|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Arnsberg|
|Height :||668 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||147.95 km 2|
|Residents:||12,638 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||85 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||59955|
|Primaries :||02981, 02758, 02977, 02983, 02985|
|License plate :||HSK|
|Community key :||05 9 58 048|
|LOCODE :||DE WIG|
|City structure:||14 districts or districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Werner Eickler ( CDU )|
|Location of the town of Winterberg in the Hochsauerland district|
Winterberg is located in the northeast of the Rothaargebirge in the Hochsauerland on the Winterberger plateau (also called Winterberger Hochmulde ) at (height of the city center above the Waltenberg tunnel ) about 80 km southeast of Dortmund and 70 km west-southwest of Kassel (distances as the crow flies ). It is located between Olsberg in the north, Medebach in the east, Hallenberg in the south-southeast and Schmallenberg in the west.
The core town of Winterberg is not far north-east of the Kahler Astens ( ), where the Lenne rises, for example , and below the Poppenberg ( ) and Brembergs (approx. ), the Herrloh ( ) and the canopy ( ); The Skiliftkarussell Winterberg ski area spreads out over these mountains . The core city, whose old town is not far south of the Dumel ( ), is also between these mountains, some of which are a little further away: Ruhrkopf ( ) in the north, Molbecke ( ), Hohe Seite ( ) and Bollerberg ( ) each in southeastern directions. The lowest point of the city of Winterberg is in the Negertal north of the Siedlinghausen district at .
Winterberg is located on the ridge of the low mountain range over which a section of the Rhine-Weser watershed runs. A small piece of this watershed runs through Winterberg. This means, for example, that the Nameless , which rises not far north-northwest of the core city, drains into the Rhine via the Neger and the Ruhr , while the Helle , which rises not far east-northeast of the old town, flows to the Weser via Orke , Eder and Fulda . The rivers that run in or near the Winterberg city center include the nameless tributary Büre , the Nuhne with its source stream Sonneborn and the Ruhr tributary Lemecke .
The Asten area belongs to the northern foothills of the Rhenish Slate Mountains and consists mainly of clay slate in the Lower and Middle Devonian and of greywacke with quartzite. The Kahle Asten, for example, is a mighty block made of these two types of rock. Towards the end of the Carboniferous Period, the layers were folded with pressure from the side. This led to the clays and the formation of crevices and crevices. Tensions in the earth's crust raised the older layers of the Lower Devon from their original position at an angle of incidence of about 45 °. This can be clearly seen in quarries, for example at the whetstone, about 300 meters south of Helleplatz, where a so-called fold saddle is exposed. In the geological present, the surface of the earth is shaped primarily by water in combination with rubble and sand. Due to the erosion, hard rock creates steep and deep valleys, such as the Helle, Orke and Nuhnetal, while less hard rock creates more gently sloping and wide valleys, such as the Ruhr and nameless valley.
Expansion of the urban area
The core city covers an area of 48.07 km², Siedlinghausen 23.84 km², Züschen 22.78 km², Niedersfeld 15.17 km², Grönebach 9.49 km², Elkeringhausen 5.80 km², Hildfeld 4.92 km², Altastenberg 3, 54 km² and Silbach 2.47 km². The remaining urban area extends over the hilltop villages of Neuastenberg, Langewiese, Lenneplätze, Mollseifen and Hoheleye as well as Altenfeld.
Neighboring communities in the Hochsauerlandkreis are Olsberg in the north (approx. 20 km away), Medebach in the east (approx. 15 km away), Hallenberg in the southeast (approx. 15 km away) and Schmallenberg in the west (approx. 26 km away). In the northeast, Winterberg borders Willingen (Upland) in the Hessian district of Waldeck-Frankenberg; in the south to Bad Berleburg (Siegen-Wittgenstein district).
Winterberg has consisted of the following districts since the incorporation in the course of the municipal reform in 1975 :
The altitude has significant consequences for the climate in Winterberg. Unfavorable terrain, the relatively barren slate soil and the harsh, precipitation-rich climate make agriculture extremely difficult. Due to the altitude, the growing season is short. At 800 meters it is only 100 days a year. It was not uncommon for the first snow to cover the oats when grain was still being grown.
A study as early as 1911 showed how extreme the differences to other places were: if the average annual snowfall was 65.8 days in Winterberg (Altastenberg), it was 38.6 days in Arnsberg and 29.4 days in Münster. If in 1911 Altastenberg had an average of 108 days a year with a closed snow cover, it was 44 in Arnsberg and only 31 days in Münster. The same applies to the snow depth . The average in Altastenberg in February was 102 cm, in Arnsberg it was 32 cm.
Around 1950 the prevailing westerly and northwesterly winds on the Winterberg plateau brought precipitation of up to 1400 mm on around 200 days a year, mainly in the cold season. The mean annual temperature was around 5 ° C. On average it snowed 72 days a year, while the snow stayed an average of 108 days. The maximum snow thickness was 70-80 cm.
In comparison, there were 44 snowfall days in 1996, with the maximum snow thickness in February being 59 cm. The sum of the precipitation that fell on 161 days was 992 mm, well below the thirty-year average of 1360 mm. The mean annual temperature was 4.8 ° C, compared to the thirty-year mean of 5.9 ° C. There were no tropical days (over 30 ° C), 6 summer days (over 25 ° C), 131 frost days (temperature falls below 0 ° C) and 84 ice days (temperature remains below 0 ° C). Thunderstorms were registered on 17 days, wind force 6 (39–48 km / h) on 25 days, but there were no storm days (wind force 8, corresponds to 63–74 km / h). The duration of sunshine in hours was 1422.3 compared to 1341.0 in the thirty-year mean.
The history of the city of Winterberg goes back to around 1240. The Archbishop of Cologne, Konrad von Hochstaden (1238–1261), probably gave it municipal rights . According to an inventory of the Marshal's Office of Westphalia (around 1300), Marshal Arnold von Hochstaden (1248–1271) was the first to start the planned construction of a fortified (small) town ("oppidum"). At about the same time, on his initiative, the neighboring town of Hallenberg and maybe Schmallenberg came into being. The town of Winterberg was probably founded together with the monastery in Küstelberg . This is indicated by a document from 1276, in which the rights to the city between the archbishop and the monastery are regulated. This document mentions a church in Winterberg, the forerunner of which probably dates back to around 1225.
In 1299 the first and apparently only time until the 16th century was a Cologne archbishop in the city of Winterberg. Perhaps it is no coincidence that shortly afterwards, around 1300, mayors are mentioned for the first time (“proconsul” and “consules”).
In the 14th century, Winterberg concluded several alliances for his protection, especially with surrounding towns from the gradually forming administrative district of Medebach (e.g. 1300, 1333, 1350 and 1370).
In the 14th century, the city fortifications seem to have only granted very limited protection. In 1321 the Count von Waldeck conquered the city. Around 1357 Winterberg was destroyed by Gottfried IV von Arnsberg during his war with Cologne Archbishop Wilhelm von Gennep . The archbishop granted an initial ten-year tax exemption for the reconstruction. This was extended for another five years in 1370 and 1374. At that time the city had the same city charter as Hallenberg.
At the time of the Hanseatic League (13th to 17th centuries) Winterberg was considered a Hanseatic city. The city was at the intersection of Heidenstrasse Cologne – Kassel and Heerstrasse Frankfurt – Soest. The poor agricultural conditions meant that trade played a central role as a livelihood in the life of the city. A system of land forces served to protect the city .
Desertification in the late Middle Ages
Between around 1350 and 1500, the surrounding settlements of Wernsdorf, Merleheim, Haarfeld, Günninghausen and Elkeringhausen were abandoned by their residents. They often moved to Winterberg, while retaining their ownership rights to their old land. This is expressed in the formation of so-called brand cooperatives, which bore the name of the old settlements and whose members were mostly Winterberg citizens. The reasons for the abandonment of the old settlements probably lay in the plague that occasionally occurred at the time, but also in the frequent feuds of this time, in which the cities offered better protection against enemy attacks. At that time, only the towns of Winterberg, Hallenberg, Schmallenberg and Medebach were probably settled in the Medebach district, while the surrounding villages were completely abandoned. Of the desolations of the Winterberger Marken, only Elkeringhausen was repopulated in the 16th century.
Until the end of the Thirty Years War (1500–1650)
With the acquisition of the brands, the area of Winterberg expanded significantly. There were similar developments in neighboring cities. The city of Brilon grew most strongly through the annexing of desolate settlements. By the beginning of the 16th century at the latest, the Winterbergers expanded their fields in the Astenberg area. As a result, they came into conflict with Count von Waldeck, who owned rights in the neighboring village of Nordenau. From the southwest, their territorial claims overlapped with the County of Wittgenstein. This dispute dragged on with both opponents until the end of the 18th century. The disputed area was divided up with Wittgenstein in a settlement in 1783.
During the Thirty Years War, the neighboring town of Medebach was destroyed by the Hessians in 1634 and Hallenberg was rendered defensible by demolishing the Niedertor. Both suffered greatly from contributions, deliveries of forage, looting, robberies and murders. In addition, the plague broke out soon afterwards. Both cities suffered major population losses as a result. The town of Winterberg seems to have been largely spared this fate, despite the various billeting of mercenaries, which appeared again and again from 1622 onwards. An important indication of this is that in 1638/39 the city council was able to buy a new organ for 240 Reichstaler. Conversely, this could be the trigger for a unsuccessful siege of the city around 1640, which oral tradition reports. As a result, Winterberg riflemen were able to successfully repel the attacking Hessen and Sweden.
As in many other places in the Duchy of Westphalia, witch trials and executions took place in Winterberg between the 16th and 18th centuries . The exact number is unknown because the sources are extremely poor. There is evidence of witch trials in 1523, presumably 1562, 1629 and most recently in 1728. On November 19, 1993, a memorial for victims of witch persecution in the 16th century was inaugurated at the town hall and town hall at the historic location of the “Winterberg Neck Court”. This makes Winterberg a city in Germany that officially commemorates the victims of the witch trials. At the memorial there is a bronze relief with a gallows symbol, created by the sculptor Hans Sommer , and a plaque with the text: “The memory of six women from Winterberg who were convicted as witches in 1523 - here on the place of execution in the city of Winterberg - after judgment in the "Winterbergisches Halsgericht" - first witch trial in Westphalia, from which a court report has been received. "
From the end of the Thirty Years War to the end of the electoral state (1650–1802)
In 1652 the city bought the tithe located in the Mark Günninghausen for a "respectable and completely amiable sum of money". This is further evidence that the city survived the war largely unscathed.
It seems as if Winterberg was largely spared from the numerous wars of Louis XIV during this time . A serious exception was probably the war against Holland (1672–1675), in which troops marched in the area. An outbreak of the plague led to famine and population losses. In 1664 the city still had 108 citizens, in 1685 there were only 94 citizens.
This was followed by a period undisturbed by wars, during which Winterberg developed into a prosperous town. This was associated with a clear differentiation of occupations and a considerable increase in population. This is clearly recognizable in the head estimate table from 1717 (157 citizens). By 1759 this number rose to at least 180, which was a maximum for a long time.
The economic upswing is evident in the effort to acquire possession of neighboring noble estates through purchase or lease. In 1688, Mayor Jacob Mörchen leased the noble house and estate Elkeringhausen, which at that time was owned by the noble family von Bourscheid zu Nordenbeck in the Principality of Waldeck. In 1718 the three Winterberg residents Heinrich Mörchen, Heinrich Schmidt and Lorenz Deimel agree on the use of the Elkeringhausen house. An aristocratic seat was of no use to the city, but in the worst case could become an annoying competition or even a threat. In 1734, for example, the mayor Lorenz Deimel lent the neighboring community of Züschen 3,000 Reichstaler so that they could buy up the property of the local nobleman with whom they had a dispute.
It was therefore certainly no coincidence that Mayor Lorenz Deimel had the noble house in Elkeringhausen demolished around the same time. In 1734 the manager of Haus Nordenbeck complained about this. The von Bourscheid asked the Elector of Cologne to set up a commission to investigate the events in Elkeringhausen and the ownership structure. The outcome is not known, in any case, Mayor Deimel remains in undisturbed possession of the noble estate. This is evidenced by a tithe register he started in 1735, which contains entries on lease income for the entire 18th century.
During the Seven Years' War , the Duchy of Westphalia and the city of Winterberg suffered a lot from marches and contributions. To make matters worse, the entire city was completely destroyed by a great fire in 1759. Nevertheless, the first houses were rebuilt in the same year. After two years a third and after five years around two thirds of the houses that existed before the city fire were rebuilt.
In 1791 the city burned down again. This time, seven residential buildings as well as the brewery, the syringe house and the two bakeries remained. This time, however, the residents received payments from the Westphalian fire society, which had been introduced in 1778. The old city wall was now torn down and the stones were used to rebuild some houses and the church. When the city was rebuilt, wide streets were laid out to reduce the risk of fire. To this end, considerable interventions were made in the ownership structure. After two years, around two thirds of the house stock from 1791 had been rebuilt.
The French Revolution marked the beginning of an ominous time for the city. In 1802 the Hessians occupied the Duchy of Westphalia. On September 8th, Hessian troops marched into the city with loaded rifles. Until 1816, when the Prussians took over the duchy, the citizens of the cities were gradually stripped of their old rights. With the argument of the uniformity of the constitution throughout the territory and under the protection of the French, the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt began to establish an absolutist rule in a centralized state.
In 1804, conscription was introduced for young men with ten years of service. In order to gain the emphasis, the Hessians moved a 20-man military execution squad to the city in 1805 after apparently numerous men had not surrendered to the ordered draft in Arnsberg. In 1806 the Estates constitution was repealed, which deprived the cities of their say in the state government. In 1811 the mayor order for cities and freedoms was introduced, whereby the cities lost their old self-government rights.
How much the central government intervened in insignificant local affairs shows the order to fill the so-called lazy swamps in the urban area with stones. Without knowing the local conditions, the establishment of a grinder was ordered in a city in which agriculture played only a subordinate role. In contrast, the activities of the magistrate to rebuild a school were not supported in any way. Many ordinances only served to increase the sovereign income without caring about the interests of the residents. For 1808 and 1809, two extensive tax registers for collecting property tax have been preserved.
The tax burden became more and more oppressive due to the incessant wars of Napoleon, which the ruler from Darmstadt supported. In 1814 there were numerous billeting and contributions, which further impoverished the population. When some citizens were unable or unwilling to pay tax arrears in October 1815, the demands were reinforced by threatening the foreclosure of ovens. You can learn a lot about all of this in the council minutes from 1805 and from the town chronicle of Pastor Joseph Quick from the first half of the 19th century.
Prussian rule began in the famine year of 1816 . In this situation, the new sovereigns had "Baltic Sea grain", ie grain from the eastern provinces of Prussia, transported to the new western provinces and thus helped to alleviate the famine. Initially, nothing changed in the community order. Winterberg initially belonged to the Medebach district and then from 1819 to the Brilon district . In 1826 the mayor's district of Winterberg was formed with the places Winterberg, Elkeringhausen, Grönebach, Hildfeld, Niedersfeld, Silbach, Altastenberg and Lenneplätze. The district mayor was appointed by the district administrator. In 1836, the first election of a mayor and the magistrate (consisting of three people) took place according to the revised Westphalian city code . This was the first time since 1811 that local elections were held. In 1837 the elections were confirmed by the district administrator and the elected were introduced into office. With that, Winterberg left the mayor's district, the other places of which formed the new Niedersfeld office . During the revolution of 1848 there was no unrest in the city. According to oral tradition, the mayor had to leave the city temporarily, but was soon able to return.
Between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the end of the Second World War in 1945, the city was spared direct war effects. For Winterberg, the Prussian 19th century was characterized by a gradual upswing in largely peaceful times. This was facilitated by the gradual reduction of all debts from the time of the Seven Years' War and the Napoleonic Wars. From 1842 the city was free of debt.
In 1824 and 1825 a doctor and a pharmacist settled in the city. During this time the road construction ("Chausseen") falls. In 1833 the line (“Ruhrstraße”) to Niedersfeld was completed, and in 1835 the road to Hallenberg. This has significantly improved the direct connection between Münster, Arnsberg on the one hand and Gießen, Darmstadt and Frankfurt on the other. In 1848 road construction began to Neuastenberg and on to Berleburg. In 1857 a savings bank was set up.
At the beginning of the 20th century, locals introduced skiing, which soon led to an upswing in winter sports in Winterberg.
The beginning of the National Socialist dictatorship in 1933 brought the end of local self-government and the persecution of the Jews in Winterberg. For the first time a Jewish family can be found in Winterberg for the year 1672. She made a living from slaughtering and trading, nothing unusual in this town. In 1808 the Hessians forced the Jews to adopt hereditary family names. Since that time the common name was "Winterberger". In the 19th century, the family split into several large branches, many of which were successful merchants.
Under pressure from the Nazi regime, the Winterberg brandy and liquor factory was sold in 1937. While the owner's son was able to emigrate to the USA, the parents were murdered in Riga and in the Stutthof concentration camp near Danzig during World War II . Before the outbreak of war, the two children were brought to safety in Switzerland and Great Britain by a second family who lived on a textile business. However, the parents were murdered in Auschwitz in 1943 . The family's property was confiscated and auctioned. A third family, a Jewish woman and her "half-Jewish" daughter, both of whom were Catholic, were deported to a labor camp in 1944 and survived the war and persecution. None of the surviving Jews “Winterberger” returned. The Jewish cemetery is largely hidden in the eastern part of the city center.
For the first time on September 23, 1944, allied bombers dropped 16 bombs on the station area, causing the first direct effects of the war in World War II, with property damage remaining. On November 18, 1944, the Wehrmacht confiscated the elementary school in order to set up a hospital. From January until the end of the fighting in the city, there were air alarms almost daily to warn of Allied aircraft. The railway tunnel became the most important shelter for the population. However, there were seldom air strikes. In a low-flying attack on March 21, 1945 on a train that was manned by 600 children from Recklinghausen, four schoolgirls and two teachers were killed. The 16 seriously injured were taken to the city hospital. The dead were buried in a communal grave in the city cemetery. When the US Army reached Hallenberg from the south on March 29 (Maundy Thursday) the Volkssturm was called to defend in Winterberg . On March 30th (Good Friday) there were dead and wounded in a low-flying attack on the midday train. The next day, low-level planes shot u. a. a tank and a house on fire. On Easter Sunday April 1st, US artillery began bombarding the city. Three priests celebrated several Holy Masses for the population who fled into the railway tunnel, which at times comprised up to 2,000 people. On this day the Catholic Pastor Hackenberg died during the artillery bombardment. The ground battle for Winterberg began on Easter Monday. In particular, the area in the direction of Züschen and the “Lower Gate” were fought fiercely. There are said to have been 200 killed and wounded among German soldiers alone. The US soldiers eventually captured most of the city. German artillery now fired at Winterberg. Fortunately, negotiations for a temporary armistice were held between the American commander Ewald and a German field doctor. On April 4, the Germans agreed to withdraw without a fight by 1500 m. This saved the place from further destruction and saved the lives of numerous wounded people in the Kurhaus and hotels. On April 6, orders were issued to exit the draughty and wet tunnel after cases of diphtheria and scarlet fever. On May 19, a forester was murdered by former prisoners from the Soviet Union. In June 1945, British troops replaced the Americans, as Winterberg was now part of the British zone. Dud explosions killed five people in 1945 and three in 1946. In the Second World War , 167 Winterbergers fell as Wehrmacht soldiers at the front, most of them on the Eastern Front or died in captivity. 16 civilians were also killed.
The predominant denomination was and is Catholicism. During the time of Elector Truchseß von Waldburg, Winterberg briefly accepted two Protestant preachers in 1583, but they had to leave the city again after a short time. In 1584 the city paid homage to the new sovereign Ernst of Bavaria and has remained with the old denomination since that time. However, this did not prevent isolated people of the Protestant denomination from living in the city during the Electoral Cologne period. A family Althaus and a surgeon from Wetzlar should be mentioned in the 18th century . After the end of the Electoral Cologne period, isolated Protestant families gradually settled. In 1925 the Protestant community received its own church. Especially shortly after the end of the Second World War, the Protestant portion of the population increased sharply through expellees from the east. In 1961, 83% of the population were Catholics, 16% Protestants and 1% belonged to other denominations or were non-denominational.
On January 1, 1975, in the course of the municipal reform, the core town of Winterberg, the municipalities of the former Niedersfeld office and the villages of Züschen (previously Hallenberg office ), Siedlinghausen (previously Bigge office ), Altenfeld (previously Bödefeld-Land municipality , Fredeburg office) in the district of Meschede ) and the hilltop villages of Neuastenberg, Langewiese, Hoheleye and Mollseifen, which previously belonged to the district of Wittgenstein , formed the town of Winterberg.
Population development of the core city
For the time before 1818 there are no exact population figures, but data such as the number of citizens, houses, taxpayers or the like. Corresponding censuses and updates only existed from 1818.
|Political party||Share of votes||W / L% p 1||Seats||G / V 1|
|SPD||40.9%||+ 10.7||13||+ 3|
- Adolf Brinkmann (1945–1946), commissioned on a temporary basis
- Alfons Lerch (1946)
- Johann Braun (1946–1954)
- Heinrich Wahle (1954–1956)
- Lorenz Deimel (1956–1964)
- Willi Braun (1964–1969)
- Wilhelm Mraß (1969–1972)
- Josef Schnorbus, CDU (1972–1975), before the municipal reorganization
- Josef Schnorbus, CDU (1975–1989)
- Bernd Braun, CDU (1989–1997)
- Hans-Richard Kick, CDU (1997–1999) first full-time mayor
- Werner Eickler (* 1961), graduate in administration, CDU (since 1999)
coat of arms
In silver, a red tinned city wall with an open gate in the form of a cloverleaf arch, surmounted by three red towers with pointed roofs, between two gold high crosses on red poles; in the gate is the growing blue-clad Saint James the Elder , in the right a red church, in the left a golden staff with a golden pilgrim's bottle.
The coat of arms comes from a seal that has been used since the 14th century. Saint James the Elder is the patron saint of the parish church. Until 1911 the city did not have a coat of arms. The official approval took place on July 28, 1911.
Since September 1966 there has been a town partnership with the French town of Le Touquet . On November 2, 1974, a partnership was established with Rixensart ( Belgium ). Since April 7, 1989, another town partnership has been maintained, namely with Rijssen-Holten ( Netherlands ). After the fall of the Berlin Wall , the Thuringian winter sports resort Oberhof joined the twin towns (April 26, 1990).
Culture and sights
In addition to the St. Jakobus Church, the sights of Winterberg include numerous old half-timbered houses in the old town , which has been kept free of through traffic since the Waltenberg Tunnel was completed. The St. Georg Schanze also attracts numerous visitors. The Evangelical Church of Winterberg is a prime example of successful church architecture.
On June 6, 2009, a fire destroyed the historic bobsleigh house located on the Winterberger cap. The building, designed in 1910 by the architect Fritz August Breuhaus , was rebuilt and reopened almost exactly one year later.
To the north of the old town is the spa park "In der Helle". In summer there is the possibility to play mini golf there. In winter, the park is an ideal tobogganing area because it can be quickly reached on foot from the city center or the train station and because the terrain slopes steeply enough to the north.
One of the highest and probably best-known mountains in the Sauerland , the Kahle Asten, rises in the city of Winterberg . In addition, one of the largest rivers in Germany has its source in the city of Winterberg, the Ruhr . The Ruhrquelle is a very popular excursion destination and offers a beautiful insight into the landscape of the Sauerland with various hiking trails around the Ruhrquelle. About a 20-minute walk from the city center, at the beginning of the industrial area, is the "Rauhe Busch", an approximately 300 year old beech tree that is protected as a natural monument.
In Winterberg there is the extensive Winterberg ski lift carousel , numerous ski lifts , ski slopes , cross-country trails , the St. Georg ski jump, other small ski jumps and a bobsled run . Luge, bobsleigh and skeleton world cups have been held on the Winterberg toboggan and bobsleigh run for decades; numerous world and European championships also took place. The first European championship in Winterberg took place in 1914.
Every two years at Pentecost, Winterberg is the starting point of the Tortour de Ruhr ultramarathon . The run begins at the source of the Ruhr and ends after 230 kilometers in Duisburg am Rheinorange .
The Bikepark Winterberg has been located in the city area since 2003 and the Panorama Adventure Bridge since 2006 . Up until March 2010 there was an ice rink in Winterberg , which was demolished before the Hotel Oversum was built. The Oversum opened in May 2012.
Until April 2012, the city also operated its own forest outdoor pool with an attached indoor pool. The 50 m pool and the breathtaking view were special features of what is probably the highest outdoor swimming pool in North Rhine-Westphalia. In May 2012 it was replaced by an indoor pool in the new Hotel Oversum. Until 2012, many citizens of the city of Winterberg had spoken out in favor of maintaining the traditional open-air swimming pool, but the city administration was not heard. The new indoor swimming pool went bankrupt on May 1, 2013 and was closed for an indefinite period. Since April 1, 2014, the city of Winterberg has owned the swimming pool, which includes a sports pool with a length of 25 meters, an exercise pool with a lifting floor and a children's pool. The reopening was celebrated on April 12, 2014 with an open house.
The West German Winter Sports Museum is a regional museum.
- Tambourkorps St. Jakobi Winterberg
- City chapel Cäcilia Winterberg
- Orchestra of the Geschwister-Scholl-Gymnasium Winterberg
- Singing Circle (choir)
- Sleepless Nights (Rock Band)
From around 1980 to 2011, a dog sled race took place on the Kuhlenberg trail in January or February .
During Easter Vigil, an Easter fire is lit on the Kreuzberg after large amounts of wood have been collected and piled up there days beforehand. Until a few years ago there were four processions in the Catholic parish every year. These were the Corpus Christi procession, the Ascension procession, a field procession and the James procession in honor of the church patron.
The Winterberger Schützenfest, traditionally celebrated on the third weekend in July, was brought forward to June a few years ago. The highlights of this event are the bird shooting that takes place on Saturday and the ceremonial entry of the riflemen to the high mass in the parish church on the following Sunday. This festival goes back to the original tasks of the riflemen in the city. Before 1800 every citizen was obliged to take up arms to protect the city's rights and freedoms externally and to carry out police tasks inside at the request of the mayor and the council. In order to maintain this ability, general inspections of all citizens were carried out annually. They had to prove the functionality of their weapons and their accuracy as shooters. After the wars against Napoleon and the transition of the Duchy of Westphalia to Prussia, the old rifle system was revived after its tasks had lost more and more of their importance in the 18th century. This is how the Winterberg shooting club was founded in 1825.
A remnant of the four annual markets that were common in the Electorate of Cologne is the Winterberger Markt, also called Winterberger Kirmes, which takes place on the third weekend in August from Friday to Monday. On Monday morning you can experience the original cattle market, when different types of animals from regional cattle breeding are presented to the public and awarded prizes. Usually in September or October, various associations organize the traditional potato roast. Everyone brings their own potatoes and various side dishes. Games are organized for the children, preferably the so-called egg-walking and sack race.
It is said that the Winterbergers like eggs in any preparation. That is why the inhabitants of neighboring villages have nicknamed them "Aggerfriäter" (egg-eater). A traditional dish is, for example, the bacon pancakes. Sole eggs are also popular .
Another local specialty is the so-called potato roast. After the potato harvest in autumn, the locals meet in the surrounding forests at shelters with fireplaces. A fire is kindled there with beech wood. It is best to place freshly harvested potatoes in the burned down embers. They are covered all around with the still glowing ash and after a few minutes removed when they are done. Once the ashes have been removed, the hot potatoes are eaten with their skin on. Serve with butter or onion vegetables (cream / sour cream, salt, pepper with lots of chopped onions).
Furthermore, bone sausage is to be mentioned as a regional specialty in the area around Winterberg .
Economy and Infrastructure
Because of the unfavorable climatic conditions, agriculture only played a subordinate role. Around 1800 the arable land was left fallow for six to eight years, plowed in early summer, fertilized in the following year and planted with potatoes. The following year, summer rye was grown. The oats only brought three times as much as the sowing, the rye not even five times as much.
On the other hand, animal husbandry and forest management formed an important basis of life for a long time. As early as 1307 , Kloster Grafschaft received a certain amount of butter from the Winterberger Weide as a rent. Sheep breeding was also important. In the middle of the 19th century, a shepherd from Wiemeringhausen was still grazing around 600 sheep that belonged to the Winterberg residents.
Up until the 20th century, these were grouped together in cooperatives, which had their cows and goats each tended by a common shepherd on the communal pasture. In 1934 there were two shepherds who looked after 320 cattle and 130 goats for the Winterbergers. Until the 1960s, a shepherd collected cattle from the stables in the city and drove them to the farm.
For a long time, forestry was of great importance. Even today, the majority of the urban corridor is covered with forest. Oak wood was extracted in the Mark Wernsdorf. The town had an important source of income from the sale of firewood. In addition, before industrialization, before hard coal was the main source of energy, there was a great need for charcoal in the ironworks that were abundant in the Sauerland, Siegerland and the county of Waldeck. It has been proven that charcoal workers have been producing charcoal in the forests of the Winterberg district since the 17th century at the latest. The charcoal burners themselves often came from surrounding villages, such as Niedersfeld and Silbach . Most of the forests were and are still owned by the so-called brand cooperatives , which have been part of the Winterberg brand association since January 1, 1962 .
At the end of the 18th century, according to contemporary reports, mainly the iron goods produced in the surrounding Sauerland were distributed throughout Germany by Sauerland traveling traders . The traveling trade, which in the past centuries was one of the most important sources of income for the population, declined with the rise of winter sports and the associated tourism. It ended with the Second World War, when the majority of the important trading areas could no longer be reached (initially mainly the Netherlands and permanently Central and Eastern Germany).
After the opening of the railway line in 1906 and the beginning of winter sports around the same time, the livelihoods of the residents were to change fundamentally in the long run. Since then, the population has also increased significantly. In 1934 Winterberg had 6 hotels, 7 restaurants and 12 private pensions. In 1967 there were 20 hotels, 12 restaurants and 40 private guest houses. In 1993 there were 652 accommodation establishments and private pensions in Winterberg and its communities. Today the city of Winterberg is the most important winter sports area in northwest Germany and the health resort and tourism are the main source of income for the Winterberg population.
Around 1960 there were ten winter sports enthusiasts for every inhabitant on good snowy days. In 1965 the number of officially counted overnight stays was 353,324. In 1993 this number rose to just over 1 million for the entire city area.
Comparison of economic sectors
In 1961, 15.5% of the 1698 economically active persons were employed in agriculture and forestry, 35.1% in the manufacturing sector (including 12% in construction), 14.8% in trade and transport and 34.6% in the other service sector ( especially in tourism). Only 6% were out-commuters. While agriculture, forestry and the manufacturing industry were represented well below average in comparison to the rest of the Brilon district , most of the employees were active in tourism, which was therefore represented above average in percentage terms in the district comparison .
According to a study from 1994, over 50% of the workforce was now employed in the tourism industry. 65% of all economically active persons were employed in the service sector (trade, transport, other services) - compared to 47.5% on average in the Hochsauerlandkreis.
Tourism is the main source of income, but the very strong focus on one branch of the economy can be a disadvantage. Unfavorable snow conditions have a negative effect on the number of visitors. The dependence on tourism was increased by the decline in the manufacturing sector. In 1965 there was still one wood processing company, two metal processing companies, two textile companies and five construction companies with a total of 400 employees. (Stat. Rundschau p. 35) Of these companies, the Winterberger screws and norm parts GmbH and the jersey factory Fritz von der Helm 'had ceased production by 1994 .
Economic development plays an important role in local politics in order to reduce dependence on tourism. After the municipal reorganization, the 'Remmeswiese' industrial park was made available. This was intended to relocate businesses from the core city and create space for start-ups. The residents of the incorporated towns did not always see this with goodwill. Because they feared that businesses would also be relocated from their places, as a result of which those would develop back into mere sleeping places.
In December 2007 the city of Winterberg opened the Pforte Winterberg shopping center in the city center . There is a café , the drugstore dm and a few other small sales areas for retailers. The E-Center supermarket is also located there , with a sales area of 2500 square meters.
Winterberg owes its origins at least in part to its location at the intersection of the two medieval highways Cologne - Leipzig and Soest - Frankfurt am Main . The routing essentially corresponds to the two main roads within the city. These are federal highways 480 , which leads north from Winterberg via Niedersfeld to Olsberg, and 236 , which, coming from Schmallenberg, turns south in Winterberg and continues in the direction of Züschen and Hallenberg. Immediately west of the city, the Winterberger bypass road with the Herrloh tunnel was built on a common section of both roads , and the Waltenberg tunnel on the B 236 directly below the city center , whereby through traffic is guided past the city or under it.
The state road 742 is a branch line of the B 480 and connects Silbach and Siedlinghausen with the city center and with Olsberg. The L 542 meets the B 480 near the Ruhr spring and is an important connecting route to the east to Küstelberg and Medebach. The L 640 branches off from the B 236, which begins north-northeast of the Kahler Asten and leads via Westfeld to Oberkirchen . A branch line of the L 640, the short L 540, ends on the Kahler Asten. Another branch route is the 4133 district road , which leads to Altastenberg and further via Nordenau to Oberkirchen. The K 4130 leads north of the train station to Elkeringhausen and from there to Küstelberg. The K 4129 connects Grönebach with the B 480. The municipal road 38 connects the high village Lenneplätze with the B 236.
The city was connected to the Nuttlar – Frankenberg railway line in 1906. Operations between Winterberg and Allendorf ceased in 1966. Since the closure of this section, Bestwig - Winterberg has been a branch line of the Upper Ruhr Valley Railway ( Hagen Hauptbahnhof - Warburg with individual trains connecting to Kassel ). The German web travels to the end point in winter mountain with the RE 57 ( Dortmund-Sauerland-Express ). From Hagen there are connections every hour, from Warburg / Kassel every two hours, each time with a change in Bestwig. Winterberg is approached six times on weekdays and twelve times on Saturday or Sunday. During the winter sports season, special trains were used mainly from the Rhine-Ruhr area.
The historic station building was demolished in 2014. The new station received the station of the year award in 2018 .
Regional buses and rail buses connect the city center with the individual districts as well as with neighboring towns. Providing the RLG regional transport Ruhr-Lippe GmbH , the express bus -line S40, whose vehicles per hour from the station in five minutes to the ski area and then further on to Schmallenberg drive. Train buses run in the direction of Olsberg , Medebach , Hallenberg and Bad Berleburg . Further connections to the city districts exist with a citizens' bus . In the main ski season there is a ski bus to Alt- and Neuastenberg.
The nearest airfields are Allendorf / Eder airfield (approx. 26 km) and Meschede-Schüren airfield (approx. 33 km). The Paderborn / Lippstadt airport is about 53 km, the Dortmund airport is 110 km and the airports of Frankfurt and Cologne / Bonn are each about 150 km away.
The local daily newspaper in Winterberg is the Westfalenpost . In addition, the Sauerlandkurier is distributed to households twice a week as a free newspaper with extensive local advertising. Since the municipal re-establishment, the “Mitteilungsblatt für die Stadt Winterberg” has been published every two weeks with information from the entire city area as well as official announcements from the city administration.
Radio Sauerland can be received as a local radio station . The television and radio studio of the West German Broadcasting Corporation responsible for Winterberg is the WDR studio in Siegen . A regional correspondent looks after the Winterberg area and the Wittgensteiner Land for radio and television. Below the weather station on the Kahler Asten is his study, the WDR correspondent's office.
There are various public institutions in the small town:
- The city runs the youth home "Edith-Stein-Haus"
- Until the end of April 2012 there was an outdoor pool with an attached indoor pool. The city of Winterberg has been operating an indoor swimming pool in the Hotel Oversum, which opened in 2012, since 2014.
- There is a police station in Winterberg at state institutions.
- The Winterberg volunteer fire brigade provides fire protection and general help. It consists of a total of twelve fire engines or groups.
- The St. Franziskus Hospital (inaugurated in 1890) with 100 beds and 175 employees cares for citizens and guests in Winterberg, Hallenberg and Medebach.
For the first time a schoolmaster can be found in Winterberg for the year 1648. He was a city servant who had to extend his service every year around Easter. In order to supplement his meager income, he sometimes held the office of church sexton and organist. At times he went about trading and locked the school during this time. In order to ensure year-round teaching for the students, the city council decided around 1700 to significantly increase the schoolmaster's income. Since the end of the 18th century, boys and girls have been taught in separate classes by one teacher each. In 1913 the elementary school was housed in the building in which the children still attend the secondary school today.
After the end of the First World War, teaching according to the humanistic curriculum was started at a rectorate school with two classes. The students then often went to upper school at the Attendorn grammar school in order to obtain their Abitur there. In the 1930s, the students then oriented themselves more towards Brilon for this purpose . Since 1937 boys and girls have been taught together at the school, which had been a high school with five classes since 1939. When it was expanded to six classes in 1949, it became a Progymnasium. Since 1965, the upper school could also be attended in Winterberg when the Progymnasium was converted into a grammar school. The lack of space, which had basically existed since the school was founded, was resolved by a new building in 1973. In 1994 the grammar school was named " Geschwister-Scholl-Gymnasium ".
In 2017, the secondary school in Winterberg and the school from the city of Medebach became a joint secondary school . In summer 2019, the second location of the former secondary school in the Siedlinghausen district was closed in favor of the merger with Medebach . For this, the school in Winterberg had to be rebuilt.
The phone code for the city is 02981. The following codes apply differently:
- 02758: partly in Hoheleye and partly in Langewiese
- 02977: partly in Altenfeld
- 02983: in Siedlinghausen and Silbach and partly in Altenfeld
- 02985: in Grönebach, Hildfeld and Niedersfeld
- Josef Schnorbus (born December 6, 1914 - September 27, 1992), holder of the Medal of Honor of the city of Winterberg, holder of the Federal Cross of Merit on ribbon, member of the city council since 1969, mayor of the city from 1972 to 1989, member of the district council from 1975 to 1989, board member of the State Police Advisory Board and Chairman of the District Police Advisory Board and head of the Le Touquet, Rixensart and Holten partnership committee. He was the father of Alois Schnorbus .
sons and daughters of the town
- Heinrich Kempen von Fichtenstamm (1743–1827), Austrian officer
- Friedrich Anton Gelshorn [born as Kappen] (1814–1875), Catholic priest and politician
- Johann Friedrich von Schulte (1827–1914), professor of civil law, canon law and legal history in Bonn and Prague, leading figure among Old Catholics and politicians (member of the Reichstag)
- Joseph Rebbert (1837–1897), Catholic priest and professor of theology, co-founder of the Bonifacius printing works in Paderborn
- Hans Sommer (1909–2000), sculptor
- Alfred Winkler, ski jumper from 1957 to 1972 and Olympic participant
- Christa Lang (* 1943), German-American actress
- Rainer W. Campmann (* 1944), writer
- Heinz-Josef Fabry (* 1944), Catholic theology professor (Old Testament)
- Gudrun-Axeli Knapp (* 1944), social scientist and university lecturer
- Wolfgang Reiniger (* 1944), former Lord Mayor of Essen
- Bernd Witthüser (1944–2017), singer and life artist
- Alfred Grosche (* 1950), multiple German ski jumping champion (1969–1977) and 1976 Olympian
- Heiner Roetz (* 1950), sinologist and professor
- Alois Schnorbus (* 1952), former bobsleigh pilot and Olympic participant
- Günther Abel (* 1956), Nordic combined athlete and Olympic participant
- Karin Brieden (* 1958), lawyer and media manager
- Edgar Knecht (* 1964), jazz musician
- Dirk Braun (* 1970), sports lumberjack and former European champion and vice-world champion in bodybuilding
- Jens Deimel (* 1972), Nordic combined and Olympic participant
- René Spies (* 1973), former bobsledder and Olympian
- Vivian Perkovic (* 1978), journalist and television presenter
- Stefan Pieper (* 1982), ski jumper and trainer
- Corinna Martini (* 1985), luge rider
- Steffen Bartscher (* 1992), biathlete
- Holger Schroeter (* 1971), science manager and chancellor of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität zu Heidelberg
Personalities who have worked on site
- Philipp Meinolf Pötteken (born December 28, 1676 in Paderborn), was after studies in Paderborn and Hildesheim from 1699 to 1726 schoolmaster and at times organist in Winterberg. From 1709 until the end of his life he can be verified as a notary, from 1716 as city secretary and from 1734 as treasurer. He probably died towards the end of 1750. The town of Winterberg owes it to him for the transmission of numerous historical sources from the time before the great fire of 1759.
- Maren Hammerschmidt (* 1989), world champion in biathlon and Olympic participant; grew up in Winterberg
- How winter sports came to the Sauerland ; Documentation by Erika Fehse, WDR , first broadcast December 12, 2008.
- The big RTL II celebrity bowling ; Entertainment show, hosted by Sandra Kuhn and Giovanni Zarrella , broadcast on July 31, 2016
- Paul Aust: Winterberg in the first half of the 19th century. According to the town chronicle by Pastor Joseph Quick. In: De Fitterkiste. 4, 1992, pp. 9-63.
- Gerhard Becker: Charming winter mountain with its villages. A foray with a pencil through the highest city in northwest Germany by Gerhard Becker with texts by Paul Aust. Kräling, Winterberg 1996, ISBN 3-9803156-4-9 .
- Wilhelm Benkert: Economic geographic conditions, population density and settlement studies of the Ederkopf-Winterberg platform . Dissertation. Marburg 1911.
- Hugo Cramer: The district of Brilon in the Second World War 1939–1945 - reports from many employees from all over the district. Josefs-Druckerei, Bigge 1955.
- Michael Gerhardts: Winterberg and its villages on the Kahler Asten. Recreational landscape in the (high) Sauerland . Winterberg 1996, ISBN 3-925680-22-5 .
- Bernhard Göbel, Ferdinand Tönne, Theodor Tochtrop: The upper Sauerland. Country and people . Bigge 1966.
- Carl Haase : The emergence of the Westphalian cities. 4th edition. Munster 1984.
- CF Hagemann: Winterberg - An illustrated book from the climatic health resort , Iserlohn 1966.
- Klaus Hamper: Winterberg Hochsauerland. Landscape History Customs . Winterberg around 1967.
- Elisabeth Hanschmidt and Paul Aust: Winterberg ( Westfälische Kunststätten , issue 64). Munster 1992.
- Josef Quick: Winterberg through the centuries . Winterberg 1983.
- Nikolaus Schäfer: History of the brands around Winterberg. Günninghausen, Haarfeld, Merleheim, Wernsdorf . Self-published, Medebach 1998.
- Heimat- und Geschichtsverein Winterberg eV: De Fitterkiste - Stories from Winterberg and its villages (23 volumes), Winterberg 1991–2014.
- Stadtsparkasse Winterberg (Ed.): 100 years Stadtsparkasse Winterberg Hoch-Sauerland . Winterberg 1958.
- Statistical survey for the district of Brilon. Düsseldorf 1967.
- Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 . ( Help on this )
- Topographical Information Management, Cologne District Government, Department GEObasis NRW ( Notes )
- Klaus Hamper: Winterberg Hochsauerland. Landscape History Customs. Winterberg circa 1967.
- Statistical survey for the district of Brilon. Düsseldorf 1967.
- Klaus Hamper: Winterberg Hochsauerland. A guide. Winterberg around 1949.
- Benkert, p. 18 f.
- Anneliese Ringleb: The district of Brilon, administrative district of Arnsberg. Cologne / Graz 1957.
- Hermann Dinklage: The weather 1996/1997. In: De Fitterkiste , 9 (1997), pp. 110-128.
- Nikolaus Schäfer: History of the brands around Winterberg. 1998.
- Winterberg City Archives, file A166.
- Rainer Decker: The witch hunts in the Duchy of Westphalia. In: Alfred Bruns: Witches - Jurisdiction in the Sauerland in the Electorate of Cologne. Schmallenberg-Holthausen 1984.
- Rehabilitation of victims of the witch trials. (PDF; 695 kB) at: anton-praetorius.de
- archives, stock book volume 1
- Fireplace and chimney table
- Hömberg: News about noble seats. Münster 1972, Volume V, p. 132.
- Joachim Schmidt: Fate and history of the noble house Elkeringhausen through three centuries. In: De Fitterkiste. 9 (1997), pp. 75-88.
- How winter sports came to the Sauerland. on: erika-fehse.de
- Nikolaus Schäfer: Jews in Winterberg. In: De Fitterkiste. 4 (1992).
- Hugo Cramer: The district of Brilon in the Second World War 1939-1945 . 1955, p. 187.
- Hugo Cramer: The district of Brilon in the Second World War 1939-1945 . 1955, section Winterberg, pp. 102-106.
- Hugo Cramer: The district of Brilon in the Second World War 1939-1945 . 1955, honor roll section Winterberg, pp. 184-187.
- Visit protocol from 1737.
- tax table from 1717.
- Klaus Hamper: Winterberg Hochsauerland. Winterberg around 1967.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 332 .
- The following figures come from: Josef Quick: Winterberg in the course of the centuries. Unfortunately, the author does not give any sources for his figures, so they should be questioned. 1648: 94; 1685: 335; 1717: 677; 1764: 969; 1783: 1283.
- City of Winterberg, council election 2014, overall result
- Eduard Belke, Alfred Bruns, Helmut Müller: Communal coats of arms of the Duchy of Westphalia. Arnsberg 1986, ISBN 3-87793-017-4 , p. 199.
- Bobhaus Raub der Flammen. on: derwesten.de , June 7th, 2009. (accessed June 6th, 2009)
- Listed bob house restored. on: derwesten.de , June 9, 2010 (accessed October 19, 2012)
- FUNKE MEDIEN NRW: Run from the source to the mouth: the "TorTour de Ruhr"
- Winterberg builds a new tourism center. on: bild.de , April 15, 2010.
- Bathroom closed indefinitely. on: sauerlandkurier.de , May 5, 2013.
- Westfalenpost: Goodbye Huskies! No more racing in Winterberg
- Göbel p. 23.
- Hamper: Winterberg. P. 8.
- Hamper: Winterberg. Pp. 18, 35f.
- Hamper: Winterberg. P. 26f.
- Hamper: Winterberg. P. 18.
- Göbel p. 59.
- Hamper: Winterberg. P. 18.
- De Fitterkiste. 7 (1996), p. 123.
- Statistical Review. P. 23.
- The first shops open their doors. December 8, 2007, accessed July 10, 2020 .
- New center of Winterberg is breathed into life. December 15, 2007, accessed July 10, 2020 .
- Statistical Review. P. 39.
- sauerlandbahnen.de - EWi train type: The winter sports special trains to the Sauerland
- Eppstein and Winterberg are train stations of the year
- Award Winterberg on wdr.de
- Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln: Company - Studio Siegen
- Sciences No. 34/35 of August 21, 1992, p. 15
- Friedrich Schroeder: 75 years of high school in Winterberg. In: De Fitterkiste. 6 (1994).
- New secondary school Medebach-Winterberg gets started. September 1, 2017, accessed August 3, 2019 .
- De Fitterkiste. 4 (1993), p. 151.
- Reinhard Müller: Philipp Meinolf Pötteken, an important Winterberger in the 18th century. In: De Fitterkiste. 4 (1992)
- Reinhard Müller: Philipp Meinolf Pötteken: A schoolmaster for Winterberg around 1700. In: De Fitterkiste. 3 (1991).
- How winter sports came to the Sauerland with Winterberg taking center stage