig , which connects the Sauerland, Siegerland and Lahn-Dill-Bergland , the 240 km long Sauerland forest route and the 251 km long Sauerland-Höhenflug were created . In addition to these hiking trails, there have been a number of other hiking trails for decades, most of which are looked after by the Sauerland Mountain Association (SGV). Since the 1990s, some bike paths have also been laid out in the Sauerland. The longest of these cycle paths is the 84 km long SauerlandRadring, which runs on former railway lines . The RuhrtalRadweg with 230 km along the Ruhr from the source at the Ruhrkopf near Winterberg to the mouth near Duisburg - Ruhrort is only in its eastern part in the Sauerland. The cycling activities in the Sauerland were combined in the Bike Arena Sauerland .

Tourist locations in the Hochsauerland

Amusement parks and other leisure facilities

Important tourist centers are the large amusement parks, the 80 hectare Panorama Park in Kirchhundem , the Fort Fun Adventure Land in Bestwig with 400,000 visitors annually and the 200 hectare Vosswinkel wild forest with 120,000 visitors annually.

Other sports facilities for recreational activities include adventure pools in Arnsberg-Hüsten, Bad Fredeburg ("Sauerlandbad"), Finnentrop, Iserlohn ("Seilerseebad"), Olpe, Plettenberg (Aqua Magis), Warstein ("Allwetterbad") and Winterberg as well as summer toboggan runs in Winterberg , Bestwig (Fort Fun) and Olsberg-Bruchhausen (Sternrodt).


Streets and paths

Early history trails in the southern Sauerland

Streets , country roads , ravines or country lanes often existed before the Middle Ages. These included the more than 1000 year old and around 500 km long Heidenstrasse , which led from Leipzig via Kassel to Cologne, the Römerweg and the Kriegerweg , which connected Siegen with Paderborn.

Until the 19th century, the previously unpaved and poorly maintained "traffic routes" led mainly over the heights because the valleys were often impassable due to the unregulated waters. In the Sauerland, the carters were an important occupation well into the 19th century, which in some areas was able to compensate for the lack of other earning opportunities.

Old Hönnebrücke
Sauerland information board on the A4 before Olpe

Affeln (Neuenrade) was known as the intersection of a network of paths that went in many directions. The former Königstraße also passed through this place. Depending on the weather, the Hönnetalstraße from Menden via Balve to Werdohl was difficult to pass . In addition to the fords, easily passable bridges over the Hönne were important crossings for example from Küntrop (Neuenrade) to Garbeck (Balve), the bridge in front of the old Balver city gate (demolished), the bridge from Sanssouci (Balve) to Beckum (Balve), the very old, listed bridge in Volkringhausen (Balve) and the bridges in Lendringsen and Menden. In the Hönnetal, which is difficult to pass, it is said that in the Middle Ages there were frequent robberies; the Klusenstein Castle was considered a "robber barons".

Roads with a paved superstructure - mostly a pack of gravel - so-called highways , were not built until the end of the 18th century. The first in the Sauerland was the Holland-Frankfurt-Straße , built in this region around 1780 , which came from the Netherlands via Wesel, Essen, Hagen, Halver, Meinerzhagen, Drolshagen, Olpe, Kreuztal, Siegen, Dillenburg and Wetzlar to Frankfurt, im Sauerland, however, only remained fragmentary. King Friedrich Wilhelm II. (1786–1797) ordered that "artificial roads" should be built with a curved profile, especially in the "Suderland part" of the county of Mark , because of the rocks with a width of at least 12 to 16 feet.

When taking over his official duties, Oberpräsident Ludwig von Vincke found only three partially completed highways in the former Duchy of Westphalia in addition to Holland-Frankfurt-Straße: today's B7 from Canstein (Marsberg) via Brilon, Meschede and Arnsberg to Menden, the road between Werl and Olpe via Wickede, Neheim, Hüsten and Sundern and the road from Meschede to Grevenbrück. It was only with the construction of the Minden-Koblenzer Chaussee in the 1830s that the region began to be developed with a completely new road network with paved roads, the alignment of which was also paid attention to a lower gradient. At the same time, many of the ancient highways and carter tracks were forgotten and are now only recognizable as overgrown ravines in the landscape.

In order to keep the streets in order, was at barriers toll levied, in Holzen, Sanssouci, on the Kuschert at Blintrop, on the Wilhelm height at Buchholz between Neuenrade and Altena and in Finnentrop on the Lenne bridge.

The access to the motorways was very late and not as close as in other regions, because the difficult topography makes construction very difficult. On October 25, 1971 the Sauerland line (A 45) was opened to traffic. On December 7, 1976, the last section of the Cologne – Olpe motorway (A4) was completed; further construction beyond the Olpe Süd cross through the Rothaargebirge to the Kirchheimer Dreieck was postponed. However, the connection to Hüttentalstrasse near Krombach has been in operation since December 1, 2006 . The not yet fully completed highway 46 Hagen – Iserlohn – Arnsberg – Bestwig opens up the north of the Sauerland . The north-eastern part of the Sauerland can also be reached via the Dortmund – Kassel motorway.


Hüinghausen station
Iserlohn city station
Neuenrade station

Bergisch-Märkische Railway Company

Despite the plans dating back to 1833, the Sauerland was opened to rail traffic relatively late. The Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (BME), founded in 1843, is of decisive importance for this development . In the 19th century, this company was the second largest (nominally private) railway company in the Kingdom of Prussia and beyond in Germany. In around two decades it created the core of the rail network as it still exists in the Sauerland today. It all started in 1859 with the Ruhr-Sieg route , followed by the Biggetalbahn and the Volmetalbahn . In the 1870s, the BME also opened up the north of the Sauerland with the Upper Ruhr Valley Railway . The last railway line in the Sauerland, which was still planned by the BME, was put into operation in 1882 from Menden to Hemer and continued in 1885 via the newly built Iserlohn Ostbahnhof to Iserlohn.

State branch lines

From the railway management Elberfeld were railway Altenhundem-Wenholthausen , extending the Volmetal train and Ardey railway built. Furthermore, were railway Finnentrop-Wennemen , the railway Plettenberg-Herscheid and the railway Altenhundem-Birkelbach built and also the Hönnetal train created.

Private and small railways

The small railways were important for the region. The Altenaer Schmalspur-Eisenbahn (KAS) connected Lüdenscheid with Altena and Werdohl as well as Schalksmühle with Halver. The Iserlohner Kreisbahn (IKB) operated mainly between Iserlohn, Hemer, Altena and Hohenlimburg. The Hohenlimburg Kleinbahn (HKB) operated in Hohenlimburg . There was the Plettenberger Kleinbahn (PKB) in the southern Sauerland in the Brandenburg region . Continued to follow Ruhr-Lippe Kleinbahnen , the West German railway company and the small train Bright Stone-Medebach .


In the years after the currency reform of 1948, extensive closures began. Today there is only one basic network under the direction of DB Regio NRW GmbH and Abellio Rail NRW . The fine distribution of public transport in rural areas is largely the responsibility of bus transport.


The culture in the Sauerland in the Electorate of Cologne is strongly influenced by the firmly rooted Catholicism of its residents. As part of the cultural area of Westphalia , the culture of the Sauerland with the division into Hochsauerland and the more Protestant Märkische Sauerland is not uniformly developed.


The Sauerland has been denominationally diverse since the Reformation . The Reformation spread in County Mark since the 1530s. Although the sovereign Johann III. von Jülich-Kleve initially strived for a middle ground between the emerging denominations, the cities and parishes there decided in favor of the Lutheran Reformation . Supported by the Hohenzollern belonging to the Reformed Confession, rulers of the Westphalian Mark since 1614, individual Reformed communities also emerged here in the larger, economically up-and-coming cities, such as Altena, Iserlohn and Lüdenscheid. As a result of the Prussian policy of tolerance, Catholic communities were soon able to re-establish themselves. King Friedrich Wilhelm III. from 1817 onwards the organizational merger of Lutheran and Reformed communities in Prussia. The Lutheran character of the Brandenburg Sauerland is still recognizable, for example in contrast to the originally reformed Siegerland. This can be seen from the outside in the pulpit altars in the older town and village churches that are characteristic of the Lutheran denomination . In contrast, the Duchy of Westphalia remained essentially Catholic. This region was shaped by the Counter Reformation, Catholic Reform and Baroque Catholicism.

The confessional differences between the parts of the Sauerland still exist today. Despite immigration in the last few decades, the Hochsauerlandkreis is still a focus of Catholicism in Westphalia with a share of over 70 percent. The same applies to the Olpe district. In contrast, the Protestant creed still predominates in the Märkisches Kreis.

In addition, there have been changes in the last few decades. As a result of migration movements, Muslims are more strongly represented in the Märkischer Kreis than the average in Westphalia. For example, ( free church ) Christian communities received influx as a result of the immigration of Germans from Russia . a. due to the Prussian religious policy in the Brandenburg Sauerland already a long tradition. In contrast, they hardly play a role in the Olpe district with 0.1%. Although new religious movements only play a minor role, they are also somewhat more widespread in the Märkischer Kreis than in many other parts of Westphalia. For a few decades now, evangelical or charismatic religious communities have been of local importance . The religious diversity in the Märkischer Kreis, as well as in the neighboring Ruhr area, is high in comparison to Westphalia. In the Hochsauerlandkreis and in the Olpe district, however, this is least pronounced in Westphalia.

Language and literature

Library of the Christine Koch Society in the Narrow House

In the Sauerland, Sauerland Platt or Siuerlänner Platt used to be spoken. In contrast to other Westphalian regions such as the Ruhr area , the Sauerland Platt was able to assert itself as the lingua franca in the rural Sauerland until the 1960s. Sauerländer Platt was the Low German vernacular in the Sauerland, usually it is counted as part of the Westphalian branch of West Low German. In the meantime, Platt is mainly only spoken by the older population group, as it was not passed on to the following generations. Passive language skills are also on the decline, especially in the Märkisches Sauerland. Despite the commitment of clubs and schools, it is assumed that the Sauerland plateau will be extinct in the next generation . Today's high German colloquial language in the Sauerland often still contains elements of Low German, such as “dat” and “wat”. The Westphalian refrain question "woll?" (Also "wonnich?" As a contraction of "woll not?"), Which is placed at the end of the sentence to ask the listener for approval, is characteristic of the Sauerland . In the youngest generation, it is replaced by “ne?”.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Low German forms of language were scientifically researched (e.g. Friedrich Leopold Woeste ) and used by some writers (e.g. Christine Koch , Friedrich Wilhelm Grimme ) for poetry and prose works, often with regional references. The Christine Koch Society maintains a Sauerland literature archive in Schmallenberg with around 2000 periodicals and books. The library is located in the "Schmalen Haus" next to the Schmallenberg town hall. There are also some legends from the Sauerland.

As modern literary works related to the Sauerland, detective novels (for example by Kathrin Heinrichs , Friedel Thiekötter ) have been attracting increasing interest for several years. In 2005 the Criminale therefore took place in the Sauerland.

Folk festivals and customs

The annual rifle festivals are primarily part of the cultural life of almost every Sauerland community . In almost every village you can find a shooting club (especially in the former Grafschaft Mark) or a brotherhood (especially in the former Kurköln). In Iserlohn the shooting festival of the "Iserlohn Citizens' Rifle Club" (IBSV) takes place, which is the largest festival in South Westphalia.

Carnival is another popular festival in the former Electoral Cologne areas . The highlight of every session are the Rose Monday parades (some of the parades, such as in Menden , also take place on Tulip Sunday ). One of the longest Rose Monday procession in the Sauerland is the one in Warstein - Belecke . The largest Violet Tuesday parade, with more than 2000 active participants and up to 30,000 visitors, takes place in Attendorn .

Heimat clubs are also mostly involved in maintaining customs at the local level and are grouped together in the Sauerland Heimatbund in the former Sauerland region of Cologne and in the Märkischer Kreis Heimatbund in the Sauerland region . These are in turn integrated in the umbrella organization of the Westphalian Heimatbund .

Stages and theaters

The Karl May Festival on an open-air stage in Elspe takes place annually from June to September. They were made famous by Pierre Brice , who starred in the Winnetou films, when he starred in Elspe for several seasons. There are other open-air stages in Herdringen near Arnsberg and Hallenberg . The Balver Cave is known as a theater and venue for concerts of all kinds . In the Arnsberg "Sauerlandtheater", in the Iserlohner "Parktheater" and in the Kulturhaus Lüdenscheid , mainly foreign ensembles perform. In contrast, the Arnsberger KulturSchmiede is the permanent venue for the experimental theater "Teatron" by Yehuda Almagor.

Art and music

My friend is from the Sauerland, CD cover 2006

Regular cultural events include the “Art Summer” in Arnsberg with a broad spectrum between visual and performing arts. The " Drüggelter Kunststückchen" are known beyond the region as the smallest music festival in Westphalia. The “Sauerland Autumn” festival also takes place regularly at various venues in the Hochsauerland district. The "Burgrock" takes place annually at Altena Castle , with Fury in the Slaughterhouse or MIA. , but also young bands from the region played. Another well-known rock festival is Under the bridge in Neheim . Every year musicians from all over Germany and beyond come to the master classes of important international soloists as part of the “Iserlohn Autumn Days for Music” and the internationally acclaimed “Iserlohn Guitar Symposion”.

Individual parts of the Sauerland were sung about by musicians as early as the 19th century. The song “Sauerland” by “ Zoff ” has been part of the musical common property of the entire region since the 1980s . The band “ Foyer des Arts ” also fooled the Sauerland in one of their songs; statements are made about the city of Iserlohn, such as “So the most hospitable people still live in Iserlohn” and “And the city is so clean, and the young people are so neat and tidy.” The punk band “ Die Kassierer ” also published this (by their standards very little vulgar) “Sauerland song”.

Under the motto My friend is Sauerländer , a CD was released in 1994 and 2006 that was supposed to offer an overview of the current pop and rock scene in the region. Above all, the matching t-shirt My friend is Sauerländer became known nationwide .

Of the local and regional bands, the first political hip-hop band, the Anarchist Academy from Lüdenscheid and Iserlohn, attracted attention across Germany, whose main writer Hannes Loh later succeeded with several books about the development of the German hip-hop scene regularly wrote articles for the German music magazine Intro .

Youth hostels

Altena Castle

In 1912 Richard Schirrmann opened the world's first permanent youth hostel in Altena Castle . After several days of hiking with his students, during which the group had to spontaneously set up makeshift accommodation in the village school in Bröl (Hennef) during a storm due to a lack of alternatives , Schirrmann developed the idea of ​​a comprehensive network of such youth hostels, which quickly found support throughout Germany. Schirrmann acted as the first hostel father in Altena. This hostel has been preserved as a museum at Altena Castle to this day. Youth hostels are operated in the Sauerland at the castle in Altena, in Lennestadt at the castle Bilstein , in Brilon, in Meinerzhagen, in Meschede, in Olpe- Stade am Biggesee , in Finnentrop- Bamenohl (private), in Winterberg-Neuastenberg, in Rüthen, in Schmallenberg, in Sundern am Sorpesee and in Möhnesee on the south bank of the Möhnetalsperre . The youth hostel in Kirchhundem-Oberhundem was given up on October 31, 2006. There used to be houses in Attendorn, Iserlohn, Olpe and Arnsberg.

Culinary specialties

In general, hearty dishes such as bockwurst and pumpernickel are typically Sauerland.

An old Sauerland potato dish is the Potthucke , also occasionally called Puffert. It used to be made from raw, grated potatoes, Ungel (beef tallow) and salt on the coal stove in a pot for hours. The first records of this dish come from the area around Altena and Werdohl. In more recent times the Potthucke is more substantial, with additional onions, eggs, flour, sausages or smoked meat. Heaven and Earth , a dish made from mashed potatoes and applesauce, is also popular . The so-called beef sausage is widespread in the Sauerland ; The pepper sausage is also made from beef . A regional specialty in the Hochsauerland is the bone sausage . In Sauerland cookbooks and menus in the Sauerland there are various dishes based on the Sauerland style. These are mostly variations of dishes from Westphalia and other regions.

The well-known and top-selling beers Warsteiner and Veltins come from the Sauerland . The Iserlohn private brewery was active nationwide and had production facilities in Iserlohn and Gießen . There are also other smaller breweries operating on the regional market .


Mühlenkopfschanze near Willingen

Of the sports in the Sauerland, winter sports are particularly important. In the Hochsauerland, for example in Winterberg, there are numerous ski and toboggan slopes. Luge, bobsleigh and skeleton world cups have been held on the Winterberg toboggan and bobsleigh run for decades; numerous world and European championships also took place. The first European championship in Winterberg took place in 1914. The Mühlenkopfschanze in Willingen hosts one of the most atmospheric ski jumping competitions every year . The Mühlenkopfschanze was built in 1951. In 1995, 1997 and annually since 1999 a World Cup ski jumping takes place, which is very popular with the audience; In 2003, 90,000 visitors came to the large hill on three days. There are summer jumps in Meinerzhagen and Winterberg. The winter sports activities in the Sauerland were bundled in 2003 in the Winter Sports Arena Sauerland .

Iserlohn is the location of the Iserlohn Roosters , who play in the German Ice Hockey League (DEL), and the venue is the ice rink on the Seilersee . From the 1973/74 season onwards, the Iserlohn Roosters and their predecessor clubs almost always played in the 1st and 2nd Bundesliga or, after they were founded, in the DEL.

Iserlohn is also home to the roller hockey first division club ERG Iserlohn , the basketball second division Iserlohn Kangaroos and the national soccer division FC Iserlohn 46/49 ; The former second division soccer team Rot-Weiß Lüdenscheid is based in Lüdenscheid . In handball, the Sauerland is represented by the SG Schalksmühle-Halver (3rd League West).

Two Kiersper teams are also first class in the DMSB Motoball . The MSF Tornado Kierspe and the MBC Kierspe are in the north relay of the two-track (north and south) Bundesliga ( German Motoball Championship , DMM).

Equestrian centers in the Sauerland are Balve, where the Balve Optimum , an internationally important horse show, takes place every year and has become the home of the honorary chairman of the German Equestrian Association , Dieter von Landsberg-Velen , and Warstein, whose brewery carries out the Warsteiner Champions Trophy and which produced the successful show jumper Alois Pollmann-Schweckhorst . The show jumping is the main sport horses in these places.

The tennis club Blau-Weiß Sundern was in the men's Bundesliga from 2001 to 2004. Blau-Weiß Sundern was runner-up in 2002 and German champion in 2003 and 2004. The World Gymnastics Championships 2011 took place in Arnsberg from June 1st to 4th.

The Sauerland Mountain Association is the largest association in the region with around 38,000 members. The SGV for hiking and Nordic walking organizes events and is involved in nature conservation .

Biking has also gained in importance in the Sauerland since around 2000. The Bikepark Winterberg , the Bikepark Warstein and the Bike Arena Sauerland are available for this purpose. The two-day mountain bike festival Mega Sports takes place in Sundern-Hagen every year; Around 1,600 people take part in the bike marathon alone. In 2008 Bad Fredeburg and Winterberg were stages of the 10th Germany Tour .


Historical buildings


Klusenstein Castle

Numerous castles, palaces and mansions are testimonies to noble rule and representations of the past. The location of the Count's Castle in Werl, which was built in the first half of the 10th century, is still not completely clear. But it was probably near today's church square. When the Werler counts moved their seat to Arnsberg, they first built the Rüdenburg around 1060 , which later became the property of the Rüdenberg family. On the other side of the valley, the Counts of Arnsberg-Werl resided at Arnsberg Castle since around 1144. Later, the Archbishops and Electors of Cologne expanded the complex into the castle. The last building was built by Johann Conrad Schlaun for Clemens August von Bayern and destroyed in the Seven Years War. Both Arnsberg castles are ruins today.

Other noble families also built castles to protect their possessions. This applies to the original of the Ezzonen built castle in Hachenburg . The beginning of the Waldenburg near Attendorn also goes back to the Ezzone. Later it was owned by different masters. The Lords of Förde-Bilstein first built the Peperburg , of which hardly anything has survived , and later the Bilstein Castle . An old castle is also the one in Padberg . The bailiffs of the Grafschaft monastery built Nordenau Castle in the 12th century . One of the strategically most important castles from the 12th century was Altenfils Castle near Brilon; it was given up again in the Middle Ages.

The Archbishops of Cologne acquired various castles and built cities to protect their property, which also took on military functions. In Neheim , the Burgmann houses Gransau , Drostenhof and Fresekenhof bear witness to the town's past as a castle. The Counts of Arnsberg proceeded in a similar way, for example by building the town and castle of Eversberg . They were supposed to protect the property of the Count von Arnsberg against Kurköln. In addition to buying older castles and founding cities, the Archbishops of Cologne had new castles built since the 12th century. These include, for example, Schnellenberg Castle , first mentioned in 1222, Fürstenberg and Scharfenberg .

The Counts of the Mark and their predecessors also built castles to protect against the Counts of Arnsberg and the Archbishops of Cologne. Altena Castle , after which the neighboring town was named, functioned as the family seat of the Counts von der Mark . Klusenstein Castle was located on a rock above the Hönnetal valley directly on the border line .

Only a few of the castles have survived. Most of them are ruins today. The world's first youth hostel was opened in the reconstructed Altena Castle in 1912. Bilstein Castle, which is over 800 years old, has also served as a youth hostel since 1927. Schnellenberg Castle was later expanded by the Barons von Fürstenberg and can be visited.

Manors and castles

Partly on the basis of castles, partly emerged from the estates of the lower nobility, there were numerous castles and mansions. The Letmathe house in the Iserlohn district of the same name is an example of one of the many mansions in the Sauerland. In contrast, the Listringhausen manor in Meinerzhagen cannot be visited. Both buildings are considered symbols of their city. Gut Stockhausen in Meschede dates from the first millennium after Christ .

In the Baroque era in particular , older buildings were converted into castles. Others were rebuilt. The Barons von Fürstenberg commissioned the builder Ambrosius von Oelde with the construction of the Adolphsburg near Oberhundem and had Schnellenberg Castle rebuilt. The architect Michael Spanner was also active in many places in the region during this time. His palace buildings include the renovation of the Landsberger Hof in Arnsberg and Haus Almerfeld in Brilon. Only a few remains of the Hirschberg Castle, which was converted by Schlaun, and the Hirschberger Tor , which is now in Arnsberg, have survived .

Further examples of well-known castles are Bruchhausen Castle in Olsberg , Dahlhausen Castle in Menden , Herdringen Castle in Arnsberg , Körtlinghausen Castle in Rüthen , Laer Castle in Meschede , Melschede Castle in Sundern , Wocklum Castle in Balve and Neuenhof Castle in Lüdenscheid .

Sacred buildings

St. Dionysius Thülen
Nikolaikirche in Obermarsberg

The churches and chapels are also formative structures in the Sauerland. They belong to the traditional focal points of the cities and villages in the region. The earliest church settlements can be found along the Hellweg between Werl , Soest and Paderborn . The history of Meschede Abbey goes back to the Carolingian era. The masonry of the west tower of today's parish church St. Walburga dates from the 9th century. In the 11th century the three-aisled basilicas dominated . These include St. Clemens in Drolshagen, St. Dionysius in Thülen and St. Cyriakus in Berghausen. The typical building type for the region is the Westphalian hall church . These include St. Peter and Paul in Wormbach, the old part of St. Alexander in Schmallenberg and St. Johannes Evangelist in Eversberg. The St. Blasius Church in Balve with its octagonal dome also belongs in this context. A later representative is St. Heribert in Hallenberg. The Romanesque central building of the Drüggelter Chapel on the Haarstrang , whose architecture gives rise to numerous speculations, is unusual . Examples of the early Gothic are St. Nikolaus in Obermarsberg and St. Laurentius, the church of the Wedinghausen monastery in Arnsberg.

There are also numerous other remarkable medieval church buildings. These include the Upper Town Church and the Farmer 's Church in Iserlohn, the St. Vinzenz Church in Menden, and the Provost Church of St. Petrus and Andreas in Brilon. The medieval church of St. Johannes Baptist in Attendorn and the modern church of St. Johannes Baptist in Neheim are known as the Sauerland Cathedral because of their dimensions .

Few churches were built for a long time. Since the 17th century the baroque , partly in Gothic style, found its way into the Cologne part of the region. One of the hall churches in this style was St. Gertrud in Oberkirchen, similarly also Maria Visitation in Kohlhagen, St. Lambertus in Oberhundem and St. Peter and Paul in Eslohe. The new collegiate church St. Walburga in Meschede and St. Severin in Wenden also date from the Baroque period .

Many of the older churches have been redesigned in Baroque style, particularly with new interior fittings. This shapes the churches in many places to this day. Many artists came from the region. Examples include Heinrich Strothmann , Johann Sasse , Heinrich Papen , Johann Theodor Axer and Johann Leonhard Falter . In the 20th century, Joseph Buchkremer was the most important church architect in the Sauerland.

Some monastery buildings and churches are also noteworthy. These include the Wedinghausen, Rumbeck and Oelinghausen monasteries in the area of ​​today's city of Arnsberg . The aforementioned Meschede Abbey and the Obermarsberg Abbey are among the oldest monasteries in Westphalia . The monasteries Grafschaft near Schmallenberg and Bredelar are also witnesses of the past. The Königsmünster Abbey in Meschede is also remarkable for its modern architecture . It forms the largest inhabited monastery complex in the Sauerland today. The Mülheim order of the German order is a special form between the castle and religious institution .

In addition to some cemeteries, such as those in Rüthen or Obermarsberg , the development of which dates back to the early modern period, the Jewish population left behind some synagogues. No synagogue is still used as a place of worship after the Holocaust. Some have been renovated in such a way that their former function is still recognizable. These include the synagogue in Padberg , which was built in the half-timbered style in the 18th century, the synagogue in Neheim and the synagogue in Meschede. Other buildings have been so heavily rebuilt that their earlier sacral character, as with the synagogue in Arnsberg , is no longer recognizable. A number of synagogues like the one in Brilon were completely destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938 .

The Muslim population, especially migrants from Turkey , founded so-called backyard mosques in converted buildings from the 1970s . Since 1990, Iserlohn has had the DİTİB mosque in a converted and attached factory building, the first mosque with a dome and minaret. In 2008, the Fatih Mosque in Meschede was the first completely new mosque in the Sauerland to be built.

Half-timbered and slate houses

The Sauerland landscape also presents many settlements with the characteristic black and white half-timbered architecture . In the 1920s, the homeland security movement described the "typical" Sauerland house as a two-storey four-column hall house with black-painted half-timbering, whitewashed infills, some gable and arch decoration, covered with a slate roof. A typical example of this architecture is the Stertschultenhof in Cobbenrode , built in 1769 in half-timbered Sauerland . Other interesting examples can be found in many Sauerland places such as Hallenberg, Kirchveischede and Oberkirchen. In addition to the half-timbered architecture, there are also many slate houses in the Sauerland. Particularly in the areas with abundant slate deposits, there are a number of places that are characterized by such development.

Museums and cultural monuments

Main article: List of museums in the Sauerland

The Phenomenta Science Center is located in Lüdenscheid . The historical museum in this city also reaches a national audience, especially with its various temporary exhibitions. The same applies to the Sauerland Museum in Arnsberg and the German Cave Museum Iserlohn . The German Wire Museum in Altena is the only one of its kind in the world. In Bödefeld there is a natural history-oriented adventure museum as part of the Biological Station Hochsauerlandkreis. In Dreislar , the barite museum reminds of the local mining history. The Eslohe Machine and Local History Museum is particularly dedicated to the history of technology. The Holthausen Slate Mining and Local History Museum shows not only a permanent exhibition with various thematic areas but also special exhibitions that are regularly recognized nationwide and is connected to the Südwestfälische Galerie. Notable local or regional history museums include the Brilon City Museum , the Iserlohn City Museum , the Menden Museum , the Museum of the County of Mark in Altena and the South Sauerland Museum in Attendorn. There are also a large number of local museums and specialty museums.

Numerous museum-like facilities in the region remind of the old commercial and industrial past. Visitor attractions are undoubtedly the adventure visitor mine Ramsbeck in Bestwig and the historic Maste-Barendorf factory in Iserlohn. With the Wendener Hütte and the Luisenhütte Wocklum some of the oldest blast furnace plants in Germany can be visited. The Luisenhütte in Balve, with its completely preserved blast furnace system, which is operated with hydropower and charcoal, is an industrial museum that is unique in Germany . The entire ensemble of ironworks, which was closed down in 1865, includes the iron foundry and the surrounding area, conveying the history of the ironworks. The Kilian tunnel in Marsberg is also open to visitors . The Märkische Museum Railway also runs between Herscheid and Plettenberg . The Westphalian State Museum for Crafts and Technology in the Mäckingerbachtal near Hagen, as an open-air museum , presents the history of craft and trade, with a focus on the iron processing industry in the Sauerland.

See also



  • Stefan Baumeier, Christoph Köck (ed.): Sauerland - facets of a cultural region . Writings of the Westfälisches Freilichtmuseum Detmold - Landesmuseum für Volkskunde. Detmold 1994, ISBN 3-930271-20-6 ; therein articles on: symbolism of the region (Ch.Köck), house building (J. Kleinmanns), homeland security movement (S. Falk), open spaces (R. Kirsch-Stracke), forest and forest (B. Selter), furniture (H.- D. Joosten) and Frommes Wohnen (Ch. Aka).
  • Alfred Bruns: The streets in southern Westphalia. Münster 1992, ISSN  0942-6981 (= Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe, publications from the archive of the Landschaftsverband, volume 1).
  • Rudolf Brüschke, Norbert Föckeler (Ed.): Jewish life in the Hochsauerlandkreis. Fredeburg 1994, ISBN 3-930271-18-4 (= Hochsauerlandkreis series of publications, Vol. III).
  • Peter Bürger (Ed.): Friedenslandschaft Sauerland - Contributions to the history of pacifism and anti-militarism in a Catholic region (=  daunlots. Internet contributions from the christine-koch-mundart archive at the eslohe museum, no. 77). Eslohe 2015 ( PDF file ).
  • Peter Bürger (Ed.): Sauerland messengers of peace. Peace workers, anti-fascists and martyrs from the Sauerland region of Cologne. Vol. 1 Norderstedt, 2015, Vol. 2 Norderstedt, 2018 [Biographies of resistance fighters against National Socialism]
  • Ernst Dossmann : In the footsteps of the Counts of the Mark. Interesting facts about the development of the former Grafschaft Mark and the Märkischer Kreis . Iserlohn 1983, ISBN 3-922885-14-4 .
  • Ernst Dossmann: Paper from the old Grafschaft Mark: paper production and processing in the economic area between Volme, Ruhr and Hönne: an economic geographic and family history study on the development of an important South Westphalian economic sector in the vicinity of the cities of Hagen, Iserlohn, Hemer, Menden, Fröndenberg and Plettenberg . Iserlohn 1987, ISBN 3-922885-33-0 .
  • Karl-Peter Ellerbrock, Tanja Bessler-Worbs (ed.): Economy and society in south-eastern Westphalia . Dortmund 2001, ISBN 3-87023-192-0 .
  • Jens Friedhoff : Sauerland and Siegerland. 70 castles and palaces . Stuttgart 2002.
  • Richard Götte: Flora in the eastern Sauerland . Association for nature and bird protection in the HSK e. V. Distribution maps for all fern and flowering plants in the area of ​​the cities of Brilon, Marsberg, Olsberg, Winterberg, Medebach, Marsberg and the municipality of Bestwig, 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-021099-0 .
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Grimme : The Sauerland and its inhabitants. Sauerland-Verlag, Iserlohn 1929.
  • Friedrich Albert Groeteken : The sagas of the Sauerland . Second improved and enlarged edition. Philipp Glade, Schmallenberg 1926.
  • Albert K. Hömberg : Settlement history of the upper Sauerland . Thiele, Gütersloh 1938.
  • Harm Klueting (Ed.): The Duchy of Westphalia ,
    • Vol. 1: The Cologne Duchy of Westphalia from the beginnings of Cologne rule in southern Westphalia to the secularization of 1803 . Münster 2009, ISBN 978-3-402-12827-5 ;
    • Vol. 2: The former Electoral Cologne Duchy of Westphalia in the area of ​​today's districts of Hochsauerland, Olpe, Soest and Märkischer Kreis (19th and 20th centuries) . 2 volumes. Münster 2012, ISBN 978-3-402-12862-6 .
  • Ottilie Knepper-Babilon, Hanneli Kaiser-Löffler: Resistance against the National Socialists in the Sauerland - an investigation into the behavior of the Sauerland population during the Nazi era. Published by the Hochsauerlandkreis, series Volume IV. Podszun, Brilon 2003, ISBN 3-86133-309-0 .
  • Peter Kracht: Sauerland, Siegerland and Wittgensteiner Land. Regions in NRW Vol. 1, Münster 2005.
  • Georg Mieders: Flora of the northern Sauerland . Balve 2006, ISBN 3-89053-104-0 .
  • Willi Mues: The big cauldron. A documentary about the end of the Second World War between Lippe and Ruhr / Sieg and Lenne . Erwitte 1984.
  • Franz Mühlen: The Sauerland ( Westphalian art ). Munich / West Berlin 1987.
  • Herbert Nicke: Forgotten ways. The historical network of long-distance routes between the Rhine, Weser, Hellweg and Westerwald, its protective systems and junctions. Nümbrecht 2001, ISBN 3-931251-80-2 (= history between Berg, Wildenburg and Südwestfalen, volume 9).
  • Horst Nieder: time travel through the Sauerland. Excursions into the past. Gudensberg-Gleichen 2006, ISBN 3-8313-1515-9 .
  • Otmar Plaßmann: Medieval art in the Sauerland - picture manual . Writings of the Grafschaft Monastery, Schmallenberg 2001.
  • Otmar Plaßmann: Baroque art in the Sauerland - picture manual . Writings of the Grafschaft Monastery, Schmallenberg 2005.
  • Dietmar Sauermann (Hrsg.): Gute Aussicht - Articles and pictures from the early days of tourism in the Sauerland , Volume 5 of the series At that time with us in Westphalia , Folklore Commission for Westphalia of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association (Münster), Güth Verlagsgesellschaft / Heckmann Verlag, Rheda-Wiedenbrück 1990, ISBN 3-922828-48-5 .
  • Achim Walder: Sights worth seeing in the Sauerland. Märkisches, Southern and Hochsauerland . Walder Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-936575-16-9 .
  • Johannes Wolburg : The Devonian in the area of ​​the upper Lenne . Treatises of the Prussian Geological State Institute , No. 151, Berlin 1933.
  • The Hochsauerlandkreis: development and change in a region . Arnsberg 1996, ISBN 3-930264-12-9 .
  • The Iserlohn district. A dynamic living space in the Sauerland. With introductory texts by Wulf-Dietrich von Borcke. Sauerland-Verlag, Iserlohn 1972, ISBN 3-87695-011-2 .


  • daunlots. internet contributions from the christine-koch-dialect archive at the eslohe museum , [1]
  • South Sauerland - Voices from the Olpe district . Quarterly magazine of the district home association Olpe, ISSN  0177-2899
  • South Westphalia Archive . State history in the former Electoral Cologne Duchy of Westphalia and the County of Arnsberg. Annual historical journal of a working group of archivists in the region. ISSN  1618-8934
  • Sauerland . Journal of the Sauerland Heimatbund. Quarterly published, ISSN  0177-8110
  • Yearbook Hochsauerlandkreis . Ed. Hochsauerlandkreis, published annually.

Web links

Wikivoyage: Sauerland  - travel guide
Wiktionary: Sauerland  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: Sauerland  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Sauerland  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

References and comments

  1. a b c d e f g h i j Günther Becker: The scope of the landscape name Sauerland . In: Günther Becker, Alois Mayr, Klaus Temlitz (eds.): Sauerland - Siegerland - Wittgensteiner Land . Annual meeting of the Geographical Commission in Olpe 1989. Geographical Commission for Westphalia, 1989, ZDB -ID 1291497-6 , p. 1–17 ( online PDF [accessed on July 19, 2011] Spieker. Regional studies contributions 33).
  2. a b c d Herbert Liedtke: Names and delimitations of landscapes in the Federal Republic of Germany . Ed .: Central Committee for German Cultural Studies. revised edition. Trier 1994, ISBN 3-88143-050-4 , p. 97–98 (Research on German Regional Studies, Volume 239).
  3. a b c d e Harm Klueting: The Sauerland - cultural unity or diversity . Lecture at the Westfalentag in Iserlohn on September 20, 2003. In: Westfälischer Heimatbund (Hrsg.): Heimatpflege in Westfalen . No. 6 , December 2003, ISSN  0933-6346 , ZDB -ID 619874-0 , p. 1–7 ( online PDF [accessed July 19, 2011]).
  4. a b c d Christoph Köck: The discovery of the Sauerland. On the cultural symbolism of a region . In: Stefan Baumeier, Christoph Köck (Ed.): Sauerland. Facets of a cultural region . Grobbel, Fredeburg 1994, ISBN 3-930271-20-6 , pp. 10–33 (Writings of the Westphalian Open Air Museum Detmold - State Museum for Folklore, Volume 12).
  5. a b c d e f Stefani Konstanti: The Sauerland region and its representation in the museum. A folklore study on the Hochsauerlandkreis . Waxmann, 1998, ISSN  1435-0556 , ZDB -ID 2124035-8 , p. 43–110 (Münsteraner Schriften zur Volkskunde / Europäische Ethnologie, Volume 3; also published as Stefani Konstanti: The Sauerland region and its presentation in the museum. A folklore study on the Hochsauerlandkreis. Münster 1997 (dissertation).).
  6. ^ Wilhelm Müller-Wille: Floor sculpture and natural spaces in Westphalia . In: Spieker . Regional studies contributions. tape 14 , 1966, ZDB ID 529468-X .
  7. ^ Emil Meynen , Josef Schmithüsen : Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960).
  8. Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 .  ( Help on this )
  9. ^ Sofie Meisel-Jahn: Geographical land survey . The natural spatial units on sheet 98 - Detmold. Ed .: Federal Institute for Regional Studies. Remagen 1959, DNB  456722351 .
  10. Martin Bürgener: Geographical Land Survey . The natural spatial units on sheet 111 - Arolsen. Ed .: Federal Institute for Regional Studies. Remagen 1963, DNB  456722440 .
  11. The northern part of the Sauerland is often referred to as the Arnsberg Forest , following the extension of the Arnsberg Forest Nature Park . The highest ridge of the nature park, the Plackweghöhe , is naturally not in the Arnsberg Forest, but in the Plackwald .
  12. ^ State Office for Data Processing and Statistics North Rhine-Westphalia: District standard numbers 2005 edition . Düsseldorf 2005.
  13. Roland Walter u. a .: Geology of Central Europe. 5th edition. Schweizerbarth'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-510-65149-9 .
  14. ^ Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW: Municipal profiles for independent cities, districts and communities in North Rhine-Westphalia
  15. Municipal statistics from the Hessian State Statistical Office (status: January 1, 2010; ZIP file, 914.6 kB)
  16. Federal Statistical Office: Floor area according to type of use ( Memento of the original from November 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  17. a b Joachim Hartig: The landscape name Sauerland . In: Klemens Honselmann, Joseph Prinz, Hans Eichler, Hermann Busen (eds.): Westphalia . History, art and folklore books. 47th volume, issue 1. Aschendorff, 1969, ISSN  0043-4337 , ZDB -ID 202700-8 , p. 34-44 .
  18. Fritz Droste: Sauerland - oh that name. The name Sauerland: historical interpretations viewed in a cheerful manner . In: The Oberkreisdirektor des Hochsauerlandkreises (Hrsg.): Yearbook Hochsauerlandkreis . Reports, stories, essays, poems. tape 1 . Podszun, 1985, ISBN 3-923448-20-1 , ISSN  0931-1149 , pp. 10-19 (also published as Fritz Droste: "Sauerland - oh this name". Historical interpretation serenely viewed. In: Heiko Zeutschner (Ed.): Sauerland. The book on the land of 1000 mountains. 1st edition. Müller, Ebermannstadt 1987 , ISBN 3-923278-55-1 , pp. 7-26.).
  19. Thomas Hülsken, Jörg Niemeyer, Hartmut Polenz: Höhlen: living and cult sites of early humans in the Sauerland . Münster 1991, ISBN 3-927204-07-2 .
  20. Heinz Günter Horn (Ed.): Theiss Archaeological Guide Westphalia-Lippe . Stuttgart, 2008, pp. 174-176; Reinhard Wolter: The battle in the Teutoburg Forest. Arminius, Varus and Roman Germania . Munich 2008, pp. 60, 70, 73.
  21. R. Köhne: Historical mining in the Sauerland. "Westphalian Ore Mountains". (PDF; 762 kB) GeKo Aktuell 2004. Geographical Commission for Westphalia / LWL, Münster 2004.
  22. a b Bärbel Michels: We called workers and people came. Yearbook Hochsauerlandkreis 1995. Podszun Verlag, Brilon 1994, ISBN 3-86133-126-8 , pp. 28-46.
  23. Sauerlandkurier: Bowing to the Victims ( Memento of the original from December 17, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , June 1, 2011, accessed November 6, 2011. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  24. The West: Silence to Open to Memory , November 10, 2008, accessed November 6, 2011.
  25. ^ Emil Nensel, Eberhard Thomas: Die Toten des Stalag VI A. In: Hans-Hermann Stopsack, Eberhard Thomas (ed.): Stalag VI A Hemer. POW camp 1939–1945. A documentation. Hemer 1995, p. 202 f.
  26. Horst Hassel, Horst Klötzer: No jet fighter fuel from Schwalbe 1. Zimmermann Verlag, Balve 2011, ISBN 978-3-89053-127-4 .
  27. a b Werner Bühner: Bombs on Arnsberg: 1940-1945 . Becker, Arnsberg 1995, ISBN 3-930264-04-8 . (City studies series on the city of Arnsberg, 21)
  28. Helmuth Euler: When Germany's dams broke. The truth about the bombing of the Möhne-Eder-Sorpe dams in 1943. Motorbuchverlag, Stuttgart 1975, ISBN 3-87943-367-4 .
  29. Willi Mues: The large cauldron. A documentary about the end of the Second World War between Lippe and Ruhr / Sieg and Lenne. Erwitte 1984, p. 63.
  30. Willi Mues: The large cauldron. A documentary about the end of the Second World War between Lippe and Ruhr / Sieg and Lenne. Erwitte 1984, chapter: Closure of the Ruhr boiler in Lippstadt, pp. 156–206.
  31. Willi Mues: The large cauldron. A documentary about the end of the Second World War between Lippe and Ruhr / Sieg and Lenne. Erwitte 1984, chapter surrender in the Ruhrkessel, pp. 491-529.
  32. ^ Eyewitness report of the "Fifth Infantry Division of the US Armed Forces", printed in the yearbook Hochsauerlandkreis 1995, ISBN 3-86133-126-8 , translated by Frank Muermann and Rudolf Salingré, p. 70
  33. Thomas Fartmann, Steffen fighters, Franz Löffler: Christmas tree cultures in the Hochsauerland. In: Der Falke , 12/2017, pp. 20–23.
  34. Stephanie Lahrtz: No more space for Christmas trees in the Sauerland - North Rhine-Westphalia makes it difficult to grow fir after resistance from citizens . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . No. 302 . Zurich December 30, 2013, p. 16 .
  35. ^ LWL - Christian Krajewski: Südwestfalen - Hidden Champion among the German industrial regions , accessed on September 6, 2014.
  36. IHK Arnsberg, Hellweg-Sauerland: "Hidden Champions" uncovered - IHKs present world market leaders from South Westphalia from February 14, 2013, accessed on September 6, 2014
  37. ( Memento of the original from April 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  38. The Ruhr Valley Cycle Path . In: RuhrtalRadweg . ( [accessed December 27, 2017]).
  39. Bike Arena Sauerland . In: Bike Arena . ( [accessed on December 27, 2017]).
  40. ^ Warsteiner Brewery Hans Cramer KG: Warsteiner Radwanderführer - The most popular cycle routes in the Sauerland. Warstein 2012.
  41. Carl Josef Müller: From traffic law in the times of the carters. In: Michael Senger (Red.): Kiepe, plow and vice . Arnsberg 1999, pp. 163-170.
  42. Werner Cordes: Georg Büchner and the Sauerland carters. In: Kiepe, Pflug und Vice, pp. 171–174.
  43. ^ Alfred Bruns: Streets and traffic in southern Westphalia. In: Kiepe, Pflug und Vice, pp. 149–183.
  44. ^ Reformation in Westphalia
  45. Archive link ( Memento of the original from October 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  46. ^ Counter-Reformation and Catholic Reform in Westphalia
  47. ^ The religious situation in Westphalia
  48. ^ Adalbert Kuhn: Legends, customs and fairy tales from Westphalia. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1859.
  49. Friedrich Albert Groeteken: The sagas of the Sauerland. Reprint of the 2nd edition. Jos. Grobbel KG, Fredeburg 1983.
  50. Youth hostels in the state association Westphalia / Lippe. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
  51. WDR5: Norbert Luke from Hof ​​Roscheid prepares Potthucke for “Attendorn kocht!” , Accessed on December 30, 2011.
  52. Gasthaus Pilling: Potthucke ( Memento of the original from April 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed December 30, 2011.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  53. Axel Riepenhausen: The cookbook from the Sauerland. Verlag Wolfgang Hölker, Münster 1979, ISBN 3-88117-084-7 .
  54. Homepage of the winter sports arena Sauerland ( memento of the original dated February 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  55. ^ Michael Topp, Georg Petruschkat: Eiszeit 50 years ice hockey in the Sauerland. Iserlohn 2009.
  58. ( Memento of the original from May 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  60. Cornelia Kneppe: Castles and cities as crystallization points of rule between 1100 and 1300. In: Harm Klueting (Hrsg.): Das Herzogtum Westfalen, Vol. 1: Das Herzogtum Westfalen: The Electorate of Cologne from the beginnings of Cologne rule in southern Westphalia to Secularization 1803. Münster 2009, pp. 203-234.
  61. ^ Marina Cramer: Art in the Duchy of Westphalia. In: Harm Klueting (ed.): The Duchy of Westphalia, Vol. 1: The Duchy of Westphalia: The Electorate of Cologne from the beginnings of Cologne rule in southern Westphalia to secularization in 1803. Münster 2009, pp. 544-547.
  62. ^ Marina Cramer: Art in the Duchy of Westphalia. In: Harm Klueting (Ed.): The Duchy of Westphalia, Vol. 1: The Duchy of Westphalia: The Electorate of Cologne from the beginnings of Cologne rule in southern Westphalia to secularization in 1803. Münster 2009, pp. 563-571.
  64. DİTİB Iserlohn: About us. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
  65. ^ Christoph Köck: Black-White-Gold. For the geometry of a landscape. In: Symbols: on the meaning of symbols in culture. Münster 1997, p. 288.
  66. Overview of the museums in the Hochsauerlandkreis
  67. European Route of Industrial Culture (ERIH): Luisenhütte
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on June 27, 2006 .