|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Arnsberg|
|Circle :||Märkischer Kreis|
|Height :||210 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||67.66 km 2|
|Residents:||34,062 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||503 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||58675|
|Area code :||02372|
|License plate :||MK|
|Community key :||05 9 62 016|
|LOCODE :||DE HMR|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Michael Heilmann (independent)|
|Location of the city of Hemer in the Märkisches Kreis|
Hemer was first mentioned in a document as Hademare in 1072. With the establishment of the Hemer Office in 1841, the municipalities of the area were politically united. The municipality of Hemer was created through the unification of the districts of Oberhemer and Niederhemer on April 1, 1910 and received city rights in 1936. The city has existed in its current form since the municipal reorganization in 1975 , when Hemer was merged with the previously independent communities of Becke , Deilinghofen , Frönsberg and Ihmert to form the new city of Hemer and the office of the same name was dissolved.
Hemer is known nationwide for the Felsenmeer geotope , which is unique in Germany , which is why the city is nicknamed the Felsenmeer city . The city's economy is industrial, especially the metalworking trade and paper production have grown historically. In 2010, the North Rhine-Westphalian state horticultural show took place on the site of the former Blücher barracks and was attended by more than a million people.
Hemer lies in a low mountain range in the north-west of the Sauerland and thus in the north of the low mountain range threshold . The city lies between the Ruhr valley in the north and the Lennetal in the south, east of Iserlohn . The urban area forms the south-eastern border of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region and is located near the major cities of Dortmund in the north-west, Hamm in the north and Hagen in the west. Larger cities are Arnsberg in the east and Lüdenscheid in the south . Hemer is part of the Märkisches Sauerland . The city's highest peaks are located on the Iserlohner Höhe , which is high on the city limits of Balve ( Balver Forest ) and extends over the south of the city area. Other elevations in the urban area are the Bemberg ( ) and the Asenberg ( ) in the north, the Jüberg ( ) east of the city center and the Hochgiebel ( ) and the Lohberg ( ) is worth mentioning as a further part of the Iserlohner Höhe in the south of Hemer.
The main settlement areas in Hemers are in the valley of the Oese , which crosses the entire urban area and is called Hemer-Bach in the inner city. The Oese rises as Gelmecke in the neighboring town of Neuenrade to the south , flows through the Stephanopeler valley , through Sundwig , Hemer and Becke , before flowing into the Hönne in Menden (Sauerland) . The Ihmerter Bach runs through the southwest of the city and flows into the Oese in Oberhemer .
The Abbabach rises west of the Tannenkopf and flows into the Ruhr.
The area between Sundwig and Deilinghofen is of particular geological importance . The Tertiary formation of the rocky sea overgrown with beech forest , which is under nature protection, has a rugged surface. Iron sandstone was mined there in one of the oldest mining areas in Westphalia as early as the 1st millennium . The Geological Service NRW awarded the geotope , which is unique in Germany , the title of Important Geological Monument .
Within the Perick cave system, in the immediate vicinity of the sea of rocks, there are countless caves and shafts that come from earlier mining. The largest cave is called the Old Cave because it was discovered back in the 15th century. For centuries it was used for various purposes, for example as a destination and as an air raid shelter. It is severely damaged today. In 1952 it was closed to the public. The Heinrichshöhle , a cave was discovered only in the 18th century and since May 22, 1904 show cave .
Expansion of the urban area
The longest north-south extension of the urban area is about 11.3 kilometers, from west to east 8.1 km. The north is characterized by the wooded elevations of the Menden hill country around the Gaxberg ( ). The hills descend to the valley of the Oese and the Iserlohn limestone sink to a height of 160 meters (lowest point in Hemers near the Edelburg ). This area is densely populated and rather poorly forested, while the entire south except for the two valleys of Ihmert and Stephanopel is sparsely populated and wooded. The peaks reach a height of almost 550 meters and, as part of the Iserlohner Höhe, largely belong to the Sauerland-Rothaargebirge nature park and the Märkischer Kreis nature reserve .
54.3% of the urban area are forest areas, 23.4% are agricultural areas. 19.1% are settlements and traffic areas.
Neighboring cities are Iserlohn in the west, Menden (Sauerland) in the north, Balve in the east and Neuenrade and Altena in the south. All belong to the Märkischer Kreis. With the cities of Iserlohn, Menden and Balve, Hemer forms a network of cities to improve economic and political cooperation. The four municipalities are part of the Nordkreis economic initiative .
Hemer is not officially divided into districts . However, both the former municipalities and some smaller settlements have their own identity:
- Becke with the villages of Brelen , Edelburg , Höcklingsen , Mesterscheid , Oese and Urbecke
- Deilinghofen with the villages of Deilinghofen, Habichtseil , Hembecke , Hohenstein , Langenbruch and Nieringsen as well as the districts of the former municipality of Brockhausen : Apricke , Bäingsen , Brockhausen , Hönnetal , Klusenstein and Riemke
- Frönsberg with the towns of Beckmerhagen , Ebberg , Frönsberg, Heppingsen , Heppingserbach , Hältershagen , Ispei , Rohland , Stephanopel , Wachmecke and Winterhof
- Hemer with the districts of the former municipalities
- Ihmert with the villages of Bredenbruch , Diekgraben , Elfenfohren , Im Hasberg , Holmecke , Ihmert, Ihmerterbach , Johannistal , Rottmecke , Stemmessiepen , Sülberg , Tütebelle , Westendorf
- additionally a part of the former community Evingsen (today Altena ): Heide , Heidermühle , Hüingsen , Schwarzpaul and Stodt
The city is located in a temperate climate zone . The mountain climate is influenced by the Atlantic . July is the warmest month with an average of 16.7 degrees Celsius and January the coldest month with 1.4 degrees. The mean annual temperature is 8.9 °. The average rainfall is 1025 millimeters. It is greatest in June with an average rainfall of 108 mm.
Summer 2006 was the most extreme since weather records began. After temperature records in early summer, July saw the worst flooding in around 250 years. The district of Becke, which lies in a relatively flat limestone basin, was particularly hard hit. Until the 1980s, Niederhemer was frequently affected by floods, after which protective devices were installed around the Oese. In January 2007 Hemer was particularly hard hit by Hurricane Kyrill . Around 400,000 cubic meters of wood were destroyed in the urban area, some districts were cut off from the outside world for hours.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Hemer
Even if Paleolithic finds from the Hönnetal, especially in the Volkringhauser and the Balver Caves , go back 70,000 years, human traces can only be found in the Hemer area with the Bronze Age.
From the Middle Bronze Age , a find of bone fire, which was surrounded by a stone wreath, was investigated in 1980 during an emergency excavation on the A 46. Burial mounds in today's Niederhemer prove that around 1250 BC Shepherds and farmers inhabited the area. A needle from Hemer-Deilinghofen comes from the Iron Age. The bronze double needle from the castle cave below Klusenstein Castle was found together with a second needle of the same type. A bronze duck was also found there. Amber jewelry finds from the caves, especially in the Hönnetal, also prove trade relations with the Baltic Sea region.
Between 600 and 100 BC The area was under Celtic influence before groups that were absorbed by the Franks in the 4th century at the latest, colonized the region. A grave, which was found in today's town center in 1951, dates from around AD 650. Even then, the settlement probably bore the name Hademare , from which Hemer later developed. Saxons conquered the area from 700. From 777 it was conquered by the Franks under Charles I , the Saxons subjected until 805 and forcibly baptized.
From the first mention to the Thirty Years War
The first written mention of Hemer dates back to 1072, when three main courtyards were mentioned in a document from the Archbishop of Cologne for the Grafschaft monastery , which were located in today's Hemeraner city area. A farm was located in Niederhemer and had a special meaning because of its own church consecrated to St. Vitus . The Vitus Church was probably founded by the Ekbertines and later came to the Archdiocese of Cologne . Hemer was incorporated into the original parish of Menden, from which it was separated in 1124. The second main courtyard, which was also called Hademare , was in Oberhemer. Today the goods are known as Haus Hemer or Hedhof . The main courtyard Bredenole or Pretinholo was in what is now Brelen . Only remains of the structure are visible; some parts of the masonry were used to build the noble castle in the 16th century . A number of smaller courtyards were subordinate to all three main courtyards. Landhausen (as Lantensele ) and 1140 Sundwig were first mentioned in a document in the 11th century , Westig followed in 1200.
In the 14th century the settlement was called Hedemer , from which in 1538 Hemer was first detectable. Since 1350 Hemer belonged to the county of Mark and served mainly to protect the fortified city of Iserlohn. Knight seats in the urban area such as the still existing Klusenstein Castle in the Hönnetal were intended to secure the border between the county and the Duchy of Westphalia . The center of Hemer did not come into being until the 1970s when the historically grown centers of Niederhemer and Oberhemer were connected.
In the 15th century the area was relatively densely populated, but still predominantly rural. Finds from the sea of rocks show, however, that mining was already being carried out in Hemer around 950 - possibly even earlier. The iron ore with a relatively high iron content of 60 percent was used for iron production in blast furnaces from the 13th century . The metal processing industry, especially the wire industry, emerged in the 16th century and used water power for the first time. In 1567 the first paper mill in Westphalia was put into operation in Hemer. About the same time began calamine cleardown in the northwest of present-day Hemer.
In 1447 Hemer was one of the scenes of the Soest feud , in which the Hedhof in Oberhemer was particularly badly damaged. No property in the Iserlohn and Hemeraner area was awarded a higher amount of damage in a document from 1448. According to the treasury of the county of Mark from 1486, Hemer was part of the "Ampt van Loyn" (Iserlohn) at that time. Farmers in today's urban area were Ihmert with 17, Landhausen with three, Hemer with four and Mesterscheid with 43 taxable goods. The Mesterscheid included farms in Edelburg , Höcklingsen , Westig and Sundwig . The Deilinghofen peasantry belonged to numerous farms at the residential areas of the later municipality of Deilinghofen. The Fromesbert estate in later Frönsberg was handed over by Johann II to Johann von Wrede in 1485 . After he expanded the building, Johann III. 1517 his right to the estate. The sons of Wredes then referred to their services to the duke and received the estate for good.
During the Reformation almost the entire parish changed to the Protestant denomination in 1567. In 1614 the village fell by inheritance to the Hohenzollerns and thus to Prussia, to which it belonged, with the exception of Napoleon's rule, until 1945 or until its formal dissolution in 1947 (Control Council Act No. 46).
Shortly before the Thirty Years' War the plague broke out in 1616 , again in 1620, 1623 and 1626. From 1623 to 1624 the Hemeraner area was the location of Spanish troops. Acts of war interrupted the advanced and productive mining industry for a number of years, but overall the region suffered less than other parts of the empire.
From the court to the office of Hemer
In the town, which has been Prussian since 1614, the Hemer Patrimonial Court was established on April 28, 1647 with a contract and a loan deed . The judicial district comprised the parish of Hemer with the farmers Niederhemer, Oberhemer, Landhausen, Westig, Sundwig and Becke as well as the aristocratic or knightly seats Haus Hemer , Edelburg, Frönspert and Brelen. Hemer broke away from the Iserlohn court and was part of the newly created Iserlohn Office . The court lords were the heirs of Arnolt Freiherr von Wachtendunk, who had resided in Haus Hemer until his death. In 1660 the Brabeck family took over the presidency . House Hemer became not only the seat of the court, but also of the glory of Hemer. In this way, the court lords were able to pass laws and exercise the administration independently.
In the second half of the 17th century Hemer was one of the scenes of the Dutch War . After a great fire in 1668, Niederhemer burned down again in 1779. The von Brabeck family had special significance for the parish in Hemer when the Hildesheim prince-bishop Jobst Edmund von Brabeck founded the Catholic parish church of St. Peter and Paul in the immediate vicinity of the Vitus Church in 1700 . In 1818 the Vitus Church was torn down and a new Protestant church was built on Ebberg.
From 1701 Hemer belonged to the Kingdom of Prussia . The growing influence of the government weakened the importance of the Hemer court as the state assumed more jurisdiction. Fines were now increasingly set by the district administrator and no longer by the court lord. In the Hemer court, the last judgment was probably given in 1809. A total of nine different judges were active there.
In economic terms, Hemer was one of the centers of the paper industry in Prussia around 1800 with 14 paper mills. The von der Becke family had farms in Hemer since 1698. In 1712 she received the privilege of manufacturing thimbles from the Prussian king and built a factory that was the largest in Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Towards the end of the 18th century, local industry suffered from the First Coalition War . The Duchy of Berg and France were the main buyers of the products of Hemer's metalworking industry, which at that time was part of the most important economic area in Prussia. In the course of the war, import bans were issued in France, so that much of the production collapsed.
Under Napoleon's reign , Hemer became part of the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1806, like the entire county of Mark . Hemer formed an independent mairie in the canton of Iserlohn, which itself became part of the Ruhr department . The mood in the population was militant even though the economic situation continued to be poor, as many Hemerans felt even more connected to the Prussian royal house than to the French rulers. During the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig , for example, the French eagle of the Mairie was burned in Niederhemer, although the city was still under French control. With the Congress of Vienna in 1815, French rule over Hemer ended and the Mairie became the mayor's office in the Prussian province of Westphalia , to which three tax communities were subordinate (Hemer, Deilinghofen and Evingsen).
In 1841 the Hemer Office was established, which included the communities of Becke , Brockhausen , Calle , Deilinghofen , Evingsen , Frönsberg , Ihmert , Kesbern , Landhausen , Lössel , Niederhemer, Oberhemer, Sundwig and Westig. In 1867 the joint Amtssparkasse Hemer and the official hospital were opened. A vigilante group was set up during the March Revolution .
The industry profited from the connection to the long-distance railway traffic in 1882 with the Menden – Unna line, which three years later was extended via Iserlohn to Letmathe.
Hemer until the city became a city
On April 1, 1910, Niederhemer and Oberhemer were combined to form the municipality of Hemer. Plans to create the new parish had been pursued since the end of 1908. Oberhemer had more factories than the neighboring community, so that with the associated tax revenue, more money could be invested in the infrastructure. With the association, Niederhemer has since benefited from local industry. At the same time, considerations began to also include Sundwig, Westig and Landhausen in Hemer. However, implementation was delayed by the beginning of the First World War.
After the outbreak of World War I , as in the entire empire, Hemer's euphoria prevailed in large parts, so that around 150 Hemerans volunteered for military service in the first week of the war . The disillusionment was triggered in the following months mainly by reports of deaths. By the end of 1915, around 200 of the 2,877 drafted Hemerans had perished. The local industry switched its production to armaments products and thus achieved higher profits than in previous years. On the other hand, the civilian population suffered from insufficient supplies and epidemics. In Hemer, for example, over 100 people died of the flu in the winter of 1917/18 .
After the end of the war, workers 'and peasants' councils were set up in Hemer and the municipalities belonging to its office, but they did not act in a revolutionary manner, but instead saw themselves as controlling bodies. The parties slowly formed again. During the occupation of the Ruhr , Hemer became the destination of some refugees, and factory workers also suffered from short-time work because important customers of Hemer's industry were located in the Ruhr area. Numerous strikes shaped working life around 1920. In the following years of inflation , in addition to the official savings bank, a Sundwiger Wirt also printed emergency money - for advertising purposes - which was banned a little later.
On August 1, 1929, Landhausen, Sundwig and Westig as well as the parts of the municipality of Calle that were not incorporated into Iserlohn were incorporated as part of the all-Prussian regional reforms. Even before the beginning of World War I, the communities formed an economic and, in some cases, an urban unit. The remaining parts of Calle became part of Iserlohn, which had also expressed interest in incorporating Westigs. In the same year Brockhausen was merged with Deilinghofen, mainly because an independent administration for the 588-inhabitant rural community Brockhausen was no longer worthwhile.
The industry began to feel the first effects of the global economic crisis around 1927 , when some companies restricted their production or stopped it entirely. In 1929 a particularly large number of skilled workers in the metalworking industry were laid off. The height of the crisis was finally reached in 1931/32, when many industrial companies had to close. At the end of 1931, only 2,800 workers were still working in the Hemeran industry, three years earlier there had been 4,200 workers. At the same time, unemployment rose to 2,100 people in the Hemer district, with the Hemer community being hardest hit.
The years after the incorporation of Landhausen, Sundwig and Westig were marked by many construction projects. Several hundred apartments were built, as well as Catholic church buildings in Becke, Bredenbruch and Westig and a Protestant parish hall in Westig. The hospital was also expanded. The construction work promoted the development of the city, but also burdened the budget. In the 1930 Reichstag election , the NSDAP was one percent ahead of the KPD , making it the strongest political force. The NSDAP in Amt Hemer had its stronghold in Evingsen , where it had already become the strongest party in the 1924 elections. After the seizure of power , resistance was greatest in the former KPD strongholds of Sundwig and Westig.
On April 19, 1935, and again on September 6, according to the new German municipal code, the municipality of Hemer applied to be elevated to a town. On January 30, 1936, the municipality was granted town charter and the district president Ludwig Runte presented the certificate on April 25, 1936. At the same time, the office and town of Hemer received their coats of arms.
Main camp, barracks, forced laborers
Already on March 1, 1934 Hemer was a garrison town turned so that the official hospital for over a year Location hospital and a field in Deilinghofen for military training camp were. A shooting range was built on the Duloh west of the city center , while the barracks were built in the east of the city. At the beginning of the war in 1939, in contrast to the First World War, there was no enthusiasm for war, instead fears and worries were in the foreground in view of the experiences from the First World War. The barracks area at Jüberg was converted into the prisoner-of-war camp Stalag VI A during the Second World War , although it was still under construction.
Many companies in Hemeran stopped their production for the armaments industry since the first years of the war, while the shortage of food increased in the population. In 1941 there was a lack of meat and fats as well as luxury foods. The prisoners of war in Stalag VI A did forced labor in Hemer and the region . Around 1,500 soldiers performed forced labor in the Hemer district, mainly in the city itself and in Ihmert and Evingsen. Most of the prisoners were Soviet soldiers, who, in contrast to Western Europeans, were treated worse and called upon to do harder work. In the first years of the war, mainly French and (South) Eastern Europeans were imprisoned, from 1943 onwards, increasingly, Soviets. The Hemeraner population mostly took little interest in the prisoners of war, but occasionally tried to smuggle bread into the camp.
Hemer was in the Ruhr Basin in April 1945 and fell into the eastern part when it split on April 12th. The following day the American army advanced as far as Deilinghofen. The German commanders in Hemer then started talks with the US commanders, so that the camp and the rest of the city were peacefully taken over by units of the 9th US Army on April 14, 1945 . At that time, around 23,000 prisoners, including 9,000 sick people, were housed in the Stalag. The city became a hospital town and was hardly affected by bomb attacks during the war years. Around 23,500 victims are buried in two prisoner-of-war cemeteries. The war cemetery on the Duloh, with 20,470 dead, is the larger, while there are around 3,000 victims on Höcklingser Weg. A memorial room with an exhibition is located on the State Horticultural Show grounds.
A few days after the liberation of the city of Hemer, British troops replaced the American army . As one of their first official acts, they confiscated around 180 apartments for several years, which increased the housing shortage in the little-damaged town. Emergency shelters have been built for both the evacuees and refugees from East German areas. By the 1970s, over 8,000 displaced people came to Hemer. In the first year after the war, industry only started up again in isolated cases. For example, individual wire mills received a production permit to supply mills with screens. Companies that had no use for the food industry, on the other hand, remained closed until November 1945.
The Stalag was used in 1945 as the internment camp “ Camp Roosevelt ” for former Nazi officials before Belgian troops set up the “Casernes Ardennes” there. The Belgians built a number of apartment buildings for their officers in the Hemeraner city center, which at least partially alleviated the housing shortage. In addition, the soldiers' home “Welfare” with a cinema, café and casino as well as a Belgian department store and a school were built in the city center. In 1955 the troops were relocated to other locations, and the last Belgian families in Hemer left a year later. The history of the Bundeswehr began in Hemer on April 24, 1956 , when the first officers arrived in the city to prepare for the relocation of some divisions. This made Hemer the first military site in Defense Area III , which included all of North Rhine-Westphalia. On January 12, 1957, the 13th Panzer Grenadier Battalion moved into the barracks, which from May 20, 1964 was called " Blücher barracks ".
In 1953 , the Canadian army founded a barracks in the district of Deilinghofen . The construction work was preceded by protests from the population to the Canadian Prime Minister Louis Saint-Laurent , the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill , the Federal President Theodor Heuss and the Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia Karl Arnold . Nevertheless, the stationing was carried out and finally the Canadians shaped urban life in Hemer and Deilinghofen for decades. The ice rink they built led to the founding of the ice hockey club Deilinghofen (ECD), today's Iserlohn Roosters, in 1958 . A housing estate for the Canadian families was built between Sundwig and Westig, popularly known as "Little Canada". In 1970 the Canadians left the Deilinghofen site while the British Royal Irish Rangers moved into the building. They too exerted influence. There was a British cinema and a supermarket. When the Royal Irish Rangers withdrew in 1979, the troops received the " Freedom of the City " from the city of Hemer. Various other British units moved to Deilinghofen instead.
Development since the reorganization
The city of Hemer came into being in its current form on January 1st, 1975. Already at the end of the 1960s, restructuring of the offices and communities in North Rhine-Westphalia began. On January 1, 1969, the Altena district was dissolved and incorporated into the new Lüdenscheid district. At the same time, some communities were reorganized and the Hemeraner district community Evingsen was incorporated into the new town of Altena . Actually, the district of Iserlohn and the previously independent city of Iserlohn were supposed to be restructured a little later . The state interior minister Willi Weyer postponed the reform until 1975. Discussions about incorporating Hemers into Iserlohn prevented a faster implementation. Weyer and some Hemeran local and state politicians finally enforced Hemer's independence. On January 1, 1975, the communities of Becke, Deilinghofen, Frönsberg and Ihmert were incorporated into the town of Hemer. Lössel , who had moved to the Oestrich office in 1920 and belonged to Letmathe from 1956 , joined Iserlohn in 1975, as did Kesbern. The Hemer office was thus dissolved at the end of 1974. The last major urban redevelopment was connected with the restructuring, when a new city center was built as part of the Sauerland / Paderborn law , including a new town hall and indoor swimming pool.
At the beginning of the 1990s, the first rumors arose that the Bundeswehr was relinquishing its location, but the troops in the Blücher barracks were only restructured. The soldiers' home was closed in 1993. The British units that had been stationed in Deilinghofen since 1970 had already left the city in March 1992. These units with a total of 1,600 soldiers also received the “Freedom of the City” and were ceremoniously adopted. On January 23, 2007, the last German soldiers were withdrawn from Hemer. The conversion of the site was done by the State Garden Show 2010 . In this context, new cultural and sports facilities were built and the streetscape of the city center changed. The former barracks site in Deilinghofen was converted into a business park.
Economically, the city is now industrialized, there are larger commercial areas in the Becke, in Westig, Deilinghofen and Sundwig. The wire industry is an important economic factor in the Ihmerter and Stephanopeler valleys.
On April 1, 1910, Niederhemer (1895: 1,696 inhabitants) and Oberhemer (1895: 1,982 inhabitants) merged to form Hemer. The incorporation of several places in the area on January 1, 1975 brought an increase from 10,787 to 34,041 inhabitants. On December 31, 2005 the official number of inhabitants was 37,932 according to updates by the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics North Rhine-Westphalia (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices).
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. These are census results (¹) or official updates from the State Statistical Office. From 1910, the information relates to the local population , from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the population at the place of the main residence .
Hemer is the only town in the Märkisches Kreis with a positive population forecast. According to the State Office for Information and Technology in North Rhine-Westphalia , the city will grow by 9.3% to 41,090 inhabitants by 2030.
¹ census result
At the end of May 2009 Hemer had 15,310 Protestant and 11,524 Catholic residents, 10,792 belonged to another or no religious community.
The church history of Hemer began even before it was first mentioned in documents in 1072. At the Hemer house, the Vitus Church had existed since the end of the 1st millennium , and was subordinate to the diocese of Cologne and the parish of Menden. The Hemeraner landlords, however, strove for an independent church, which the bishop realized in 1122 by appointing the Vitus Church as a parish church . In the following centuries the church was expanded several times until it could hold around 200 people. At that time she was part of the Attendorn deanery . The name day of the patron saint Vitus was celebrated in a particularly solemn manner . The Vitus fair took place regularly until the first half of the 20th century.
The Reformation first became a topic in the Hemeraner community in 1555, when the Duke of Kleve-Mark ordered the defense of the Lutheran demands in a sermon. Nevertheless, the Reformation was successful in the neighboring cities in the following years. Deilinghofen became Protestant in 1565, Hemer probably two years later. In both places, with a few exceptions, the entire congregation stepped over, apparently there were no arguments.
In the following decades, the Hemeraner who remained Catholic built up a new community. Together with the von Brabeck family , who acquired the Hemer house in 1664 , they had the parish church of St. Peter and Paul built between 1698 and 1700 . In 1812 the House of Hemer and with it the Catholic parish church went to the Protestant family Löbbecke, who had no influence on community life. By the middle of the 19th century, the Catholic parish again looked after around 1,500 believers.
The industrialization continued to grow, so that in 1872 a chapel was consecrated in Sundwig, which received parish rights in 1897. In 1905 the new Church of St. Boniface was consecrated there. The parish church of St. Petrus Canisius in Westig was built in 1930/31 and became the center of a community in 1948. In 1966 the Christ the King Parish Church was built in the city center. The communities of Deilinghofen and Bredenbruch / Ihmert, which do not belong to the Hemeran core area, are now part of the Hemer pastoral network in the Märkisches Sauerland dean's office in the Archdiocese of Paderborn .
The Protestant parish initially continued to use the Vitus Church. At the beginning of the 19th century it became increasingly ailing, so that it was demolished in 1818 and replaced by the Ebbergkirche , consecrated two years later . In the meantime, the Catholic community made its Peter and Paul Church available. The atmosphere in the congregation was not very harmonious, at least in the 17th century, among other things, fights in the church have been handed down. In 1902 the YMCA was founded within the evangelical congregation , which still shapes child and youth work today.
Today the Protestant church is represented by the parishes of Hemer (with the parish districts of Becke, Niederhemer / Landhausen / Stübecken, Süd with Westig / Sundwig, Hemer-Mitte), Ihmert and Deilinghofen. The parishes belong to the Iserlohn parish of the Evangelical Church of Westphalia .
The New Apostolic Church has also existed in Hemer since 1890. The first services took place in a private house in the Stephanopeler valley. In 1953 this congregation received its own church building in Sundwig.
In the first half of the 19th century the first Jews settled permanently in Hemer, who were assigned to the Menden synagogue community from 1846 onwards. Most of them lived in poor conditions. In Hemer the number of Jews grew to 65 by 1880, in 1905 there were 43 Jewish Hemerans. By the time Hitler came to power, the community shrank to 30 members. Throughout the entire period, with a few exceptions, the Jews in Hemer were engaged in trade and only rarely exposed to anti-Semitic threats or even attacks. In the course of the 1930s, however, the restrictions and bans continued to increase in Hemer, so that many Jewish business people closed their retail stores. After the November pogroms in 1938 and after the outbreak of war, many Jewish families emigrated. The rest were deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp and then mostly to the extermination camps , in which around 40 former or former Hemerans were murdered during the Holocaust . The Jewish cemetery in Hemer , where the last deceased was buried in 1955 , has existed since the end of the 18th century .
The group of Muslims in Hemer grew especially in the second half of the 20th century when migrants came to Germany as so-called guest workers from Turkey. The Turkish-Islamic Association , a member organization of the Turkish-Islamic Union of the Institute for Religion , was formed as a mosque association . He maintains a prayer room in the former building of the official savings bank.
The body known in common parlance as the “City Council” is officially called the “Council of the City of Hemer”; see. § 7 of the main statutes. In the elections to the city council, the CDU has almost always been the strongest parliamentary group in Hemer since the local reorganization in 1975. In 1979 and 1999 it received an absolute majority of the seats. With the election victory in 1989, the SPD celebrated its greatest success in local politics to date. The election was preceded by a dispute over the resignation of long-time mayor Hans Meyer (CDU). The Independent Voting Association UWG has also been represented in the city council since 1975, while the FDP missed its entry into the city parliament in the legislative periods after 1979 and 1994. The Greens ran for the first time in a local election in Hemer in 1984, but did not move into the council for the first time until five years later. The turnout was highest in the first city council election after the municipal reorganization, while the low point was reached in 2014.
An overview of the election results since 1975 and the current composition of the city council:
|Instead of party||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||0||2.3||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
- 1 1989: Greens, 1994 and 1999: B'90 / Greens, since 2004: GAH (Green Alternative Hemer)
- 2 Without taking into account rounding differences
Up until the 1930s, the mayors of Hemeran were primarily manufacturers, such as Fritz Clarfeld (1919–1929), who owned the cutlery factory Clarfeld & Springmeyer, which was then the largest company in Hemeran. His ten-year tenure ended with the incorporation Westigs , Sundwigs and country Stockhausen into the greater community Hemer. In 1934 Wilhelm Langemann was the first mayor to have an administrative education. Langemann served until the end of the Second World War. During his tenure, Hemer was promoted to town.
After the end of the war, the mayor changed relatively frequently in a transition phase. Only Josef Kleffner was 1949-1952 again the first to longer served as three years. A phase of continuity began in 1961 when Fredi Camminadi was elected mayor. In previous years, Mayor Karl Bode had been involved in a dispute with the city manager, which set Hemer's development back by a few years. At that time, Camminadi was already deputy and was able to bring calm to the city administration. In 2004 he was appointed former mayor .
In 1969, the CDU candidate Hans Meyer won the mayoral election. With a small interruption due to the municipal reorganization, when Werner Beckmann was temporarily appointed, he remained in office until 1987. During his term of office, the focus was on the one hand on the discussion about the Sauerland / Paderborn law and on the other hand on the expansion of economic relations abroad. Meyer campaigned for Hemer to remain independent and not be incorporated into the neighboring town of Iserlohn . He traveled to countries such as the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, China and Libya in order to receive orders for companies from Hemeran. With the support of city director Dieter Voss, he turned Hemeran city center into a shopping street.
Meyer and Voss' term of office ended in the late 1980s. Meyer's successor was Klaus Burda . The SPD politician served for seven years until he was briefly replaced by Doris Ebbing in autumn 1994 . Already in December 1993, city director Reiner Hermann was voted out of the city council, so that the CDU as the largest parliamentary group began the search for a full-time mayor in the following year, whose post combined the previous functions of honorary mayor and city director . The reform of the municipal code provided for a full-time mayor to be elected by the council under certain conditions before it actually came into force in 1999. After Hermann's dismissal and the election of Heinz Öhmann (CDU), Hemer was the first city in North Rhine-Westphalia with a full-time mayor.
On July 13, 2003 Michael Esken was elected as the new mayor with 50.8% of the vote. This election was necessary because on March 9, 2003 the mayor Heinz Öhmann, who has been in office since 1995, was elected mayor of Coesfeld . The last mayoral election took place on May 25, 2014 as part of the NRW municipal elections 2014 . Michael Esken was confirmed in his office with two opposing candidates with 75.4% of the votes cast. The post had been vacant since October 21, 2015 after Michael Esken was elected mayor of the city of Verl . Until the election of a new mayor, the official business was carried out by First Alderman Bernd Schulte. In the election on January 31, 2016, none of the four applicants could achieve an absolute majority, so that there was a runoff. In the runoff election on February 14, 2016, the social scientist Michael Heilmann (* 1962, UWG ) won 81.04% of the votes against his opponent from the CDU. In April 2018 Heilmann announced his exit from the UWG.
Results of the last parliamentary elections
Hemer belongs to the Bundestag constituency Märkischer Kreis II and the Landtag electoral district Märkischer Kreis II . This means that Hemer will be represented in the federal and state parliament by the direct candidates Dagmar Freitag (SPD) and Inge Blask (SPD).
The citizens of Hemeran elected the members of the European Parliament, the Bundestag and the Landtag with the following ratios (all parties are displayed that have exceeded the five percent threshold in at least one of the elections):
|Political party||European Parliament
May 25, 2014
September 22, 2013
|State Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia
May 13, 2012
coat of arms
- Split, in the front in yellow (gold) a three-row red-white (silver) slaughtered bar, in the back in black three (2: 1) yellow (gold) wolf rods .
The coat of arms painter Waldemar Mallek designed the current city coat of arms as the coat of arms of the office of Hemer in 1936 . The city received another coat of arms at the same time. Both contain the same heraldic elements: a red and white checkerboard pattern as a symbol of the historical affiliation to Grafschaft Mark as well as three wolf fishing rods from the Brabeck family coat of arms . The planning for a coat of arms had already started in 1926, but was canceled because of the merger of Hemers with Sundwig and Westig and then because of the global economic crisis. After the office was dissolved in 1975, the enlarged city chose the old office coat of arms as the new city coat of arms because it was seen as heraldically and aesthetically more appealing and to represent the former municipalities that were incorporated. While he was in office, the city had a coat of arms showing three (2: 1) golden wolf tangs in a black shield surrounded by a three-row red and silver border.
In 1939 the other six municipalities also received coats of arms, which contained the three wolf fishing rods as a common symbol. In three coats of arms ( Becke , Deilinghofen , Frönsberg ) reference was made to noble families of the respective community. The other three ( Evingsen , Ihmert , Kesbern ) contain symbols of local industries.
The oldest town twinning links the town of Hemer with the French towns of Beuvry and Steenwerck since 1967 . Both places feel particularly connected to the districts of Ihmert and Becke, which formed partnerships as formerly independent communities. The connection to Beuvry is shaped by student exchanges at the Ihmert elementary school and the Woeste grammar school. The partnership with Steenwerck is cultivated annually through mutual visits at Pentecost. The friendship between towns and cities with Bretten (Baden-Württemberg), which was established in December 1979, is particularly evident in the form of visits to town festivals and rifle festivals . Various associations, especially choirs, have been twinned with the Austrian town of Obervellach since 1985 .
Two more friendships were made after the fall of the Iron Curtain . The municipality of Doberlug-Kirchhain is located in the former GDR . The Woeste-Gymnasium maintains a partnership with the local Gerberstadt-Gymnasium. The youngest and one of the most active friendships is that between Hemer and the Russian Shcholkowo , for which a partnership association was founded. A Russian delegation visits Hemer every year during the Hemer Autumn Days. A school partnership connects Woeste High School with Bablake School in Coventry, England and Nordhoff High School in Ojai , California.
The town council of Hemer appoints a representative for each town twinning who takes care of the connection between the two places on a voluntary basis. All partner cities presented themselves in the city mosaic at the Hemer State Garden Show 2010 .
Culture and sights
The Felsenmeer Museum is housed in an Art Nouveau villa that the manufacturer Peter Grah had built between Hemer and Sundwig in 1902. In the 1980s, the city handed the house over to the Hemer community and local history association , which has been running it as a local history museum since 1989. You can see exhibits on the history of the earth as well as on industrial and urban history. One focus is on the Hemerans born Friedrich Leopold Woeste , Willibrord Benzler and Hans Prinzhorn . The association deals with various local history topics in temporary exhibitions.
The Hemeraner Verein für Zeitgeschichte operates a history room above the main camp VI A on its former site. A model of the camp, display boards and photos from the days of liberation are on display. The aim is to create a virtual memorial book for all those who died in the Stalag.
Art exhibitions of the Hemeraner Kunstverein take place regularly in the Reidemeisterhaus in Sundwig and in the youth and culture center at the park .
Theater and music
In the first half of the 20th century there were a number of theater associations and amateur theater groups in Hemer , which were active into the 1950s. Today there are no theater groups in Hemer, but the ensembles of the youth welfare office project Stageplay as well as some school groups perform regularly.
The city of Hemer operates a music school with around 800 students in 2009. The music school's clarinet trio, which has already performed with the Saxon clarinet ensemble, and the orchestra association are well known. There are minstrels' trains and music clubs in almost every district. In addition, choirs in Hemer are firmly rooted in society. The MGV Eintracht Westig was the first choral society in Hemer in 1853. In the 1950s, the men's choirs got together to perform together at the national singing festivals in Mainz and Stuttgart. In 2009 there are around 30 male, female, children's and mixed choirs in the city.
The school halls of the grammar school and the Parkstraße school center, the youth and cultural center at the park , the Hemer house and the Hemeraner churches are made available for theater performances and concerts . In the course of the state horticultural show, a new event center was created with the Grohe Forum .
The oldest building in the Hemeraner city area is the Protestant Stephanuskirche in Deilinghofen, the exact date of its construction, however, is unknown. Some sources name the middle of the 13th century, others the 14th century as the time of origin. In 2004 the building, which has been a listed building since 1982 , was completely restored. The Vitus Church in Niederhemer, which dates from before 1000 AD , was demolished in 1818.
In 1700 the Catholic parish church of St. Peter and Paul was completed. The baroque building was also placed under monument protection in 1982. As a replacement for the Vitus Church, which was demolished in 1818, the Protestant parish built the Ebberg Church until 1820 . Planning initially envisaged a design by the master builder Karl Friedrich Schinkel , but for financial reasons a construction by the Hemeran Johann Hermann Stindt was then realized. In 1989, the Ebberg Church was added to the city of Hemer's monument protection list.
The other church buildings in Hemer date from the 20th century. In 1905 the Sundwiger parish church of St. Bonifatius was consecrated. The building is the highest in the entire city and has been a listed building since 2001. In the early 1930s, the Catholic parish churches of St. Marien in Bredenbruch and St. Petrus Canisius in Westig as well as the Protestant church in Ihmert were established. The youngest Catholic church building in Hemer is the Christ the King Church in the city center, which has shaped the image of the pedestrian zone since 1966. In 1964 the Kreuzkirche in Landhausen and the Sundwiger Christ Church were consecrated, which have shaped the appearance of the respective districts ever since. The bell tower at the Paul Schneider House in the city center contains the former bell of the Vitus Church.
Another defining element of the Hemeran townscape are manufacturers' villas. The Villa Grah was built in 1902 and has been home to the rock sea museum of the citizens' and homeland association since the 1980s . The Villa Prinz in the city center is better known as the turret villa because of its eye-catching onion dome on a protruding corner tower . Among other things, the registry office of the city of Hemer is housed there. Both buildings were given monument protection in 1982. There are other listed factory owner's villas in Westigerbach and on Kantstrasse in Oberhemer. The Reidemeisterhaus in Sundwigerbach also has an industrial history and is still used today as an office building.
Due to its border location with Kurköln, the Counts of the Mark had Klusenstein Castle built in the Hönnetal in 1353 . The castle stands on a limestone rock in the Hönnetal. The Bäingsen estate , which is also a listed building, was part of their defense system . The castle belongs to the Rheinisch-Westfälische Kalkwerke and is leased.
There were manor houses in the form of Haus Hemer and on the noble castle . This is located on the B 7 between Hemer and Menden and was first mentioned in a document in 1375. The mansion was built in the late 16th or early 17th century. Today the noble castle is best known for its horse shows. The riding arena adjoins the estate, for the construction of which material from the former Brelen Castle was used. House Hemer was first mentioned in 1072 as Oberhof. The existing buildings date from 1614 and are used as a community center and kindergarten for the Peter and Paul community.
The old office building , built in 1906, was the seat of the official administration until 1975 and was replaced by the new town hall. Since then, the music school and the adult education center have been housed in the listed building. In the north of Sundwig there are still some half-timbered houses in narrow streets. These buildings are also under monument protection. The same applies to the Sundwiger Mühle in the immediate vicinity. It is the last watermill still in operation in the Märkisches Kreis and partly stands on the remaining walls of a grain mill built on this site in 1811 by Johann Hermann Stindt on behalf of Johann Gottfried Wilhelm Renzing (1784–1856). The listed watermill, which is still owned by the family today, was built by Johannes Peter Alberts (* 1829; † 1892) between 1865 and 1868. There are historic fire stations in Sundwig and Heppingsen.
The art mile leads from the Alter Markt to the Christkönig Church. The federal trilogy , which Eberhard Linke created in 1999, consists of three bronze sculptures. Until the renovation of downtown Hemeran in the run-up to the state horticultural show, the Hemer fountain with five stainless steel gargoyles, which was designed in 1985 by a pupil from the Woeste grammar school, was located between the New Market and Hademareplatz . The stele from the depths on the Neuer Markt comes from the artist Ulle Hees. The 1993 sculpture combines mysticism, work and the history of Hemer. At the city library is the sculpture Ascent to Success by Edeltraut Glingener from Iserlohn. The bronze sculpture on two bases was unveiled in 2003. The Christophorus fountain by Ernst Fuchs characterizes Grohe-Platz. The work of art created in 1977 was moved there from Hademareplatz in 2002. The city gate , which Udo Unterieser created in 1997, forms the end of the mile .
In the peace park close to the center , with a size of about four hectares a medium-sized park, stands on the edge of the south-western part a retirement home of the Hermann-von-der-Becke-Foundation. The former dormitory, a listed villa from the late 19th century, was replaced by a modern building in 2005 and is used as a warehouse. The park is protected because of its old trees and is an essential biotope element in the city center . In 2009, the paths in the park, which includes a pond , a children's playground and a boules alley , were renewed and previously inaccessible parts of the villa garden were opened up . With the State Horticultural Show Hemer 2010 , a park area was also created in the eastern part of the city, which was named " Sauerlandpark Hemer " after the end of the event and has been used as a recreation area since spring 2011. The Gockelsche Park , which is named after the manufacturer Gockel, is located in the western center of the village between the Thomaskirche and the former train station . A park in the center of Ihmert is the location of the maypole there .
The most famous attraction of the city is the Felsenmeer , a 700 m long and 100 to 200 m wide karst area with collapsed caves. Natural karstification and the mining stopped in this area in the 19th century created a geotope that is unique in Germany . The total area extends over 13 hectares and is mostly overgrown by a beech forest. Because a number of rare animals live in this biotope , the area is under nature protection and belongs to the Natura 2000 protected area system . From 2010, visitors will be able to look down on the site from above via a footbridge and a platform. There are various legends about the formation of the sea of rocks, which is divided into the three components Large Sea of Rocks , Small Sea of Rocks and Paradise . In the urban area, there is also the nature reserve on Tierkoven , the nature reserve Riemke and the nature reserve Duloh-Löbbecken head .
The Heinrichshöhle , a stalactite cave , is located in the immediate vicinity of the Felsenmeer in Sundwig. A special attraction is the completely preserved cave bear skeleton, which was discovered in 1804. In 1904 the cave was opened as a show cave . Since then, visitors have been able to tour 300 meters of the approximately three-kilometer-long cave system . The cave is operated by the Hemeraner Arbeitsgemeinschaft Höhle und Karst Sauerland . It is named after its discoverer Heinrich von der Becke.
A large part of the urban area, especially the forest areas, is part of the Märkischer Kreis landscape protection area .
The Hemeraner district of Deilinghofen is the birthplace of today's DEL Club Iserlohn Roosters . Canadian soldiers stationed in the barracks there brought the sport to Deilinghofen. After the curious village youth had only begun to imitate ice hockey on the street, the Canadians also offered them training times on the ice surface that had been created. In 1959 the EC Deilinghofen was founded, which moved to Iserlohn in 1971 due to the inadequate hall situation. By then, the ECD had risen to the second highest division.
Today's sporting figureheads are the football club SG Hemer, whose first team was promoted to the regional league in 2009, and the handball players of HTV Sundwig-Westig, whose men's team is based in the major league. The track and field athletes at TV Deilinghofen already have some national successes, from which the track and field school team of the Woeste-Gymnasium also benefited and made it into the national track and field finals of the youth trained for the Olympics competition several times . The traditional horse show at the Edelburg is also known nationwide .
TC Weiß-Blau Hemer operates a tennis facility in Hemerhardt . Between 1992 and 1999, the club's young seniors (men 35) won the German championship eight times in a row. In 1998 and 1999 the seniors (men 45) also won, and in 1999 they also became European champions. The team includes the 48-time tennis champion in the GDR Thomas Emmrich .
There are two swimming pools in the city area. The “Hademarebad”, the municipal indoor swimming pool, was opened in 1973 and includes a 25-meter pool, a diving pool and a children's pool. A sauna area has also been set up in the building. Around 2001 a possible demolition of the indoor swimming pool was discussed in order to create more space for shops in its current position. After a referendum , the council abandoned these plans. In the meantime, a new building is being debated elsewhere. Alternative locations are the Landesgartenschau site or a plot of land on the city limits of Menden. The municipal “open-air swimming pool on the dam” is located in the Stübecken district and was reopened in 1996 after a renovation, after a development was rejected by the majority of the council in 1991.
State Garden Show 2010
On February 27, 2007, the city council decided unanimously to apply to host the 2010 State Horticultural Show . According to the feasibility study, the 28 hectare area of the former Blücherkaserne barracks bordering the city center should be the focus of the state horticultural show. The subsequent 346 hectare practice area was to be partially integrated into the event, as was the Felsenmeer and Heinrichshöhle. On May 2, 2007, the Environment Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia , Eckhard Uhlenberg , announced that Hemers had been awarded the contract.
The state horticultural show was open from April 17 to October 24, 2010, had the motto Magic of Transformation and attracted more than a million visitors.
The cultural office's program of events includes four annual street festivals in the city center. The Hemeraner Spring takes place in May. Every year on the last weekend in September, the Hemeran Autumn Days attract tens of thousands of visitors to Hemer. The Hemeraner Christmas , a small hut village on the market square in Advent, marks the end .
Shooting festivals are firmly rooted in the population . The local rifle clubs in Hemer, Deilinghofen and Westig celebrate the festival annually, the BSV Frönsberg every two years. The BSV Ihmert and the BSV Bredenbruch, founded as the oldest shooting club in the city in 1858, alternate in the organization of the festival year after year.
Another event is the WISPA festival, which usually takes place on the Corpus Christi weekend every year and attracts thousands of friends of alternative music. At the festival, which is co-organized by the city of Hemer, over 10 bands appear over two days, including newcomers as well as well-known groups. The organizer has been the WISPA Association for Alternative Culture since 2005.
Economy and Infrastructure
The economy in the Hemer area has been dominated by small and medium-sized companies for centuries. In contrast to industry (57.5%), agriculture and forestry, with 0.9% of employees in Hemer, hardly play a role. In 1987, 41.6% of the workforce was employed in the service sector. As in Germany as a whole, the tertiary sector of services is also gaining importance in Hemer, but does not yet come close to the manufacturing sector.
The mining industry in the Hemer area, which began in the 10th century (including in the Felsenmeer area ), set in motion the development of the metalworking industry. Due to the water power of the streams, some blacksmiths were operated - partly as a sideline. The wire industry in Hemer goes back to the 15th century, when the first wire rolls were built in the Ihmert Valley. With the paper industry, another branch of the economy emerged in the 16th century, which was important for many years. The last paper mill was in 1988 in the newly founded trading company Papier Union . In the 17th century Hemer was one of the most innovative industrial locations in Prussia. In addition to the first brass smelter in the region, the first thimble mill in Westphalia was also built. In 1736, the first blast furnace in Westphalia was put into operation in Sundwig.
The Sundwiger Messingwerk and other brass producers were in the 18th and 19th centuries the basis for the production of valves, this material particularly suitable for. In the 20th century, the two Hemeraner fittings manufacturers Grohe and Keuco developed into international market leaders in their field. Grohe in particular is now considered a global player with 5,200 employees worldwide and annual sales of over one billion euros. The company caused a stir in 2005 when the takeover of Grohe by a consortium of investors sparked the locust metaphor of SPD party leader Franz Müntefering .
Before the First World War, the cutlery manufacturer Clarfeld & Springmeyer was the most renowned Hemeran company with up to 500 employees in 1914. Due to increasingly cheap competition from abroad, the factory site had to be sold in the 1970s. Mechanical engineering in Hemer originated with the Sundwiger ironworks , among others , which manufactured rolling and steam machines for the neighboring brass works.
The Hemer area also benefited from the economic miracle in the early years of the Federal Republic. In 1954 the first guest workers from southern Europe came to Hemer. In the 1970s and 80s, a wave of moves began from Hemeran companies. The development of living space and industry in Hemer had previously mostly run parallel. After the municipal reorganization, companies began to move from the city center to industrial parks. In the second half of the 20th century there was a diversification of the industrial structure, which continues. So some companies settled there whose business area in Hemer has not grown historically. Examples are MWV Calmar , Giersch and the Haltec hall systems .
Services and retail
The retail situation in Hemer is considered difficult. Many Hemerans meet their shopping needs primarily in the larger neighboring town of Iserlohn. In the 1970s, a “new center” with shopping facilities was set up in downtown Hemeran, and in 1991 a pedestrian zone was opened. Nevertheless, many citizens, especially from the districts, do not yet see the area as the city center. Almost 20 shops are empty in the inner city area alone (as of August 2007).
After 2000, retail complexes such as the Nöllenhof and Felsenmeer Center were built outside the pedestrian zone . In the course of the state horticultural show, parts of the city center were also made more attractive. In addition, the Hademare Center was built in the center of the pedestrian zone . There are large self-service supermarkets in the Becke district of Hemeran and just beyond the city limits of Iserlohn.
The proportion of employees in the service sector is below average. In 1997, a good 2,500 employees worked in this sector, 1,600 of them in the three hospitals, in old people's homes or kindergartens. The others mainly work in the city administration, in banks and insurance companies as well as in the catering industry. As a group of companies in the field of research and development, the center for security and disaster control technology creates some new jobs in the service sector.
With the construction of the A 46 between Hagen and Hemer, the city was connected to the national road network. Since a lot of traffic leaves the A 46, which already ends in the Iserlohn city area, and continues on the B 7 in Hemer, further construction of the motorway to Arnsberg has been under discussion since the 1970s . Trial drilling for a tunnel under the Stübecken took place in 2009. At the end of September 2011, the North Rhine-Westphalian Ministry of Transport announced that the A 46 would only be expanded to Menden (Sauerland) .
The L 682 serves as an important west-east connection between the B 7 and the B 515, which runs just beyond the city limits in the Hönnetal . The L 683 connects the B 7 with the B 236 in the Lennetal via the districts of Westig, Bredenbruch and Ihmert.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the construction of a west bypass that is to connect the motorway junction with Westig has been discussed. The planned route over the Duloh nature reserve caused criticism .
Trams and buses
In 1908 the former Hemeraner municipality Calle was connected to the tram line between Hohenlimburg and Iserlohn . In 1909 it was expanded via the municipality of Westig to the Amtshaus, in 1911 Niederhemer was also connected, and in 1912 Höcklingsen (municipality of Becke). From 1913 a junction led via Sundwig to Deilinghofen . In 1921 the Niederhemer – Höcklingsen tram was shut down in favor of the parallel railway.
After the Second World War, there were no trams in Hemer for a total of two years, with interruptions, because the bridge between Iserlohn and Westig was destroyed. From September 1948 the tram started running again, but cheaper and faster buses were gradually used on the routes. At the turn of the year 1959/60, passenger transport by tram ended in Hemer, and the last freight wagons left Westig in 1964.
The first regular bus line was opened in 1924 with the connection to Fröndenberg . Today the city has twelve local and regional bus routes and belongs to the Verkehrsgemeinschaft Ruhr-Lippe (VRL). The bus traffic is mainly operated by the Märkische Verkehrsgesellschaft (MVG) as the successor to the Iserlohner Kreisbahn. The Hemer Citizen Bus has been running since 1998 on four routes that cannot be served by the MVG low-floor buses .
Hemer was connected to the rail network in the 1880s after initial planning had begun 20 years earlier. The first section of the Letmathe – Fröndenberg railway between Menden and Hemer was completed in 1882, and the connection to Iserlohn was completed three years later. As a result, Hemer was connected to the Upper Ruhr Valley Railway and the Rhein-Sieg Railway . In addition to Hemer station, the Oese station and Westig station were established. In addition, some industrial companies received their own rail connections. In 1891 a connection to Sundwig was created.
A small railway line of the Iserlohner Kreisbahn between Westig and Evingsen completed the Hemeran rail network at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1913 the stretch to Ihmert was put into operation, followed by the connection to Evingsen in 1917. When the line was extended to Altena after the end of the First World War , there was a rail connection between the Lennetal and Felsenmeerstadt for the first time. The Kleinbahn was again affected by serious changes in 1933 when the unprofitable section between Ihmert and Evingsen was canceled. 1955 the passenger traffic was completely stopped.
In the 1970s, the importance of the railway in Hemer decreased when goods loading in Sundwig and Westig ended in 1975. Due to fewer and fewer passengers, the closure of the route from 1983 onwards was up for debate. In 1989 the last passenger train left the Hemeraner station. Since then, the next train stations have been in Iserlohn and Menden. The Westiger station building was listed as a historical monument in 1984 and one year later it became private property. The other station buildings in Hemer were demolished after the line was closed.
The route to Iserlohn has now been built over. A new connection to Menden seemed possible again in the run-up to the State Garden Show (LGS). The Rhein-Sieg-Eisenbahn prepared a feasibility study and planned to operate the line during and after the LGS 2010. In February 2010 it became known that the route would only be used for special trains during the LGS, after which operations were stopped again. In January 2011, the city council asked the Westphalia-Lippe local transport association to include the Iserlohn-Hemer-Menden route in the new local transport plan . This should create a direct connection between Hemer and Dortmund.
From 1936 there was a glider airfield in Deilinghofen, where motor planes took off from 1938. The runway was leveled in 1939 to prepare the airfield for use in World War II. In the final phase in the spring of 1945, the square was a supply airport before it was largely destroyed by US troops. In 1952, pilots from all over the region resumed their sport in Deilinghofen. By expanding the British barracks in Deilinghofen and the Blücher barracks at Jüberg , the area was reduced to such an extent that the flying club was finally given up in 1961.
Of the nearest airports, three are in Iserlohn and one in Menden. The closest international airport is Dortmund Airport .
Local newspapers have been in Hemer since 1886, when the Hemer newspaper first appeared. On March 22, 1893, a few years after the Hemer-Zeitung was given up, the first edition of the Hemerschen Zeitung appeared , initially twice, from October 1893 three times a week and from 1905 daily. Four years later, the editors added the subtitle Märkischer Landbote , which acted as the main title from 1917. As Iserlohner Kreisanzeiger and Zeitung with the subtitles Hemersche Zeitung and Märkischer Landbote , the paper was published until April 12, 1945.
In 1946 the Allies approved the founding of the Westfalenpost , which over time also opened an editorial office in Hemer. From 1947 the Westfälische Rundschau (WR) was published in Hemer. The Iserlohn editors also took on the reporting from Hemer. The Iserlohner Kreisanzeiger (IK) appeared again after the establishment of the Federal Republic, in November 1949 the first edition was printed.
The free advertising paper Stadtspiegel has been published twice a week (Wednesdays and Sundays) since October 1978 , and the Iserlohn editors also produce the Hemeraner title. The weekly courier , whose editorial office Iserlohn-Letmathe-Hemer is also in Iserlohn, has been distributed every Saturday since 1990 .
At the end of the 1980s there were major changes in the Hemeraner press. The WAZ group , which already published the Westfalenpost in Hemer, participated in the Iserlohner Kreisanzeiger. In this context, the WP editorial office in Hemer was closed and the readers were handed over to the IKZ. The establishment of a Hemeraner WR editorial office in 1990 was successful. The WR continues to appear in Hemer, but has been taking over the local section from Iserlohner Kreisanzeiger since 2000 .
The local radio for North Rhine-Westphalia in the Hemer area has been Radio MK since 1990 , to which the State Agency for Media assigned broadcasting location no. 69, frequency 92.5 (Iserlohn).
Clinics and hospitals
Since 1892 there has been a general hospital in Hemer under the responsibility of the office. The small number of beds and population growth made expansions necessary in 1902 and 1908. When the hospital became too small again after the First World War, the house was enlarged again until 1931. In times of the Great Depression, the expansion was described by critics as oversized and, in fact, maintaining the house became a problem for the office. In December 1934 the Wehrmacht acquired the building that is now the lung clinic and converted it into a local hospital. The office then had a new hospital built, which opened in 1936 with 80 beds and which is still the Paracelsus Clinic today, providing medical care to the city. During the Second World War, the hospital served as a military hospital and nursed after the liberation of former prisoners of Stalag VI A . By 1972 the house had grown to 161 beds, with the municipal reorganization in 1975 it became the sponsorship of the newly created city and was henceforth called the city hospital .
As early as 1904, the Catholic parish of St. Peter and Paul opened the St. Marien Hospital in Geitbecke. Starting with 30 beds, the clinic was expanded to 112 beds in 1972. In 1978 the house was sold to the city of Hemer due to financial difficulties in the community and took over the internal medicine department as city hospital II . Surgery , gynecology , ear, nose and throat medicine , ophthalmology and anesthesia remained in the city hospital I. The hospital was privatized in 1984 and became the responsibility of the Paracelsus clinics , which caused criticism from the population. In 1992 it was the first hospital in Germany to change its billing system. Instead of the length of stay, lump sums were now paid for certain treatments. To reduce costs, the former Marien Hospital was closed in 2000. Since then, the departments have been concentrated in the former Paracelsus Clinic I, which has been expanded again. The second building was demolished and a residential area was set up in its place. Today the Paracelsus Clinic has 134 beds.
After the Second World War, the nationally known pulmonary clinic developed from the first official hospital and on-site hospital . It has the four specialist departments of pneumology , thoracic surgery , radiology and anesthesia . A research institute is also integrated. The first SARS case in Germany caused a sensation in 2002. At that time, a Hattinger was infected with the virus and was cured in the lung clinic.
In the district Frönsberg the after is Hans Prinzhorn called Westphalian Clinic Hemer in the late 1980s in Hans-Prinzhorn-Klinik renamed. In 1914, AOK Dortmund bought the site and started operating the Frönspert convalescent home for miners. After the transfer of power to the National Socialists , the building was confiscated and converted into the NSBO recovery center Westfalen-Süd . During the war it was part of the Hemeran on-site hospital with a focus on soldiers with lung disease. In 1950 the AOK took over the sponsorship again, which it sold to the Regional Association of Westphalia-Lippe in 1964 . Since then the building has been used as a psychiatric clinic.
The compulsory supply area consists of parts of the Märkisch and Ennepe-Ruhr districts as well as Hagen. Today, the hospital has several departments: Psychotherapy / depression sbehandlung, psychiatry , addiction ill treatment and geriatric psychiatry . There is also a day clinic and an institute outpatient clinic. In the Westphalian residential association, people with mental disabilities can be cared for.
Hemer was the armed forces base between 1956 and 2007. In recent years the Blücher barracks was the only barracks in the Märkisches Kreis and housed a tank battalion , two medical companies, a tank pioneer company and a driver training center. The barracks was named after the Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher . On November 2, 2004, then Defense Minister Peter Struck announced that the Hemer site would be completely abandoned as part of the Bundeswehr reform. On January 23, 2007, the 203rd Panzer Battalion was the last to leave Hemer and was transferred to Augustdorf . This freed up a 28-hectare barracks area bordering the city center and a 346-hectare practice area. The state horticultural show took place on part of the area in 2010 . The newly established center for security and disaster control technology was located on another part .
Other public institutions
The Malteser Hilfsdienst maintains accommodation for refugees and asylum seekers on behalf of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia in the district of Deilinghofen. The Malteser Care Franziskus offers space for up to 500 refugees. Around 50 people are employed there. A kindergarten is part of the facility, which was opened in 1993. Before that, the building belonged to an English barracks in Deilinghofen.
In the 1930s there were the first public libraries in Hemer and some municipal communities. Since January 6, 1956, the city library is now the only library in the city to be housed in a former factory owner's villa in the pedestrian zone. Due to the lack of accessibility, a move of the library is being discussed. The city archive , which was also located there, moved to the state horticultural show site in 2009. It includes over 5000 files from the office and the city of Hemer, a newspaper archive and the papers of some local researchers.
The youth and culture center at the park has moved into the former Martin Luther house of the Protestant church in Hemer . In addition to urban cultural and information events, the facility takes on the tasks of the former youth center 205 .
Since the school year 2008/09, five of the eight Hemeraner elementary schools have had a full-day program: Brabeckschule (Stübecken, Landhausen), Freiherr-vom-Stein-Schule (Sundwig), Woesteschule (northern city center), Diesterwegschule (Westig) and Ihmerter Schule. The other three primary schools without all-day courses are the Deilinghofer Schule, the Oesetalschule (Becke) and the Wulfertschule (southern city center).
In Hemer there is a secondary school in the Urbecke (Märkische Schule). The former Hauptschule Parkstraße am Stadtpark was closed at the end of the 2011/12 school year after it had not accepted any fifth graders since the 2009/10 school year. Instead, the newly founded Hemer comprehensive school was housed in the building, which the city council decided on after a parent survey. The first students started at the beginning of the 2009 school year.
The city's only secondary school is named after the Hemeraner psychiatrist Hans Prinzhorn and is located in the same school center as the Parkstrasse secondary school and the comprehensive school.
The Friedrich-Leopold-Woeste-Gymnasium is located in the vicinity of the Parkstraße school center . The namesake gave language lessons in Hemer in the 19th century and thus gave the first secondary school lessons. The school was founded in 1924 and has had a bilingual branch since 1999. A secondary school has existed in Hemer since 1829 with the establishment of the private school for higher education .
Hemer is the location of a total of four special needs schools. In the Pestalozzi School, pupils with a special focus on learning are taught. The Felsenmeerschule is a LWL special school with a special focus on physical and motor development. The Wilhelm-Busch-Schule is supported by the Märkischer Kreis and focuses on emotional and social development. Since the Easter holidays in 2009, the rainbow school with a focus on language has been housed in a former building of the Blücher barracks. The district administration closed the rainbow school on June 9, 2010 due to the pollution detected in four classrooms. After a renovation, the students finally moved into the new school building a year later.
Until 1970 there was a Canadian senior school in Hemer for the children of the Canadian soldiers stationed in Deilinghofen. After their departure, the building was used by a British school. At times the smallest American school in the Federal Republic was housed there. Today the adult education center operates the premises.
Other educational institutions
Hemer belongs to the adult education center Menden-Hemer-Balve , an adult education association with Menden and Balve. The city sends two members to the six-member board of directors and four of twelve members to the association assembly. The Hemeran office of the adult education center, like the music school of the city of Hemer, has been in the old office building in Oberhemer since the mid-1970s . Both facilities are now housed in a building in Sauerlandpark.
The Rahel-Varnhagen-Kolleg in Hagen runs an evening grammar school in the premises of the Woeste grammar school. Both the technical college entrance qualification and the general university entrance qualification can be acquired there.
In 1974 the city of Hemer made the factory owners Ruth and Friedrich Grohe honorary citizens. Adolf Hitler's honorary citizenship from 1936 was initially not revoked because, in the opinion of the city council, it had already expired with Hitler's death in 1995. In the meeting on March 29, 2011, the Hemer City Council subsequently unanimously decided to finally revoke his honorary citizenship and thus to revoke his honorary citizenship posthumously. Since the municipal reorganization in 1975, honorary citizenship has not been awarded. Instead, deserving citizens are awarded a letter of honor.
Sons and daughters of the city include Willibrord Benzler , who was bishop in Metz and whose beatification was initiated, as well as psychiatrist and art historian Hans Prinzhorn . The film director Wolfgang Becker became thanks to the popular success Good Bye, Lenin! known throughout Germany. Local history researcher Friedrich Leopold Woeste is still particularly well known in Hemer today, as two schools are named after him. In addition, some musicians, athletes and politicians come from Hemer.
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