Football World Cup 1934
|1934 FIFA World Cup|
|Campionato Mondiale Di Calcio|
|Number of nations||16 (of 32 applicants)|
|World Champion||Italy (1st title)|
|Opening game||May 27, 1934|
|Endgame||June 10, 1934 ( Rome )|
|Gates||70 (⌀: 4.12 per game)|
|spectator||363,000 (⌀: 21,353 per game)|
|Top scorer||Oldřich Nejedlý (5)|
|References||1 (⌀: 0.06 per game)|
The final round of the FIFA World Cup 1934 ( ital .: Campionato Mondiale di Calcio ) was the second playout of the most important tournament for football - national teams and was held in from May 27 to June 10, 1934 Italy and for the first time in Europe instead. The tournament got a stale aftertaste, as the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini used the World Cup as propaganda for fascism , similar to Hitler 's 1936 Summer Olympics , and Italy's victory was overshadowed by allegations of bribery.
Like Uruguay, Italy was able to use the home advantage four years earlier and won its first world title in the decisive game against Czechoslovakia . It was not until 32 years later that England could win the title again. The German national soccer team came third, Austria fourth. The Switzerland reached the quarter-finals.
Sweden, Spain and Italy were initially interested in hosting the 1934 World Cup. At the meeting of the FIFA Executive Committee on October 14, 1932 in Zurich, however, Italy was awarded the contract. One of the reasons for Italy was that the country wanted to host the World Cup in eight cities and not in just one, as Uruguay in 1930 did. Some of the stadiums were already in the construction phase. In addition, head of state Benito Mussolini provided the necessary financial resources for the infrastructure.
Location of the venues
The World Cup was held in eight stadiums. New stadiums were built in Florence, Naples, Trieste and Turin especially for the World Cup. The stadiums in Milan and Rome were rebuilt, those in Bologna and Genoa were renovated for the World Cup. As a result of the building boom, the lira lost its value massively and workers' wages were cut. The name, capacity and condition of the stadiums are given at the time of the World Cup in June 1934.
|Stadio Calcistico di San Siro|
|Opening: May 29, 1927||Opening: September 13, 1931||Opening: January 22, 1911||Opening: September 19, 1926|
|1 round of 16 and 1 quarter-finals||1 round of 16 and 1 quarter-finals
|1 round of 16||1 eighth, 1 quarter
and 1 semi-final
|National Stadium of the PNF||Stadio Littorio||
|Opening: May 27, 1934||Opening: March 25, 1928||Opening: September 29, 1932||Opening: May 14, 1933|
|1 round of 16 and third place match||1 eighth, 1 semi-final and final||1 round of 16||1 round of 16 and 1 quarter-finals|
32 national teams from Europe (21), Africa / Asia (3), North (4) and South America (4) took part in the qualification. Among them was the selection of the host Italy, which had to prevail against Greece. The German national soccer team won against Luxembourg 9-1 and qualified as group first in group 8 together with France. The Austrian team qualified second in a group with Hungary and Bulgaria and Switzerland won their group against Romania and Yugoslavia.
Uruguay did not take part in the 1930 World Cup as a revenge for the low European interest . England also boycotted the World Cup because it was again not played in the "motherland" of football. For Egypt, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Czechoslovakia and Hungary it was the first participation in a soccer world championship.
|12 from Europe||Belgium||Germany||France||Italy|
|2 from South America||Argentina||Brazil|
|1 from North, Central America and the Caribbean||United States|
|1 from Africa and Asia||Egypt|
The whole tournament was played in knockout mode . There were eight seeded teams for the round of 16, which were estimated to be the strongest teams in the World Cup. These were in detail: Argentina, Brazil, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. One team was drawn from each of these eight teams. In the following rounds, the winner from game 1 played against the winner from game 2, etc.
In the event of a tie after regular time, there was two extra times of 15 minutes. If there was still no winner after this, there was a replay one day later.
|Set teams||Unsettled teams|
For information on the individual squads of the teams click on the respective link.
|Round of 16||Quarter finals||Semifinals||final|
|Italy||(1) 1 2|
|Czechoslovakia||3||3rd place match|
1 win after extra time
2 win in replay
Round of 16
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Rome|
|Italy||-||United States||7: 1 (3: 0)|
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Trieste|
|ČSR||-||Romania||2: 1 (0: 1)|
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Florence|
|Germany||-||Belgium||5: 2 (1: 2)|
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Turin|
|Austria||-||France||3: 2 n.V. (1: 1, 1: 1)|
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Genoa|
|Spain||-||Brazil||3: 1 (3: 0)|
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Milan|
|Switzerland||-||Netherlands||3: 2 (2: 1)|
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Bologna|
|Sweden||-||Argentina||3: 2 (1: 1)|
|Sun., May 27, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Naples|
|Hungary||-||Egypt||4: 2 (2: 1)|
Italy had very little trouble against the USA, the representative of North America. There was a clear class difference between the two teams, which was also reflected in the final result.
Czechoslovakia had to play against the Romanians trained by the Austrian Josef Uridil , who defeated the semi-finalists of the 1930 World Cup (Yugoslavia) in qualifying. In the first half, Czechoslovakia, which went into the tournament as one of the favorites for the title, had big problems against the Romanians and were also 1-0 down. In the second half, however, the Czechoslovaks were able to turn the game around and progressed one round.
Germany had to play against its neighbor from Belgium. For a long time it was an open game and the Belgians led 2-1 at halftime after Stanislaus Kobierski put the German team in the lead. After the break, however, the Germans turned up and were able to turn the 1: 2 into a 5: 2. Edmund Conen achieved a flawless hat trick and thus ensured a clear end result in favor of the Germans.
The Austrians faced France in the first round. The miracle team was considered a favorite. After the regular playing time, however, it was only 1: 1. In overtime, the Austrians had the greater reserves of strength and led 3-1 after 110 minutes. The French goal in the 117th minute didn't change the outcome of the game.
The Spaniards had to play against the only serious team from South America, Brazil. The Brazilians dominated the Spaniards playfully and were technically far superior, but the Spaniards concentrated on the most important thing in football - scoring goals. After just half an hour, the Spaniards were leading 3-0. After the break, the Spaniards did not come into play and the Brazilians scored the 1-3 goal. However, when the Spanish world-class goalkeeper Ricardo Zamora was able to parry a penalty kick, the Brazilians lost the game and the Spaniards were able to defend their lead.
Switzerland faced the Netherlands in Round 1. In an extremely even game, the Swiss got the upper hand in the end. Player of the day was the Swiss Leopold Kielholz , who scored two goals.
With Argentina, Sweden had drawn the second South American representative as an opponent. The Argentines only came with an amateur team, which by no means had the class of the team from the 1930 World Cup when Argentina was runner-up. Nevertheless, the Swedes found it extremely difficult and had to make up a deficit twice before they were able to score the winning goal to make it 3-2 shortly before the end.
Hungary had to play against Egypt, which was rated as the weakest team in the tournament. Most were strengthened in this view when the Magyars quickly took a 2-0 lead. But the underdog fought his way back into the game and scored the 2-1 goal before the break. In the second half, however, the Hungarians dominated their opponents at will and in the end managed a 4-2 victory that was ultimately safe.
|Thursday, May 31, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Milan|
|Germany||-||Sweden||2: 1 (0: 0)|
|Thursday, May 31, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Turin|
|ČSR||-||Switzerland||3: 2 (1: 1)|
|Thursday, May 31, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Bologna|
|Austria||-||Hungary||2: 1 (1: 0)|
|Thursday, May 31, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Florence|
|Italy||-||Spain||1: 1 n.V. (1: 1, 1: 1)|
Czechoslovakia beat Switzerland 3-2 thanks to their very good goalkeeper František Plánička . Switzerland was able to keep the game against the favorites open for a long time. Shortly before the end, the Czechoslovak top striker Oldřich Nejedlý scored the decisive goal.
The Germans faced Sweden in the last eight. Two goals from Karl Hohmann decided the game in favor of the Germans. As in the game against Belgium, the German team was much stronger in the second half than in the first. Sweden was hardly dangerous and could never really endanger the German victory.
In the match between Austria and Hungary, two title contenders met for the first time at the 1934 World Cup. Austria prevailed just 2: 1. The second half in particular was extremely tough, so that the only dismissal of the World Cup was pronounced against the Hungarian Markos.
The match between Italy and Spain was particularly dramatic. After the score was 1: 1 after 90 minutes, extra time was due. The Spanish goalkeeper Zamora stood out again. There was also a shot from the post by Spaniard Lángara (113th) and a crossbar hit by Italian Giuseppe Meazza in the 119th minute of the game. Since the penalty shoot-out wasn't introduced until 1982, there was a replay.
|Friday, June 1, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Florence|
|Italy||-||Spain||1: 0 (1: 0)|
Only one day later there was the replay between Italy and Spain at the same place. There was a scandalous game. Due to the rigors of the previous game, the Italians put in four new players and the Spaniards seven, including the Spanish goalkeeper Zamora. In the 1-0 win for the Italians, the Spanish substitute goalkeeper was clearly hindered by several Italians, while Meazza even leaned on him to get the header. Despite major protests from the Spaniards, the hit was given. In the following years, the Italians attracted attention through unfair actions, which were punished by the referee in the rarest of cases. The Spaniards had three injured players towards the end of the game - substitutions were not allowed. In the course of the game, the Spaniards were denied two penalties, and even two regular goals in the second half.
|Sunday, June 3, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Milan|
|Italy||-||Austria||1: 0 (1: 0)|
|Sunday, June 3, 1934 at 4:30 p.m. in Rome|
|ČSR||-||Germany||3: 1 (1: 0)|
Czechoslovakia was able to live up to its favorite position over Germany and win the first semi-final game 3-1. The Germans missed Hohmann, who scored the two goals for the Germans in the quarter-finals, due to an injury, and goalkeeper Willibald Kress had a bad day. In the daily press of that time, the Czechoslovaks were characterized as "superior in every phase" (Reichspost). The match winner was Oldřich Nejedlý , who scored all 3 goals for Czechoslovakia.
The Italians managed to prevail against Austria despite the additional burden of the replay. Finally, a dubious referee performance by Swede Ivan Eklind , who had been invited by Benito Mussolini as a personal guest of honor the day before, decided the hosts' progress. The only goal of the game came in the 18th minute when several Italians pushed Austrian goalkeeper Peter Platzer over the goal line with the ball in his hands. Ivan Eklind even actively intervened in the game himself by heading off a cross on the free-standing Austrian striker Karl Zischek .
3rd place match
|Thursday, June 7, 1934 at 6:00 p.m. in Naples|
|Germany||-||Austria||3: 2 (3: 1)|
The game of the semi-final losers went in favor of the Germans. After losing their leading figure Matthias Sindelar due to injury to the unpunished tough attacks in the Italy game, Austria went into the game with little motivation, so that it surprisingly lost 3-2. The last clashes ended 5-0 and 6-0 for Austria. Since the home-away rules for jerseys did not yet exist, both Germany and Austria strangely competed in white and black. Since it was difficult to distinguish between the teams, one of the two teams had to wear a different jersey. The lot went to the Austrian team, who walked onto the pitch in their usual white shirts, but pulled on the blue jerseys of the SSC Napoli that had been blown up at short notice before kick-off. The best players on the German side were Edmund Conen and Ernst Lehner . The DFB selection was unexpectedly third, Austria just as unexpectedly only fourth.
|Sun., June 10, 1934 at 5:30 p.m. in Rome|
|Italy||-||Czechoslovakia||2: 1 a.d. (1: 1, 0: 0)|
The Italians also benefited from the referee's performance in the final. The Swedish referee Ivan Eklind - who was already considered weak in the semi-final match Austria-Italy - was indulgent in the second half to the sometimes overharsh game of the Italians and refrained from being sent off. Nevertheless, the Czechoslovaks took the opening goal in the middle of the second half. However, the Italians were able to equalize 10 minutes before the end. In extra time, Italy got the upper hand and won the 1934 World Cup.
World champion team
(The games and goals are given in brackets)
List of goalscorers (final round)
The top scorer of the entire competition, including qualification, was the Spaniard Isidro Lángara with a total of 8 goals.
The stars of the world championship
- Giampiero Combi (Italy)
- Edmund Conen (Germany)
- Ernst Lehner (Germany)
- Giuseppe Meazza (Italy)
- Oldřich Nejedlý (Czechoslovakia)
- František Plánička (Czechoslovakia)
- Angelo Schiavio (Italy)
- Raimundo Orsi (Italy)
- Fritz Szepan (Germany)
- Ricardo Zamora (Spain)
- Matthias Sindelar (Austria)
- Josef Bican (Austria)
A total of 11 referees and 14 linesmen were used for the 17 games. Except for the Egyptian line judge Mohammed, all referees came from European associations. The Italian federation provided 3 referees and 9 line judges. With three game directors, the Swede Eklind and the Italian Barlassini had the most appearances, with Eklind whistling a semi-final and the final. The final referee of the first World Cup, the Belgian John Langenus, was only used in one round of 16.
|Johannes van Moorsel||Netherlands||1||1||0|
Allegations of manipulation
In an article published in 2014, the Italian sports historian Marco Impiglia refuted the assumption that Mussolini himself was said to have won the first Italian world championship title. Instead, he substantiated the thesis that an alliance of Swedish and Italian sports officials and referees made the success of the Italian team possible. According to Impiglia, the abundance of evidence speaks for a World Cup postponed in favor of Italy: He sees the basic problem in the regulation that the Italian federation was responsible for the selection of the referees, whereby unpleasant referees could be singled out in advance and those who were given preference had previously worked to the advantage of the Italian team at games. This constellation was made possible by the fact that the head of the Italian organizing committee, Giovanni Mauro, had paved the way for the Swedish football president Anton Johanson to join the FIFA International Board in 1932, thereby creating the conditions for a consideration at the World Cup in 1934. In fact, Johanson "did not send the experienced referee Otto Ohlsson to the World Cup, but with his friend Ivan Eklind a referee who, according to Impiglia, was willing to do everything to make a career." In addition, the organizers decided not to take the important games from him the experienced and recognized Belgian referee John Langenus , who also directed the 1930 final, but from Louis Baert , a referee under whose direction Italy had not lost a game so far. In addition to Eklind and Baert, other referees, René Mercet from Ticino and Mihály Iváncsics from Hungary , were appointed who, according to Impiglia, could easily be used in favor of the success of the home team: Baert and Mercet ensured that Italy survived the two quarter-finals against Spain; they canceled regular Spanish hits and, on the other hand, did not punish the host's brutal harshness. In the semifinals, however, Eklind allowed Monti to severely foul the Austrian star striker Matthias Sindelar . And in the final Eklind again denied the Czechoslovaks a penalty and left numerous attacks on their center forward František Svoboda unpunished. The referee observer in both cases was Johanson, whom Impiglia referred to as one of the masterminds of the conspiracy, especially since he was not only connected to Mauro, but also admired the fascist sports system and promoted it in Sweden.
Unpunished rule violations
The soccer World Cup in 1934 was the World Cup of unpunished rule violations. As the " International Federation of Football History & Statistics " (IFFHS) researched, several teams at the 1934 World Cup should have been disqualified or at least the corresponding results should have been canceled.
Use of ineligible players
According to the FIFA regulations at the time, former foreign players were only allowed to play in the national team if they had not played an international match for a foreign team for at least three years and had lived in their new home country for at least three years. This rule was violated by several teams.
The Italian national team violated the rules for the deployment of former foreigners four times. The most prominent case is the player Luis Monti , who was in the final for Argentina at the 1930 World Cup . He was already used in the qualifying game against Greece on March 25, 1934 for Italy. This meant that after March 24, 1931, he would not have been allowed to play an international match for another country and would also have had to live in Italy from that point on. But Monti still played an international game for Argentina three months after the cut-off date on July 4, 1931, and at that time he was not yet living in Italy. The same applies to all of his further appearances during the World Cup finals, because even when he played in the final on June 10, 1934, the three years were not yet full. The former Brazilian Amphilóquio Marques “Filo” would also not have been eligible to play for Italy. He was also used in qualifying for Italy. At this point he had not played an international match for another country for three years, but it was not until July 22, 1931 that he set foot on Italian soil for the first time. According to the regulations, however, he would have had to live in Italy since March 24, 1931 at the latest in order to be eligible to play. He had not yet reached this deadline when he played against the USA in the round of 16 on May 27, 1934. Enrique Guaita, who was used in qualifying against Greece and in some finals, played an international match for Argentina on February 5, 1933 and still played for Estudiantes de La Plata . After all, Atílio Demaría (Italian De Maria) played for Argentina against Paraguay on July 9, 1931. He should not have played a game for a foreign team since May 31, 1931 when he played in the quarter-final replay against Spain.
Argentina also used an ineligible player in its tournament appearance in the round of 16, namely the player Constantino Urbieto-Sosa in the round of 16 against Sweden on May 27, 1934. Urbieto-Sosa therefore had no game for another national team since May 26, 1931 and should have lived in Argentina since that day. In fact, he played three international matches for Paraguay from April to June 1931. The thesis was later put forward that the player had deceived the Argentine Football Association. However, Urbieto-Sosa played these three internationals against Argentina of all places. Ireland also used two players in their qualifiers against Belgium and the Netherlands who had played for the Northern Irish national team a short time before.
None of the mentioned rule violations were punished.
Use of professional players
The use of professionals was allowed in all World Cup games, including qualifying games. However, this did not apply to Argentina and Brazil, because these countries were only represented in FIFA by their respective amateur associations at the time. In the major South American football nations there were considerable conflicts over the introduction of professional football. There were usually two or more rival and violently feuding football associations, namely at least one professional football organization and one amateur football association, most of which were recognized by FIFA as an official national association. Only players from the officially recognized associations were allowed to take part in the World Cup games. As the IFFHS found out, this provision was violated at least once at the World Cup. While Argentina adhered to the regulations and ran up in Italy with a purely amateur representation, Brazil tricked the FIFA officials. Since the best players in the country were organized in the professional association, those in charge in Brazil were reamateurised at short notice and only for the time of the World Cup and accepted into the official national football association, the amateur association CBD. In fact, Brazil played eight professional players against Spain in the round of 16 and should therefore have been disqualified. But due to the defeat of the Brazilians, this rule violation ultimately had no consequences.
Against World Cup in Paris
The appropriation of the tournament by Italian fascism met with criticism, especially from the political left. In previous years, the Socialist Workers' Sports International (SASI) and the Red Sports International (RSI) fought violently, but under the influence of the fascist threat they now moved together. As the first major anti-fascist workers' sport event in which social democrats and communists took part, an international workers' athletes' meeting over several days was held in August 1934 in the Stade Pershing in Paris , attended by 10,000 spectators. As part of the meeting, a tournament declared as the "Workers' Football World Cup" took place, which saw itself as a counter-event to the World Cup in Italy. National selections from several RSI sections as well as the SASI workers' footballers from Norway took part in the tournament. The tournament was won by the Soviet Union, who defeated Norway in the final.
- Hans J. Müllenbach: Soccer World Cup Italy 1934 , 1991, ISBN 3-86125-001-2
- Raphael Keppel: WM 34 - 2nd Soccer World Cup 1934 in Italy , 1990, ISBN 3-928562-00-2
- Hardy Greens : Football World Cup 1934 Italy , Agon Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-89784-198-3
- IFFHS: World Cup 1934 - World Cup 1934. In: Fußball-Weltzeitschrift, Kassel, 28 + 29 + 30 (1995/96)
- ^ Fabian Brändle: Azzurri in black. The weekly newspaper, June 15, 2006, accessed on April 20, 2010 .
- ↑ Spain-Brazil match statistics. fifa.com, accessed April 13, 2019 .
- ↑ España-Brasil, historia de una rivalidad transatlántica. sefutbol.com, accessed on April 13, 2019 ( Spain-Brazil, story of a transatlantic rivalry ).
- ↑ cf. Marco Impiglia: 1934 FIFA World Cup: Did Mussolini rig the Game ?, in: Stefan Rinke / Kay Schiller (eds.): The FIFA World Cup 1930-2010. Politics, Commerce, Spectacle and Identities, Wallstein Verlag Göttingen, 2014, 408 pages, 39.90 euros, pp. 66–84.
- ↑ http://www.deutschlandfunk.de/fussball-ein-komplott-aber-ohne-mussolini.1346.de.html?dram:article_id=289833
- ↑ cf. http://www.deutschlandfunk.de/fussball-ein-komplott-aber-ohne-mussolini.1346.de.html?dram:article_id=289833
- ↑ Christian Koller : Sport and Institutions (Sportlexikon Eastern Europe), esp. P. 12 (as PDF on the website of the Institute for East and Southeast European Studies )