To implement his army reform, the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck gives
his blood and iron speech.
|Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation , the end of slavery in the southern United States , dedicated to the Union in the war are.|
The Battle of Antietam
will be “the bloodiest day in American history”.
|1862 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1310/11 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1854/55 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||18/19 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1267/68 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2405/06 (southern Buddhism); 2404/05 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1224/25 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4195/96 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1240/41 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1278/79 (June 28-29)|
|Jewish calendar||5622/23 (September 24/25)|
|Coptic calendar||1578/79 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1277/78 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2172/73 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2173/74 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1918/19 (April)|
By 1862 at the latest, it became clear to the parties to the conflict that the American Civil War would develop into a long and costly war for both sides. A march of Union troops on Richmond , Virginia, can only be stopped a few kilometers from the Confederate capital, and the Union capital Washington is briefly confronted with enemy units in the immediate vicinity during the course of the year.
The Civil War is one of the first to be documented photographically, and the unadorned pictures of dead soldiers are, in addition to the lack of military success, a reason why Abraham Lincoln increasingly loses support for "his" war in the Union and several commanders in chief during the year his army must exchange. Even so far formally neutral European states are flirting more and more openly with the diplomatic recognition of the confederation . The Battle of Antietam turns out to be the bloodiest day in American history . The battle, which ends in a draw, but can be sold as a tactical victory by the Union because the new Confederate Commander in Chief Robert E. Lee has to withdraw from Union territory. This gives Lincoln the opportunity for the already prepared Emancipation Proclamation , with which he declares slavery to be abolished in those southern states that are at war with the Union.
In its western territories, the Union is fighting a Sioux uprising triggered by mismanagement , which can only be put down with great effort and bloody after several months.
In neighboring Mexico , the French Emperor Napoleon III. the fact that the US is otherwise busy for its military intervention and conquers large parts of the country in the course of the year, even if the defeat in the Battle of Puebla means a brief setback and the powers Spain and Great Britain, allied with France, withdraw their support .
In Prussia , Otto von Bismarck is appointed Prime Minister. When the liberally dominated House of Representatives refused to support him for an army reform despite his blood and iron speech, he dissolved it without further ado and proclaimed a “budget-free regiment”, which ultimately escalated the Prussian constitutional conflict .
Politics and world events
United States / Confederate States of America
Political and strategic developments in the Civil War
- January 14 : Republican Simon Cameron is recalled as Union Secretary of War and replaced by Democrat Edwin M. Stanton .
- January 27 : President Abraham Lincoln , in his number 1 order in the American Civil War , orders all Union armies in all theaters of war to take off on February 22nd .
- February 18 : The 1st Confederate States Congress begins operations in Richmond , Virginia. It replaces the Provisional Confederate Congress , which consists of only one chamber . The representatives of the two houses of Congress were determined in the elections in November of the previous year.
- March 11 : George B. McClellan is deposed by President Lincoln for lack of success as Commanding General of the United States Army . He will be succeeded on July 23rd by Major General Henry Wager Halleck .
- September 22 : Abraham Lincoln proclaims the end of slavery in the southern states of the USA, which are at war with the Union , with the emancipation proclamation , with effect from January 1, 1863. The final abolition of slavery in the United States does not take place until December 1865 by the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution .
- November: The Democrats emerge victorious from the congressional elections.
Eastern theater of war
Union attacks on Confederate seaports
- March 11th : St. Augustine , Florida , is captured by the Union.
- March 14th : The port city of New Bern in North Carolina is captured and occupied by an army of the Northern States.
- April 11th : After around 30 hours of bombardment, the Confederate Fort Pulaski in Georgia surrenders to the Union's attackers. So Savannah is no longer accessible for blockade breakers.
- May: Pensacola , Florida, is captured.
Jackson's Shenandoah campaign
- March to June: Jackson's Shenandoah campaign in western Virginia in 1862 is a success , mainly thanks to the tactics and local knowledge of General Stonewall Jackson and the maps of Jedediah Hotchkiss :
- March 23rd : The battle at Kernstown is the only one General Jackson loses during the campaign. However, it can bind a considerable number of Union units to itself, thereby relieving other Confederate armies.
- May 8 : During the battle near McDowell, Jackson repels several attacks by the Northern Army under Robert H. Milroy .
- May 23rd : In the battle at Front Royal, 900 Northerners surrendered after a brief fierce battle. The Union troops under General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks are forced to evade to Winchester .
- May 25 : The Confederates win the first Battle of Winchester. General Banks then evades with his troops over the Potomac to Maryland. However, tracking the defeated troops remains inefficient. On the one hand, the Confederate troops are exhausted, and on the other hand, there are once again disputes over competence between Ewell and Jackson. Only on May 27th, Jackson began to pursue the Union troops and reached the Harpers Ferry area on May 29th . After the defeat, Union President Lincoln decides that a victory over Jackson's troops has top priority and, contrary to the advice of his generals, sends two more divisions to the Shenandoah Valley, thus playing into the hands of General Robert E. Lee's plans .
- June 8 : The Battle of Cross Keys and
- June 9th : the battle of Port Republic decides the Shendandoah campaign in favor of the Confederation. The Union Army leaves the Shenandoah Valley, which is strategically important for Virginia .
- March to July: After initial successes in the so-called Peninsula Campaign , the Union Army under the leadership of George B. McClellan is repulsed in front of the Confederate capital Richmond .
- March 8 : Army of Northeastern Virginia renamed Army of the Potomac by order of President Lincoln .
- March 8 : On the first day of the Battle of Hampton Roads , the Confederate ironclad Virginia, under the command of Franklin Buchanan, sunk and destroyed several wooden US Navy warships.
- March 9th : On the second day of the Battle of Hampton Roads, the CSS Virginia and the USS Monitor fight for the first duel between two armored warships , this ends in a draw, but the Virginia must finally withdraw.
- April 5 : The Potomac Army under George B. McClellan begins marching on Richmond. The battle for Yorktown ends on May 4th without a decision.
- May 5 : The Northern Army wins the Battle of Williamsburg against a rearguard of Confederate troops.
- May 7th : The battle at Elthams Landing ends without a decision.
- May 11th : The CSS Virginia is self -sunk because of the advance of the Union Army in the peninsula campaign after the fall of Yorktown .
- May 15 : The Union's ironclad ships are forced to turn away by heavy fire in the First Stand at Drewry's Bluff in the James River and are unable to advance on Richmond. The conditionally seaworthy USS Monitor finally sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras , North Carolina, on December 31 , killing 16 crew members.
- June 1 : The attack by Confederate troops in the Battle of Seven Pines on positions of the Potomac Army of the Northern states , which has been carried out the day before, ends in a draw. The Northern Virginia Army breaks off their fight. Then General Robert Edward Lee takes command of the southern troops.
- June 25 : The Battle of Oak Grove begins a series of armed conflicts between the Union and the southern states , known as the Seven Day Battle .
- June 26th : The Battle of Mechanicsville ends in a heavy Confederate defeat.
- June 27 : The Battle of Gaines Mill , the third battle of the Seven Day Battle, ends with a Confederate victory under Robert E. Lee.
- June 30th : The undecided battle of Glendale results in heavy casualties on both sides. Around 7,500 people are killed or injured.
- July 1 : In spite of the victory Union in the final battle, the Battle of Malvern Hill , end the struggles of the Seven Days Battles in the American Civil War with a success for the Southern -Armee. The capital, Richmond , Virginia, could not be captured - mainly due to the hesitant attitude of Commander McClellan - but this is paid for with a blood toll of over 20,600 compared to around 15,800 soldiers on the other side for the Confederates .
Northern Virginia Campaign and Maryland Campaign
- August 9th : In the Battle of Cedar Mountain , the Confederates under General "Stonewall" Jackson defeat the Union troops and are able to shift the hostilities to northern Virginia.
- 28. bis the thirtieth August : The Confederates win in the Second Battle of Bull Run near Manassas Junction victory. As a result, the Confederate marching Northern Virginia Army in Maryland one.
- September 1 : Only 20 kilometers from Washington , the rearguard of the Union troops with Jackson's northern Virginia army, which leads to a battle near Chantilly, ends without a winner.
- September 2 : John Pope , Union Forces commander at Bull Run, is relieved of his command. He is sent west to fight the Sioux uprising .
- September 9th : General Lee issues Special Order 191 , with which he splits his army into several parts. The special order falls into the hands of the Union on September 13th .
- 12. bis 15. September : In order to have her back for the Maryland campaign freely, accesses a part of the Northern Virginia Army on the orders of General Lee, the garrison at Harpers Ferry in Virginia and captured the city in a four-day battle .
- September 14 : Three Corps of the Potomac Army under Major General George B. McClellan and two divisions of the Northern Virginia Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee face off in the Battle of South Mountain . McClellan can decide the battle in the Union's favor, preventing an attack on the capital Washington, DC and a Confederate incursion into Pennsylvania . McClellan's hesitant pursuit of the Confederates and the surrender of the Harpers Ferry crew, however, allow General Lee to reassemble his army at Sharpsburg and face battle in near full strength at Antietam Creek .
- September 17th : The Battle of Antietam becomes “the bloodiest day in American history”. The battle ended in a draw, but the Northern Virginia Army had to withdraw to Virginia because of the great losses , even if
- 19 / 20 September : the ultimately meaningless Battle of Shepherdstown with a Confederate victory ends.
- September 22nd : Union troops occupy Harpers Ferry again.
- November 9 : Ambrose Burnside replaces the disgraced George B. McClellan as Commander in Chief of the Union's Potomac Army .
- November 25th : General Fitz-John Porter , blamed by General Pope for the Bull Run defeat, is brought to trial.
- December 11th to 15th : The Confederates inflict heavy losses on the northern states in the Battle of Fredericksburg with comparatively few losses of their own, thus ensuring an early end to General Ambrose Burnside's campaign to Richmond.
Western theater of war
- January: Fort Knox enters service under the name Fort Duffield .
- December 17 : General Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order No. 11 , which commands all Jews to leave Mississippi, Kentucky and Tennessee within 24 hours. This anti-Semitic expulsion is based on the widespread suspicion that Jews are involved in smuggling with the southern states in the areas mentioned and are fundamentally on their side. The order is the culmination of a series of attempts by Grant to evict the Jews from the area occupied by his troops.
Union advance along the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers
- February 6th : The Battle of Fort Henry ends with a victory of the Union troops under General Ulysses S. Grant , who then march on Fort Donelson .
- February 12 to 16 : The battle for Fort Donelson ends with the unconditional surrender of the Confederates under Simon Bolivar Buckner . The capture of the fort enabled the Union under General Grant to advance along the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers . The Confederates must give up large parts of Kentucky and Tennessee .
- February 23 : Nashville , Tennessee, falls into the hands of the Union as the first Confederate capital and remains under Union control until the end of the war.
- 6 / 7 April : The two-day Battle of Shiloh decide the troops of the Northern States under General Ulysses S. Grant in itself. In the battle of the war with the most losses to date , they did not pursue the retreating Confederate army units under Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard exhausted.
- 29 / May 30 : In the first Battle of Corinth take Union units under Henry Halleck held by Beauregard troops strategically important railway junction Corinth, Mississippi , one.
Iuka Corinth campaign
- October 3 : The Second Battle of Corinth begins.
- October 4 : In the second battle for Corinth, the Confederate troops suffer a defeat against the army of the northern states when they attempted to take the city the day before .
- October 5 : The battle at Hatchies Bridge also ends with a Union victory, but the West Tennessee Confederate Army under Major General Earl Van Dorn is able to successfully evade capture by Union troops as on the previous day.
Maneuvers along the Mississippi
- January: The Confederates under Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard occupy Iceland No. 10 in the Mississippi River .
- March 14 : The Unionist Mississippi Flotilla begins bombarding the island.
- April 7th : After two Union ironclads managed to pass the island, Union troops under John Pope Island No. 10.
- April 28th : Union Admiral David Glasgow Farragut takes the Confederate City of New Orleans with his flotilla and continues up the Mississippi River to Vicksburg (Mississippi) . On the way, the cities of Baton Rouge and Natchez are taken without a fight in early May . The first attempt to capture Vicksburg fails in May.
- June 6th : At the Battle of Memphis , Memphis , Tennessee , is captured by the Army of the Tennessee of the Northern States under Ulysses S. Grant and is maintained until the end of the war. The United States Ram Fleet made a significant contribution to the victory . General Grant then sets up headquarters in Memphis.
- November 2 : General Grant advances his troops to Vicksburg, now the last Confederate town on the Mississippi. By the end of the year, however, it was not possible to take the besieged city. The first Vicksburg campaign lasted until March of the following year.
More battles and campaigns in the west
- April 12 : During the Andrews raid, Northern soldiers hijack a Western and Atlantic Railroad train to cut communications with the city of Chattanooga , Tennessee, which is besieged by the Union Army . The action forms the subject of Buster Keaton's film The General in 1926 .
- October 8 : The Battle of Perryville , the final battle of the Confederate Heartland Offensive, ultimately brings neither side an advantage. As a result, the Confederates finally withdraw from Kentucky .
- December 31st : The Battle of the Stones River begins.
Trans-Mississippi Theater of War
- 7 / 8 March : In the Battle of Pea Ridge are southern states under General Earl Van Dorn of the northern states under General Samuel Curtis in Arkansas beaten. The Confederates have to give up northern Arkansas and are no longer able to threaten Missouri . Van Dorn and his troops are relocated east of the Mississippi for reinforcement.
- 26. bis 28. March : In the Battle of Glorieta Pass prevent Union troops of the Northern States the advance of Confederate forces in the southwestern part of the New Mexico campaign .
- March 29th : During the battle at Stanwix Station in Arizona, the Confederates are subject to an exchange of fire. They retreat to Tucson , evacuate the city and destroy all supplies stored there. They succeed in delaying the advance of the California Column along the disused Butterfield Overland Mail to Tucson and Mesilla .
- August 10th : During the massacre on the Nueces River , 61 German- Texans who feel ideologically connected to the cause of the Union are caught on the flight to Mexico by Confederate cavalry units on the west bank of the Nueces River and 34 of them shot, some of them after they have already surrendered.
- October: Union captures Galveston , Texas from the seas.
Other events in the western territories
- May 20 : US President Abraham Lincoln signs the Homestead Act , a law that allows farmers to purchase up to 64 acres of unpopulated land and aims to colonize the west.
- Aug 17 : After the Bureau of Indian Affairs payments were delayed, starving Sioux ambushed and murdered five white men in search of food. This is considered to be the beginning of the Sioux uprising in Minnesota under the leadership of Chief Little Crow (Taoyateduta).
- August 19 : Sioux unsuccessfully attack the city of New Ulm , Minnesota. After an equally unsuccessful attack on Fort Ridgely from August 20-22, the Indians reappear outside the city. Far superior in numbers, they completely encircle the city, but in turn cannot conquer it. The city is finally evacuated on August 25th after heavy losses among the defenders, as there is little ammunition and food available. Around 2,000 people escape to Mankato, 30 miles to the east .
- September: Abraham Lincoln dispatches Major General John Pope and Col. Henry Hastings Sibley , former Minnesota governor, west to crush the rebellion.
- September 2 : The Indians defeat a small division under Major Joseph R. Brown at Birch Coulee.
- September 23 : Colonel Sibley decisively defeats the Sioux at Wood Lake. Little Crow escapes with some warriors, but most of the Sioux give up the fight and release their prisoners.
- Six weeks later, 392 Dakota will be tried in military tribunals. In trials, some of which last only five minutes, 303 of them are sentenced to death for rape and murder. But there is protest against this, and President Lincoln is commuting most of the death sentences to prison terms. It only upholds the convictions of those found to have raped and murdered civilians.
- December 26 : The largest mass execution in US history to date takes place in Mankato . 38 Dakota warriors sentenced to death are hanged in public after the failed Sioux uprising .
- In the course of the uprising, the US government decides to dissolve the reservation. All contracts with the Dakota are null and void, and the state of Minnesota is offering a $ 25 bounty for each scalp of a freely encountered Dakota. The captive members of the tribe, approximately 1,300 to 1,700 people, are taken to the newly established Crow Creek Reservation in Nebraska and South Dakota , including some Sioux white-friendly groups.
- July 19 : In British North America , at the height of the gold rush, the Stikine Territory is separated from the Northwest Territory and thus withdrawn from the Hudson's Bay Company . It falls under the jurisdiction of James Douglas , Governor of the Crown Colony of British Columbia .
- January 6th to 8th : After Spanish troops arrived in Veracruz in December , English and French ships also land in Mexico.
- January 25 : The Republican government under Benito Juárez enacts a law making all armed resistance against the state a death penalty.
- March 5 : French General Charles Ferdinand Latrille Lorencez lands in Mexico and takes command of the invading forces.
- May 5 : A from Emperor Napoleon III. French army corps sent under General Lorencez is defeated in the battle of Puebla by the Mexican army under the command of Ignacio Zaragoza . The cavalry under Porfirio Díaz played an important role in the victory of the Mexicans. The Battle of Puebla is the most important Mexican victory in the early days of the French intervention in Mexico and this day - Cinco de Mayo - is celebrated annually in Mexico to this day. The French under General Lorencez withdraw to Orizaba.
- May 18 : In the Battle of Barranca Seca , the French troops win together with reactionary Mexican units under Leonardo Marquez .
- June 14th : The French defeat the Mexican troops who carelessly pursued them to Orizaba .
- September 8th : General Zaragoza dies of typhus.
- October 1 : Élie-Frédéric Forey replaces General Lorencez as commander-in-chief of the French troops. He conquered Tampico on October 23 and Xalapa , the capital of the state of Veracruz, on December 12 .
José Santos Guardiola , president of Honduras since 1856 , was murdered by his bodyguards on January 11th . Since his deputy Victoriano Castellanos Cortés is currently in El Salvador, the parliament elects José Francisco Montes Fonseca as president. On February 4th , Castellanos Cortés took office as President of Honduras and convened a Constituent Assembly. These published on May 8 , the Decree No 3 , the name in the first Republic of Honduras is used. However, due to his rapidly deteriorating health, he hands the office back to Montes Fonseca on December 4th . Victoriano Castellanos Cortés dies a few days later on December 11th .
- September 10 : After the death of Carlos Antonio López , his eldest son Francisco Solano López , previously Minister of War in his father's cabinet, takes power as President of Paraguay . The step is subsequently legitimized by the country's Congress. Francisco's brother Venancio becomes the new Minister of War. A personality cult is built around the president, who ruled with absolute power.
- October 5 : Liberal Bartolomé Miter is elected President of Argentina in the first national election . He will take office on October 12th .
- November: The civil war in Colombia , which has been going on since 1860, ends. The following year, the United States of Colombia emerged from the Granada Confederation .
- January: The liberal Wilhelm Grabow becomes President of the Prussian House of Representatives .
- March 12 : The cabinet of Prime Minister Karl Anton Fürst von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen resigns, the parliament is dissolved. The new Prime Minister will be Adolf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen on March 17th . Mainly conservative forces are represented in his cabinet. This ends the so-called New Era in Prussia .
- May 6th : In the elections for the Prussian House of Representatives, the liberal German Progressive Party wins an absolute majority. Prime Minister Adolf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen submitted his resignation, which was not accepted by King Wilhelm I.
- September 23 : Prussian constitutional conflict : Otto von Bismarck is appointed Prussian Prime Minister. His cabinet includes Albrecht von Roon , Carl von Bodelschwingh , Heinrich Friedrich von Itzenplitz and Gustav von Jagow .
- September 30th : In a speech to the budget commission of the House of Representatives, Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck expresses his conviction that iron and blood decide the big questions of the time. He wants to push through an army reform.
- October 13 : Bismarck dissolves the Prussian House of Representatives with his first official act and proclaims a “budget-free regiment”, which turns the army conflict into a tangible constitutional conflict.
- December: Interior Minister Gustav von Jagow resigns because he does not agree with Bismarck's budget-free regiment.
Further events in the German Confederation
- September 26 : Prince Johann II signs the first constitution in the history of Liechtenstein . The Landtag thus becomes the representative of the people . Of the 15 MPs, 3 are appointed by the Prince and 12 are elected by indirect election through electors . The first newspaper appeared in the principality in the same year.
- October 26 : The German Reform Association , which works as a counterpart to the German National Association founded in 1859 for the Greater German solution to the German question , is founded. The liberal Oskar von Wydenbrugk is in charge .
- With the introduction of so-called district offices , the judiciary and administration are separated in the Kingdom of Bavaria . The regional courts are thus purely judicial bodies.
Switzerland / France
After French troops marched into the Dappental last year , the status of the Dappental was clarified in the form of an exchange of territory covering an area of seven square kilometers. France receives the western part of the valley and the road it built. As a substitute, Switzerland will receive areas from the intersection of the streets of Saint-Cergue and the Col de la Faucille (the strategic road) along the slope of the Noirmont to the existing border with the Vallée de Joux . Article I of the State Treaty also defines a strip of land east of the strategic road "with an average width of roughly 500 Swiss feet or 150 meters" to French territory. The contract also stipulates that no military installations may be built in the Dappental area, and that those residing in the exchanged territories may freely choose their citizenship and may remain in the area. In addition, Switzerland is granted the right to use the road from the Vallée de Joux via the French Bois-d'Amont to La Cure free of charge and without customs duties.
- June 20 : The Romanian Prime Minister Barbu Catargiu is assassinated around four months after taking office in the new capital Bucharest . The background to the crime is never cleared up. The previous Foreign Minister Apostol Arsache will be his interim successor . He will be replaced by Nicolae Crețulescu on June 24th .
- October 24th : A military coup deposed King Otto I of Greece and forced him out of the country. Dimitrios Voulgaris replaces Gennaios Kolokotronis as Prime Minister and forms a provisional government.
Other events in Europe
- February 1 : The Van Zuylen van Nijevelt / Van Heemstra cabinet under Prime Minister Schelto van Heemstra , which has ruled the Netherlands since 1861 , is replaced by a liberal cabinet under Johan Rudolf Thorbecke , who thus begins a second term.
- August 29th : Risorgimento : The battle of the Aspromonte , a mountain range in Calabria , is won by the Piedmontese troops against Giuseppe Garibaldi's volunteer organizations . He is injured in battle.
- May 29 : In the Teradaya incident in Fushimi , Satsuma samurai put down a riot within their own ranks.
- September 14 : In the Namamugi incident , several British citizens are attacked by Japanese samurai for showing a lack of respect for their daimyo , one of them is killed and the other injured.
- Bakumatsu : The practice of Sankin kōtai , the obligation of the daimyō to appear regularly (the timing varied) in the capital Edo and to be accountable to the Shōgun , is abolished. This also includes the obligation to maintain adequate residences in Edo and to let their families live there as hostages all year round.
- April: Triggered by an attack by the Taiping rebels on Shaanxi, including Xi'an , the Muslim Dungan uprisings begin in the northwest of the Chinese Empire .
- July / August: Three newly established higher courts in British India start working in quick succession . All three were inaugurated by Queen Victoria 's Letters Patents . They are:
- June 5 : In view of the French military successes and the resurgence of peasant unrest in Tongking , the Vietnamese government in Hu sieht is forced to sign a treaty with France in which it cedes three northern provinces of Cochinchina to France. In addition, it undertakes to pay reparations and guarantees the French the right to proselytize, to trade on the Mekong and to trade in some port cities. In the Treaty of Saigon , the city becomes the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina .
Scotsman William Landsborough heads south from the Gulf of Carpentaria on February 10 with the six-person Queensland Relief Expedition in search of Burke and Wills' expedition . It follows the Flinders River for some time , but finds itself pushed too far to the east and is oriented towards Cooper's Creek . On May 21, he reached a farm near Cunnamulla and finally learned of the fate of wanted Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills . Two days later, Landsborough is already setting out again with renewed supplies to finally reach Melbourne in October via the Darling River and Menindee, 300 km away . This makes him the first white man to have crossed the Australian continent from north to south. None of the expedition members was harmed during the trip. Landsborough is rewarded with a gold watch by the Royal Geographical Society in November for discovering a walkable north-south route through Australia .
- July 7th : A parliamentary session is provisionally held for the first time in what will later be the capital, Wellington .
- August 6 : After a successful motion of no confidence in William Fox , Alfred Domett is offered the office of Prime Minister of New Zealand , which he accepts. However, he soon comes under fire himself.
- May 1st : After 11 years another world exhibition takes place in London at the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society in South Kensington . The Great London Exposition runs until November 1st . The organizer is the Royal Society of Arts, Manufactures and Trade .
Taxes and Money Economy
- February 25 : The United States Treasury Department puts banknotes , known as greenbacks , a form of fiat money, into circulation with the first Legal Tender Act to finance the Civil War .
- August 24th : The Italian lira , introduced in the previous year, becomes the sole means of payment and replaces all previous currencies in the territories united to form the Kingdom of Italy .
- With the Revenue Act of 1862 a tax progression is decided in the United States for the income tax introduced in the previous year with the Revenue Act of 1861 . At the same time, the Lincoln government decides to introduce a new agency to collect income tax.
- January 21 : After years of wandering, the trained locksmith Adam Opel founds a sewing machine manufacture in his hometown of Rüsselsheim , from which the Opel company developed.
- February 4th : Facundo Bacardí buys a small rum distillery on Calle Matadero N ° 5 in Santiago de Cuba and founds the company Bacardi & Ca. .
- April 5th : The Austrian merchant Julius Meinl opens his first shop on the meat market in Vienna . The grocery store initially only offers green coffee beans , later also freshly roasted coffee .
- October 22nd : The Neustadt-Dürkheimer Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft is founded. On the basis of an agreement with the Palatinate Ludwig Railway Company on January 25th and the license granted on August 28th, it is to build a local railway between the towns of Neustadt an der Weinstrasse and Dürkheim .
- December 13 : In Meiningen is with the Deutsche Hypothekenbank the first pure mortgage bank established in Germany.
- The industrialists Salomon Volkart , Heinrich Rieter , Heinrich Sulzer Steiner and Johann Jakob Sulzer found in Winterthur , the Bank in Winterthur with a starting capital of five million francs .
- Georg Adam Scheid and Michael Markowitsch found the OHG Markowitsch & Scheid in Vienna , a predecessor of today's Ögussa .
- The Standard Bank of British South Africa is founded.
- The American Shipmasters' Association is founded.
- In New Orleans , the Café du Monde is founded as a small street café.
- January 5th : The first section of the Pavia – Torreberetti railway in Italy opens. The final stop in Pavia will be reached on May 10th . At the same time when is the station Milano Rogoredo from the Milan-Bologna railway branching rail line Rogoredo-Pavia completed.
- March 1st : The Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft opens the section of the railway line through the Ruhr Valley from Bochum via Steele, Essen, Mülheim (Ruhr) and Styrum to Oberhausen, a few weeks later on May 1st with the section from Styrum to Duisburg BME the route in the west will be completed for the time being. In the same year, the route from Langendreer will be extended east to Dortmund and opened for passenger traffic on October 5th .
- June 19 : The Rösslitram, the first horse tram in Switzerland , runs in Geneva . The Geneva tram does not run through the actual city center, but connects the suburb of Carouge with Place Neuve on the edge of the city center. The wagons of the first Swiss tram are relatively heavy and therefore have to be pulled by two horses.
- 23 June : On the Hamar – Grundset line , the world's first narrow-gauge railway in Kapspur goes into operation in Norway . It was designed by the railway pioneer Carl Abraham Pihl .
- July 1 : The extension of the Waverly Line through the Scottish Borders from Hawick to Carlisle opens.
- July 1 : By resolution of the US Congress , the US Military Railroad is founded to open up the western United States . In return, she will receive around 12 million acres of land and $ 27 million in government bonds.
- July 28th : The Great Eastern Railway is formed through the merger of the Eastern Counties Railway with several smaller railroad companies in East Anglia .
- August 4th : The first section of the Kocherbahn from Schwäbisch Hall to Heilbronn , which was created under the construction management of Carl Julius Abel , is opened by the Royal Württemberg State Railways .
- October 23 : The first part of the Odenwaldbahn in the Grand Duchy of Baden from Heidelberg via Neckargemünd, Meckesheim, Neckarbischofsheim, Aglasterhausen and Neckarelz to Mosbach opens.
- December: The last section of the Petersburg-Warsaw Railway , which has been under construction since 1851 , is completed and opened.
- After the Swill milk scandal of 1858 , the first regulatory measures in milk production were adopted in New York .
science and technology
- January: Alexandrine Tinné sets off up the Nile from Cairo to meet John Hanning Speke . Together they then want to search for the source of the Nile . When Speke does not arrive at the agreed meeting point, Tinné sets off alone with her people. By land, she advances to the hardly explored regions in the Congo and arrives at Gondokoro on September 30th . However, the expedition lacks porters and food, and after several attacks of malaria , Tinné breaks off the trip and soon sets off back. On this trip she meets slave caravans for the first time, documents this, does not shy away from messing with the slave traders and buys many people free, whom she offers to join her entourage. As soon as she returned to Cairo, she began planning the exploration of the Gazelle River.
- February 10th : After putting down his travel reports in writing, Karl Moritz von Beurmann also decides to go in search of Eduard Vogel and sets off south from Tripoli .
- April 4 : Theodor von Heuglin and Hermann Steudner establish friendly relations with the Abyssinian Emperor Theodor II . Heuglin was then withdrawn from leading the expedition to search for Eduard Vogel. Werner Munzinger , who has been in Khartoum since March 1st with a split off part of the expedition , is appointed as the new leader.
- Karl Klaus von der Betten returns to Kilimanjaro after a year to attempt the first ascent of a European. At an altitude of around 4,200 meters, however, he had to give up due to snowfall. He then explored the course of the Pangani River with his partner Otto Kersten .
- December: Samuel White Baker and Barbara Szász start a caravan from Khartoum to explore the course of the White Nile .
- The American antiques dealer Edwin Smith purchases a papyrus roll at a market in Luxor . The ancient Egyptian medical text, later baptized Edwin Smith Papyrus, is one of the oldest written documents of medical treatment.
- January 31 : Alvan Graham Clark discovers Sirius B , a companion of Sirius - later identified as a white dwarf .
- March 27th : The foundation stone is laid in Zurich for the Federal Observatory designed by Gottfried Semper , which will gain fame through research into sunspots . It was completed in 1864.
- May 23 : The German astronomer Eduard Schönfeld is in the constellation Coma Berenices later than NGC 4383 captured spiral galaxy .
- July 16 : Lewis Swift discovers a new comet while observing the sky . Three days later, Horace Parnell Tuttle came across the same celestial phenomenon independently of Swift.
- In the course of his work at the University of Copenhagen, the German-Danish astronomer Heinrich Louis d'Arrest discovered several galaxies in the constellation Pisces : NGC 403 ( August 29 ), NGC 186 ( September 23 ) and NGC 199 ( September 24 ).
|No. and name||
|Date of discovery||Explorer|
|(73) Klytia||44.4||7th of April||Horace Parnell Tuttle|
|(74) Galatea||118.7||29th August||Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Temple|
|(75) Eurydice||55.9||September 22||Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters|
|(76) Freia||183.7||October 21||Heinrich Louis d'Arrest|
|(77) Frigga||669.3||November 12th||Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters|
- November 10th : The British biologist and educational organizer Thomas Henry Huxley gives the first lecture of his ten-part lecture series On Our Knowledge of the Causes of Phenomena in Organic Nature , about the ideas of Charles Darwin's work, published in late 1859, at the Geological Museum on London's Jermyn Street Popularize The Origin of Species . Karl Marx and Wilhelm Liebknecht are among the audience .
- Ernst Haeckel wrote a monograph on radiolarians .
- The first description of the consecration of Réunion by the French ornithologist Jules Verreaux is published in Louis Maillard's Notes sur l'Île de la Réunion (Bourbon) .
- The Augustinian monk Gregor Mendel founds the Natural Scientists Association Brno with friends from the surrounding area .
- Ludwig von Kochel released the Köchelverzeichnis in the first edition, a catalog of works of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart .
Teaching and Research
- May 2 : California State Normal School - now San José State University - is founded in California .
- July 1 : The Russian State Library is founded as Moscow's first free and public library under the name Library of the Moscow Public Museum and the Rumyantsev Museum or Rumyantsev Library in Pashkov House for short .
- At the suggestion of his authorized signatory Matthias Reischle, the liqueur manufacturer Anton Riemerschmid founds a commercial college for women in Munich , the first commercial school for girls in Germany. Reischle becomes the first director and, like most other members of the teaching staff, waives any remuneration for his work at the school.
- The University of South Dakota is founded in Vermillion , Dakota Territory .
- The Riga Polytechnic is founded.
- The Association for the Swiss German Dictionary was founded for the first time on the initiative of the Antiquarian Society in Zurich . The first editor-in-chief is Friedrich Staub .
- The Royal Saxon Triangulation begins, a land survey carried out on the territory of the Kingdom of Saxony between 1862 and 1890 and the creation of a trigonometric network. The aim is to precisely record the national territory scientifically and geodetically and to provide the basis for a detailed land survey and a modern map series by defining permanently marketed fixed points . The Großenhainer baseline is determined as the benchmark .
- In Music in the Tuileries Garden , Édouard Manet presents himself together with the painters Albert de Balleroy and Henri Fantin-Latour , the writers Zacharie Astruc , Théophile Gautier and Charles Baudelaire , as well as the composer Jacques Offenbach as part of Parisian bourgeois society. The work is largely devastating Reviews and remains unsalable for over 20 years.
- Edouard Manet founded the Societé des Aquafortistes together with Felix Bracquemond, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros , Johan Barthold Jongkind and Augustin Théodule Ribot , encouraged by the editor Alfred Cadart and the photographer Félix Chevalier . This artists' association has set itself the goal of promoting the art of etching . Especially in the 1860s, Manet made numerous etchings based on his paintings.
- Eastman Johnson produces the work A Ride for Liberty - The Fugitive Slaves in oil on canvas .
- February 11 : In The Atlantic Monthly published Julia Ward Howe 's poem The Battle Hymn of the Republic .
- April 3 / May 15 : Victor Hugo publishes the monumental novel Les Misérables in five volumes. The criticism is divided, but the work becomes a financial success.
- July 4th : On a boat trip on the Thames, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson tells the sisters Alice, Edith and Lorina Lidell a story that would later become world-famous as Alice in Wonderland .
- The Swiss humanist Henri Dunant publishes a memory of Solferino ( Un souvenir de Solférino ) in French at his own expense and sends it to leading figures from politics and the military. Within a few years it was translated into eleven languages.
- End of the year: The novel Salambo by Gustave Flaubert appears.
Music and theater
- January 7th : Former circumstances , a farce with singing in one act by Johann Nestroy with music by Anton M. Storch is premiered at the Quai Theater in Vienna .
- February 1st : The world premiere of the “Indian carnival burlesque” Chief Abendwind or The Greyish Feast by Johann Nestroy with music by Jacques Offenbach takes place at the Quai-Theater in Vienna. It is the last play written by Nestroy, on May 25th he died at the age of 60 in Graz. His last role is the parade role of Knieriem in The Evil Spirit Lumpacivagabundus .
- February: The fairy tale song Hansel and Gretel by Georg Kremplsetzer is premiered in the Konzerthaus Odeon in Munich. In his libretto, Wilhelm Busch deviates significantly from the Brothers Grimm's original .
- April 19 : The Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, built by Gabriel Davioud on behalf of Baron Haussmann on the Place du Châtelet , opens in the presence of the Empress Eugénie with a performance of Rothomago von d'Ennery, Clairville and Monnier.
- April 26 : The world premiere of the operetta Die Kartenschlägerin by Franz von Suppè , originally written for the Theater an der Wien and adapted for the Theater am Franz-Josefs-Kai in Vienna, is not a success.
- May 1st : Delegates from 106 clubs found the Franconian Singing Association in Bamberg .
- August 2nd : Datterich , a Darmstadt local posse in Hessian dialect by Ernst Elias Niebergall , is premiered in Bessungen almost 20 years after the author's death.
- August 9 : On the occasion of the opening of the Baden-Baden Theater , the two-act opera Béatrice et Bénédict by Hector Berlioz is premiered. The libretto , loosely based on William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, comes from the composer himself.
- September 21 : Carl Gerster is in charge of founding the German Choir Association in Coburg , the world's largest association of amateur choirs.
- October 25 : The operetta Ten Girls and No Man by Franz von Suppè has its world premiere at the Theater am Franz-Josefs-Kai in Vienna. The libretto comes from Friedrich Wilhelm Riese under the pseudonym Wilhelm Friedrich.
- November 10th : In Saint Petersburg, the opera La forza del destino by Giuseppe Verdi with the libretto by Francesco Maria Piave based on Don Álvaro o la fuerza del sino by the Spanish Duke Ángel de Saavedra is premiered and received by the audience with exuberant enthusiasm.
- George Frederick Root wrote the song Battle Cry of Freedom . The song, originally intended for use by the Union, became so popular that it was adapted for the Confederation and thus also sung in the southern states.
- June 17 : King Wilhelm I of Württemberg approves the establishment of a state collection for patriotic art and antiquity monuments in Stuttgart - today's Württemberg State Museum .
- August 21 : The Vienna City Park , designed by the landscape painter Joseph Sellény and laid out by city gardener Rudolph Siebeck , on the site of the recently demolished water glacis in the style of an English landscape park , opens as the second Volksgarten in Vienna .
- October 6th : Australia's first zoo opens in Melbourne .
- November 15 : A city beautification committee is founded in Salzburg by 26 people .
- June 21 : At a board meeting of the Natural Science Association of Elberfeld and Barmen , the Wupperthal Association for the Protection of Animals is founded under the leadership of Johann Carl Fuhlrott . On December 4th, the new association already had 260 members. Through targeted public relations work, Fuhlrott succeeds in awakening an awareness of ecological relationships in the population.
- September 23 : Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy marries Sofja Andrejewna Behrs . A little later he begins writing his epic novel War and Peace .
- December 15 : The first philatelic trade journal, The Monthly Advertiser, appears in England . The first stamp albums appear in Paris in the same year .
- Today's prison in Niederschönenfeld in Bavaria will be the first juvenile prison in Germany for male prisoners between the ages of 12 and 18.
- The Irish Water Spaniel is recognized as a breed of dog by The Kennel Club .
- The Ghost Club is founded in London . Among the earliest members of the organization, the purpose of the ghost hunt and exploration of paranormal phenomena such as ghosts - and haunting is belong next to Charles Dickens numerous academics and clerics of the University of Cambridge .
- January 6th : Zygmunt Szczęsny Feliński is appointed the new Archbishop of Warsaw and consecrated on January 26th in St. Petersburg. Like his predecessor Antoni Melchior Fijałkowski , who died last year , he becomes a patriotic figure in divided Poland.
- March 3 : The Rheinau Abbey in the Canton of Zurich is closed by decision of the Cantonal Council. The monastery archive will be incorporated into the state archive of the Canton of Zurich .
- April 7th : The previous Archbishop of Udine, Giuseppe Luigi Trevisanato , succeeds Angelo Ramazzotti, who died the previous year, as Patriarch of Venice .
- April 8th : With the encyclical Amantissimus Pope Pius IX. to the bishops of the Eastern Church and urges their unity with the Catholic Church.
- June 12th : The Franciscan Brothers of the Holy Cross are founded as a congregation under papal law . They emerge from the Frommer Handwerker shared apartment founded by Peter Wirth .
- September 28th : The Baghdad Archeparchy of the Syrians is established.
- November 13th : The market church built by Carl Boos on Schloßplatz in Wiesbaden is inaugurated.
- December 13 : Catholic Sorbs found the Cyrill Methodius Association .
- Sabina Schneider and three other Benedictine women jointly lease the former ancestral seat of the Lords of Ofteringen and found the Marienburg monastery .
- March 12th : The steamboat Brother Jonathan , coming from San Francisco, docks in Victoria , British Columbia , triggering the smallpox epidemic on the Pacific coast of North America . In the course of a year, smallpox kills around half of the total indigenous population, around 14,000 people.
- July 27 : The 338 passengers and crew on board are killed in a fire on the American paddle steamer Golden Gate 204 on the Mexican coast . The ship runs aground and breaks apart.
- January 22nd : A skiing event takes place in Trysil , Norway, where a ski jumping competition is being held for the first time .
- February 12 : Miroslav Tyrš founds the first Slavic national gymnastics movement Sokol in Prague, based on the example of the German gymnastics movement .
- November: Notts County Football Club is founded.
- November 19 : The Austrian Alpine Club is founded at the suggestion of the students Paul Grohmann , Edmund von Mojsisovics and Guido von Sommaruga as the first mountaineering association on the European mainland and thus the second oldest in the world after the British Alpine Club .
- December 29 : Sheffield FC and Hallam FC host a football match for the first time at Bramall Lane Stadium in Sheffield , the oldest football stadium in the world that is still in use today.
Historical maps and views
- January 2 : Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky , Russian engineer († 1919 )
- January 3 : Max Littmann , German architect († 1931 )
- January 3 : Heinrich August Meißner , German engineer and Ottoman pasha († 1940 )
- January 3 : Matthew Nathan , British officer and colonial administrator († 1939 )
- January 4 : Louis F. Hart , American politician († 1929 )
- January 5 : Inès de Bourgoing , French nurse and President of the French Red Cross, first woman to be awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor († 1953 )
- January 6th : August Oetker , German inventor of ready-to-use baking powder († 1918 )
- January 9 : Maurice Arthus , French physiologist († 1945 )
- January 9 : Agnes Bluhm , German doctor († 1943 )
- January 12 : John George Adami , British-Canadian pathologist († 1926 )
- January 14 : Rosalía Abreu , Cuban animal breeder and behavioral scientist († 1930 )
- January 15 : Loïe Fuller , American burlesque actress, singer († 1928 )
- January 18 : Anna Jäger , Austrian-German opera singer († 1937 )
- January 20 : Xaver Terofal , German actor († 1940 )
- January 20 : Carl von Tubeuf , German plant pathologist and professor († 1941 )
- January 21 : Ewald Müller , German teacher, local poet and local researcher († 1932 )
- January 23 : Anton Delbrück , German psychiatrist († 1944 )
- January 23 : David Hilbert , German mathematician († 1943 )
- January 23 : Ovington Weller , American politician († 1947 )
- January 24 : Alfons of Bavaria , Bavarian Prince († 1933 )
- January 24th : Edith Wharton , American novelist († 1937 )
- January 29 : Frederick Delius , English composer († 1934 )
- February 1 : Anastasius Nordenholz , German-Argentine economic philosopher († 1953 )
- February 5 : Aleksander Kakowski , Archbishop of Warsaw and Cardinal († 1938 )
- February 5 : Felipe Villanueva , Mexican composer († 1893 )
- February 5 : Oskar Herrfurth , German painter and illustrator († 1934 )
- February 6 : Rafaela Serrano Rodríguez , Cuban pianist and music teacher of Spanish origin († 1938 )
- February 7 : Horace F. Graham , American politician († 1941 )
- February 7 : Edward Granville Browne , British orientalist († 1926 )
- February 8 : Károly Ferenczy Hungarian impressionist painter († 1917 )
- February 10 : Marius Anton von Attems-Heiligenkreuz , Austrian KuK governor in the Kingdom of Dalmatia and Privy Councilor († 1947 )
- February 12 : Brito Camacho , Portuguese politician († 1934 )
- February 14 : Agnes Pockels , German physicist and chemist († 1935 )
- February 17 : Mori Ōgai , Japanese doctor, novelist and translator († 1922 )
- February 21 : Emiliana Concha de Ossa , South American artist model and muse († 1905 )
- February 22 : Louise Dumont , German actress and theater director († 1932 )
- February 24 : Harry Puder , German officer († 1933 )
- February 27 : Sophie Countess Attems-Heiligenkreuz , Austrian writer († 1937 )
- February 27 : Hamilton Fish Kean , American politician († 1941 )
- February 28 : Rudolf Huch , German lawyer and writer († 1943 )
- March 4 : Robert Emden , Swiss physicist and astrophysicist († 1940 )
- March 4 : Norman Gale , English poet († 1942 )
- March 4 : George H. Prouty , American politician († 1918 )
- March 5 : Siegbert Tarrasch , German chess grandmaster († 1934 )
- March 7th : René Bohn , German chemist († 1922 )
- March 7th : Josef Strzygowski , Polish art historian († 1941 )
- March 12 : Alfredo Peri-Morosini , Swiss Catholic Bishop († 1931 )
- March 12 : Richard Skowronnek , German journalist and writer († 1932 )
- March 13 : Wilhelm Weigand , German poet and writer († 1949 )
- March 14 : Emil Beurmann , Swiss writer, poet, draftsman and painter († 1951 )
- March 17 : Silvio Gesell , German businessman, financial theorist († 1930 )
- March 17 : Heinrich Vogelsang , German merchant and consul († 1914 )
- March 20 : Adolf Braun , Austrian-German social democratic politician and journalist († 1929 )
- March 25 : Richard Cornelius Kukula , Austrian classical philologist († 1919 )
- March 25 : George Sutherland , American politician and judge († 1942 )
- March 28 : Aristide Briand , French Prime Minister and Foreign Minister († 1932 )
- March 29 : Carl Busch , American composer († 1943 )
- March 30th : Wilhelm Bode , German teacher and writer, activist of an anti-alcoholic movement († 1922 )
- March 31 : Claude A. Swanson , American politician († 1939 )
- April 2 : Nicholas Murray Butler , American philosopher and publicist, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate († 1947 )
- April 2 : William Bauchop Wilson , American politician († 1934 )
- April 4 : Wilhelm Altmann , German music historian and librarian († 1951 )
- April 4 : Max Crone , German theologian and writer († 1939 )
- April 7 : William Haselden Ellerbe , American politician († 1899 )
- April 8 : August Aschinger , German restaurateur († 1911 )
- April 9 : Teuvo Pakkala , Finnish writer († 1925 )
- April 11 : Heinrich Cunow , German politician († 1936 )
- April 11 : Charles Evans Hughes , American politician († 1948 )
- April 11 : Thomas Kearns , American politician († 1918 )
- April 12 : Jean-Baptiste Reboul , French chef († 1926 )
- April 13 : Maximilian Modde , German painter († 1933 )
- April 14 : Martin Grove Brumbaugh , American politician († 1930 )
- April 14 : Pyotr Stolypin , Russian politician († 1911 )
- April 20 : Clemens Pfau , German homeland researcher († 1946 )
- April 24 : Nathaniel B. Dial , American politician († 1940 )
- April 24 : Tomitaro Makino , Japanese botanist († 1957 )
- April 25 : Friedrich Austerlitz , Austrian journalist and politician († 1931 )
- April 29 : Carl Friedemann , Swiss composer and conductor († 1952 )
- May 2 : Maurice Emmanuel , French composer († 1938 )
- May 6 : Oscar Underwood , American politician († 1929 )
- May 8 : Hugo Erdmann , German chemist († 1910 )
- May 11 : Albert Arnstadt , German politician († 1947 )
- May 11 : Franklin S. Billings , American politician († 1935 )
- May 12 : Oskar Freiwirth-Lützow , German painter († 1925 )
- May 12 : Johannes Poggenburg , German Catholic Bishop († 1933 )
- May 15 : Cassius Keyser , American mathematician († 1947 )
- May 15 : Arthur Schnitzler , Austrian storyteller and playwright († 1931 )
- May 16 : Margaret Fountaine , British butterfly researcher († 1940 )
- May 16 : Andrieus A. Jones , American politician († 1927 )
- May 18 : Hans von Ramsay , German officer and explorer († 1938 )
- May 18 : Theodor Scheinpflug , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1919 )
- May 18 : Albert von Schrenck-Notzing , German physician and parapsychologist († 1929 )
- May 19 : João do Canto e Castro , Portuguese admiral and President († 1934 )
- May 21 : Gustav Eichhorn , German medic and prehistorian († 1929 )
- May 23 : Hermann Gunkel , German Protestant theologian († 1932 )
- May 23 : Hermann Obrist , German-Swiss sculptor and co-founder of Art Nouveau († 1927 )
- May 27 : Feliksa Kozłowska , Polish nun († 1921 )
- May 28 : Theodor Fischer , German architect and urban planner († 1938 )
- May 28 : Henry Slocum , American tennis player († 1949 )
- May 30th : Anton Ažbe , Austrian painter of Slovenian origin († 1905 )
- June 2 : Julius Tafel , German chemist († 1918 )
- June 3 : Humfrey Anger , Canadian organist, composer, conductor and music teacher († 1913 )
- June 4th : Teresa Claramunt , Spanish feminist, anarchist and syndicalist († 1931 )
- June 4 : Camille Decoppet , Swiss politician († 1925 )
- June 5 : Allvar Gullstrand , Swedish physician, Nobel Prize winner († 1930 )
- June 5 : Ernst Seidler von Feuchtenegg , Austrian lawyer, university professor, politician and Imperial and Royal Prime Minister († 1931 )
- June 6 : Leopold Armbruster , German sculptor († 1936 )
- June 7 : Felix von Arnim , Prussian officer and chamberlain († 1919 )
- June 7 : Kauppis-Heikki , Finnish writer († 1920 )
- June 7 : Philipp Lenard , German physicist and Nobel Prize winner († 1947 )
- June 8 : David Ogden Watkins , American politician († 1938 )
- June 9 : Herbert Baker , British architect († 1946 )
- June 10 : Alfons Maria Augner , Swiss Benedictine monk († 1938 )
- June 12 : Wilhelm Meyer-Förster , German writer († 1934 )
- June 14 : John Joseph Glennon , Archbishop of St. Louis and Cardinal († 1946 )
- June 15 : Otto Wiener , German physicist († 1927 )
- June 16 : Len Small , American politician († 1936 )
- June 18 : Otto Immisch , German classical philologist († 1936 )
- June 19 : Leo von Dobschütz , Prussian major general († 1934 )
- June 21 : Friedrich Wilhelm Franke , German organist († 1932 )
- June 21 : Damrong Rajanubhab , Minister of the Interior of Thailand, archaeologist († 1943 )
- June 21 : Henry Holden Huss , American composer († 1953 )
- June 21 : Johannes Schlaf , German playwright, narrator and translator († 1941 )
- June 25 : Johannes von Hieber , liberal politician and President of Württemberg († 1951 )
- June 27 : Hanka Petzold , Norwegian-German singer, pianist and music teacher in Japan († 1937 )
- June 27 : Johann Puch , Austrian engineer and industrialist († 1914 )
- July 1 : Besim Ömer Akalın , Turkish professor and politician († 1940 )
- July 2 : William Henry Bragg , English physicist and Nobel Prize winner († 1942 )
- July 2 : Christopher Cradock , British Rear Admiral († 1914 )
- July 3 : Bolesława Maria Lament , Polish nun, founder of the order and blessed († 1946 )
- July 4 : Walter L. Fisher , American politician († 1935 )
- July 5 : Horatio Caro , English chess player († 1920 )
- July 9 : Carl Thiel , German organist, church musician and professor of music († 1939 )
- July 10 : August Wilhelm Andernach , German manufacturer, large landowner and alpinist († 1942 )
- July 11th : Liza Lehmann , English composer, singer and pianist († 1918 )
- July 12 : Hermann Conradi , German writer († 1890 )
- July 14 : Gustav Klimt , Austrian painter († 1918 )
- July 15 : Frank P. Flint , American politician († 1929 )
- July 15 : Ludwig Fulda , German philosopher, philosopher and author († 1939 )
- July 17 : Oscar Levertin , Swedish writer († 1906 )
- July 17 : Franz Servaes , German journalist, critic and writer († 1947 )
- July 22nd : Alfredo Helsby , Chilean painter († 1933 )
- July 23 : Franz Amann , Liechtenstein politician († 1945 )
- July 26 : George B. Cortelyou , American politician († 1940 )
- July 28 : Curt Agthe , German genre and landscape painter († 1943 )
- July 29 : Percy Moran , American painter († 1935 )
- July 30 : Nikolai Judenitsch , Russian general († 1933 )
- August 1 : Montague Rhodes James , English horror and fantasy author († 1936 )
- August 2 : Duncan Campbell Scott , Canadian poet and narrator († 1947 )
- August 4 : Ludwig Aub , German bookseller, writer, graphologist and clairvoyant († 1926 )
- August 5th : Joseph Merrick , the "Elephant Man" († 1890 )
- August 7 : Viktoria von Baden , Swedish Queen († 1930 )
- August 12 : Alfred Kaiser , Swiss researcher on Africa and Sinai († 1930 )
- August 14 : Heinrich von Prussia , Prussian Prince, naval officer, admiral († 1929 )
- August 16 : Ludwig Plate , German zoologist († 1937 )
- August 20 : Jesse Carleton , American golfer († 1921 )
- August 20 : Paul Stäckel , German mathematician († 1919 )
- August 21 : Emilio Salgari , Italian writer († 1911 )
- August 22 : Claude Debussy , French composer († 1918 )
- August 24 : Karl Dehner , German homeland researcher († 1914 )
- August 25 : Louis Barthou , French politician († 1934 )
- August 26 : Theodor Siebs , German specialist in German († 1941 )
- August 27 : Abram Archipow , Russian painter († 1930 )
- August 29 : Andrew Fisher , Australian politician and Prime Minister († 1928 )
- August 29 : Ernst Meumann , German experimental psychologist († 1915 )
- August 29 : Maurice Maeterlinck , Belgian writer and Nobel Prize winner († 1949 )
- September 1 : Adolphe Appia , Swiss architect († 1928 )
- September 1 : Inazō Nitobe , Japanese scholar and League of Nations secretary († 1933 )
- September 2 : Alphons Diepenbrock , Dutch composer, writer and classical philologist († 1921 )
- September 4 : Hermann Winnefeld , German archaeologist († 1918 )
- September 7 : Paul Eduard Crodel , German landscape painter († 1928 )
- September 7th : Louis Tuaillon , Prussian sculptor († 1919 )
- September 8 : Karl Ludwig Werner , German organist and composer († 1902 )
- September 11 : Julian Byng , Commander of the Canadian Army, Governor General of Canada († 1935 )
- September 11th : Hawley Crippen , American doctor and murderer († 1910 )
- September 11th : Augustin Henninghaus , German missionary and bishop († 1939 )
- September 11 : O. Henry , American writer († 1910 )
- September 14 : Eugen Ehrlich , Austrian lawyer, legal sociologist († 1922 )
- September 15 : Friedrich von Lindequist , German governor of German South West Africa († 1945 )
- September 16 : Juliusz Bursche , Regional Bishop of Poland († 1942 )
- September 16 : Selden P. Spencer , American politician († 1925 )
- September 19 : Carl Apstein , German zoologist († 1950 )
- September 19 : Augustin Wibbelt , Low German author and theologian († 1947 )
- September 24 : Leonard Leslie Brooke , British illustrator and author († 1940 )
- September 25 : Léon Boëllmann , French organist and composer († 1897 )
- September 25 : Max Dreyer , German writer and playwright († 1946 )
- September 26 : Ernst Kromayer , German dermatologist and university lecturer († 1933 )
- September 27 : Louis Botha , Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa († 1919 )
- September 27 : Kurt von Wahlen-Jürgass , Prussian general († 1935 )
- September 30 : Georgi Konjus , Russian composer († 1933 )
- September 30 : Josef Laßletzberger , Austrian military bandmaster and composer († 1939 )
- October 1 : Henri Andoyer , French astronomer and mathematician († 1929 )
- October 1 : Esther Boise Van Deman , American archaeologist († 1937 )
- October 2 : Karl Ebermaier , German governor of Cameroon († 1943 )
- October 2 : Angiolina Vonmoos , Swiss Rhaeto-Romanic author († 1955 )
- October 3 : Andrew Jackson Montague , American politician († 1937 )
- October 4 : Sebastian Finsterwalder , Bavarian mathematician and geodesist († 1951 )
- October 5 : Wilhelm Solf , German politician and governor of Samoa († 1936 )
- October 6 : Joseph Weldon Bailey , American politician († 1929 )
- October 7 : Otto Ernst , German writer († 1926 )
- October 7 : Rudolf Much , Austrian Germanist and Scandinavian († 1936 )
- October 8 : Emil von Sauer , German composer, pianist and music teacher († 1942 )
- October 9 : Henry L. Myers , American politician († 1943 )
- October 10 : Emil Mayrisch , Luxembourg steel industrialist, President of the ARBED Board of Directors († 1928 )
- October 12 : Theodor Boveri , German biologist († 1915 )
- October 12 : Ferdinand Pfohl , German music critic, writer and composer († 1949 )
- October 13 : John Rogers Commons , American economist and sociologist († 1945 )
- October 13 : Mary Kingsley , English ethnologist and travel writer († 1900 )
- October 15 : Conrad Ansorge , German pianist, composer and music teacher († 1930 )
- October 16 : Hans Apel-Pusch , German officer († 1921 )
- October 16 : Hermann von Gottschall , German chess player († 1933 )
- October 18 : Heinrich Weizsäcker , German art historian († 1945)
- October 19 : Auguste Lumière , French entrepreneur, inventor and film pioneer († 1954 )
- October 24 : Philipp Siesmayer , German garden architect († 1935 )
- October 24 : Daniel Swarovski , Austrian-Bohemian glass cutter and founder of the Swarovski company († 1956 )
- October 26 : Georg Wentzel , German classical philologist († 1919 )
- October 28 : Felix Graf von Merveldt , German civil servant and politician († 1926 )
- October 30 : Anton Funtek , Slovenian writer († 1932 )
- October 30 : Friedrich Meinecke , German historian and university professor († 1954 )
- November 1st : Johan Wagenaar , Dutch composer and organist († 1941 )
- November 2 : Maironis , pseudonym of the Lithuanian national poet Jonas Mačiulis († 1932 )
- November 7th : Louis Svećenski , Croatian-American violist, violinist and music teacher († 1926 )
- November 10 : Adolf Wallenberg , German internist and neurologist († 1949 )
- November 12 : Georg L. Sarauw , Danish archaeologist († 1928 )
- November 15 : Adolf Bartels , German writer and literary historian († 1945 )
- November 15 : Gerhart Hauptmann , German naturalist writer († 1946 )
- November 16 : Jacques Rouché , French editor and opera director († 1957 )
- November 17 : Karl Angermayer , Austrian politician († 1941 )
- November 20 : Georges Palante , French philosopher and anarchist († 1925 )
- November 23 : Théo van Rysselberghe , Flemish pointillist painter († 1926 )
- November 23 : Alberto Williams , Argentine composer and conductor († 1952 )
- November 24th : Bernhard Stavenhagen , German composer and pianist († 1914 )
- November 26 : Hans Gabriel Jentzsch , German graphic artist, illustrator, caricaturist († 1930 )
- November 29 : Friedrich Klose , German composer († 1942 )
- November 29 : Gustav Ritter von Kahr , Bavarian Prime Minister († 1934 )
- November 30th : Karl Brauckmann , German special educator († 1938 )
- December 5 : William Walker Atkinson , American businessman, lawyer and author († 1932 )
- December 6 : Paul Adam , French writer († 1920 )
- December 6th : Sebald Rudolf Steinmetz , Dutch ethnologist and sociologist († 1940 )
- December 8 : Georges Feydeau , French playwright († 1921 )
- December 11 : John H. Arnold , American politician († 1944 )
- December 12 : J. Bruce Ismay , British businessman and director of the White Star Line, survivor of the Titanic disaster († 1937 )
- December 17 : Moriz Rosenthal , Polish-American pianist († 1946 )
- December 18 : Ulrich Wilcken , German ancient historian and papyrologist († 1944 )
- December 19 : Ruth Bré , German mother rights activist, women's rights activist, writer, journalist, theater writer and radical critic of patriarchy († 1911 )
- December 20 : Washington Ellsworth Lindsey , American politician († 1926 )
- December 22 : Walter Samuel Goodland , American politician († 1947 )
- December 23 : Hans Wessely , Austrian violinist and music teacher († 1926 )
- December 25 : Lee Meriwether , American writer, lawyer and diplomat († 1966 )
- December 28 : Morris Rosenfeld , American poet († 1923 )
- December 31 : Richard Abramowski , German Protestant theologian († 1932 )
- December 31 : Albert Sleeper , American politician († 1934 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Isabelle Bean , English-Australian nurse, suffragette, feminist and theosophist († 1939 )
- Bajram Curri , Albanian freedom fighter († 1925 )
- Edmund Duggan , Australian actor and playwright († 1938 )
- Friedrich Eichlam , German cactus collector († 1911 )
- Diran Kelekian , Turkish journalist and scholar († 1915 )
- Emmanuel Lafarge , French opera singer († 1911 )
- Frederick Maxson , American composer and organist († 1934 )
- José Ovidio García , Dominican clarinetist, conductor and music teacher († 1919 )
January to March
- January 3 : John Hemphill , American lawyer and politician (* 1803 )
- January 4 : Josef Messner , Bohemian writer and poet (* 1822 )
- January 5 : Franz Joseph Fröhlich , German musicologist and teacher (* 1780 )
- January 10 : Samuel Colt , American inventor and weapons manufacturer (* 1814 )
- January 11 : José Santos Guardiola , President of Honduras (* 1816 )
- January 12 : Jørgen Herman Vogt , Norwegian lawyer and politician (* 1784 )
- January 16 : Manuel da Silva Passos , Portuguese lawyer and politician (* 1801 )
- January 18 : John Tyler , President of the USA (* 1790 )
- January 20 : Johan Gustaf Ruckman , Swedish engraver (* 1780 )
- January 21 : Božena Němcová , Czech writer (* 1820 )
- January 23 : Willem Hendrik de Vriese , Dutch medic and botanist (* 1806 )
- January 24th : Johann Heinrich Christian Friedrich Sturm , German engraver and ornithologist (* 1805 )
- February 2 : Rudolph Suhrlandt , German portrait painter (* 1781 )
- February 3 : Jean-Baptiste Biot , French physicist and mathematician (* 1774 )
- February 4 : Heinrich Schmückert , German General Post Director (* 1790 )
- February 5 : Ignaz Franz Castelli , Austrian poet and playwright (* 1781 )
- February 10 : Jacques Rothmüller , German landscape painter, draftsman and lithographer (* 1804 )
- February 11 : Bernardus Franciscus Suerman , Dutch medic (* 1783 )
- February 13 : Amalie Struve , German radical democratic revolutionary of the March Revolution, women's rights activist and writer (* 1824 )
- February 14 : David Sprüngli , Swiss chocolatier (* 1776 )
- February 15 : Heinrich Adam , German etcher and landscape painter (* 1787 )
- February 15 : William Appleton , American politician (* 1786 )
- February 16 : William Pennington , American politician (* 1796 )
- February 21 : Justinus Kerner , German writer and doctor (* 1786 )
- February 23 : Serafín María de Soto , Spanish officer, military historian, politician and President of the Government of Spain (* 1792 )
- February 22nd : Franz von Pillersdorf , Austrian civil servant and statesman (* 1786 )
- February 24 : Bernhard Severin Ingemann , Danish writer (* 1789 )
- February 26 : Cornelius Conway Felton , American literary scholar (* 1807 )
- March 1 : Franz Friedrich Freudenberger , Swiss painter and draftsman (* 1804 )
- March 1 : Sidonie , Duchess of Saxony (* 1834 )
- March 2 : Ivan Panayev , Russian writer, journalist, literary critic and editor (* 1812 )
- March 3 : Auguste Reuss zu Köstritz , Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg (* 1822 )
- March 8 : Franz Xaver Nippel von Weyerheim , Austrian lawyer (* 1787 )
- March 15 : Benedicta Riepp , Eichstätter nun of the Order of Saint Benedict, first prioress of the Benedictine Sisters in the New World (* 1825 )
- March 15 : Henry Scheffer , French painter (* 1798 )
- March 16 : Joseph Christian von Zedlitz , Austrian officer and poet (* 1790 )
- March 17th : Jacques Fromental Halévy , French composer and music teacher (* 1799 )
- March 19 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Schadow , German painter (* 1788 )
- March 21 : Alfred I. zu Windisch-Graetz , Austrian field marshal (* 1787 )
- March 23 : Sophie Adlersparre , Swedish painter (* 1808 )
- March 23 : Karl Robert von Nesselrode , Russian diplomat, foreign minister and chancellor (* 1780 )
April to August
- April 3 : James Clark Ross , English explorer and navigator (* 1800 )
- April 6 : Albert S. Johnston , Confederate General (* 1803 )
- April 17th : William Wilson , British mechanical engineer (* 1809 )
- April 24th : Friedrich Busse , German company director and inventor (* 1794 )
- April 24 : Julius Wilhelm Oelsner , member of the Frankfurt National Assembly (* 1800 )
- April 28 : Josef Arnold the Younger , Austrian fresco, portrait and landscape painter (* 1823 )
- May 2 : Jacobus Ludovicus Conradus Schroeder van der Kolk , Dutch medic (* 1797 )
- May 3 : Amancio Alcorta , Argentine composer and politician (* 1805 )
- May 6 : Henry David Thoreau , American writer and philosopher (* 1817 )
- May 9 : Theodor Bilharz , German doctor and natural scientist (* 1825 )
- May 15 : Kurt Alexander Winkler , German chemist and metallurgist (* 1794 )
- May 16 : Edward Gibbon Wakefield , British statesman (* 1796 )
- May 25 : Johann Nestroy , Austrian playwright and satirist (* 1801 )
- May 28 : Lev Mei , Russian poet (* 1822 )
- May 29 : Franciszek Mirecki , Polish composer (* 1791 )
- June 6 : Turner Ashby , American Colonel (* 1828 )
- June 17th : Charles Canning , British statesman (* 1812 )
- July 8 : Hans Mathias Velschow , Danish historian (* 1796 )
- July 10 : José Lúcio Travassos Valdez , Portuguese statesman and politician (* 1787 )
- July 14 : José Escolástico Andrino , Salvadoran composer (* 1817 )
- July 20 : Moritz Karl August Axt , German pedagogue and classical philologist (* 1801 )
- July 24 : Martin Van Buren , President of the USA (* 1782 )
- July 31 : Karl Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach , Dutch general (* 1792 )
- August 5th : Johann Christoph Winters , German puppeteer and founder of the Hänneschen Theater in Cologne (* 1772 )
- August 6 : Valentin Rost , German classical philologist and lexicographer (* 1790 )
- August 9 : Johann Carl Gottlieb Arning , German lawyer and senator (* 1786 )
- August 12 : Johann Michael Ackner , German archaeologist and naturalist (* 1782 )
- August 20 : Eduard Pistorius , German genre painter and etcher (* 1796 )
- August 27 : Henricus Egbertus Vinke , Dutch Reformed theologian (* 1794 )
- August 28 : Albrecht Adam , German battle painter (* 1786 )
- August 28 : Karl Adolf von Wachsmann , German writer (* 1787 )
- August 29 : Francesco Carlini , Italian astronomer and geodesist (* 1783 )
- August 31 : Ignaz Aßmayer , Austrian composer and church musician (* 1790 )
September to December
- September 10 : Carlos Antonio López , President of Paraguay (* 1790 )
- September 14 : Richard Keith Call , American politician (* 1792 )
- September 16 : Boniface de Castellane , French general and Marshal of France (* 1788 )
- September 21 : Frederick Townsend Ward , officer in the US Merchant Navy (* 1831 )
- September 22 : Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus , German philosopher (* 1796 )
- September 24th : Anton Martin Slomšek , Slovenian clergyman, writer and poet (* 1800 )
- September 26 : Hans Christian Petersen , Norwegian lawyer and member of the government (* 1793 )
- September 30th : Jacob W. Miller , American politician (* 1800 )
- October 6 : Francisco Acuña de Figueroa , Uruguayan writer (* 1792 )
- October 14 : Friedrich Rudolf Hasse , German theologian (* 1808 )
- October 16 : George Burgwyn Anderson , American general (* 1831 )
- October 30 : Gerhard Friederich , German Evangelical Lutheran pastor and writer (* 1779 )
- November 7th : Bahadur Shah II , last Indian Grand Mughal (* 1775 )
- November 13 : Ludwig Uhland , German lawyer, poet and politician (* 1787 )
- November 15 : Johann Karl Christoph Vogel , German theologian, pedagogue and lexicographer (* 1795 )
- November 16 : William B. Preston , American politician (* 1805 )
- November 17 : Leopold Kupelwieser , Austrian painter (* 1796 )
- November 17 : Ramsay Richard Reinagle , English landscape, portrait and animal painter (* 1775 )
- November 17th : Alexei Werstowski , Russian composer (* 1799 )
- November 28 : Charles Wimar , German-American painter (* 1828 )
- December 1 : Agustín Durán , Spanish literary scholar (* 1789 )
- December 4 : Charles Dunoyer , French economist (* 1786 )
- December 5 : Aloys Henhöfer , German theologian (* 1789 )
- December 6th : Claiborne Fox Jackson , American politician (* 1806 )
- December 7th : Sylvester Churchill , American journalist and general (* 1783 )
- December 10th : Philemon Dickerson , American politician (* 1788 )
- December 13 : Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb , General of the Confederate States (* 1823 )
- December 16 : Ewald Rudolf Stier , German Lutheran theologian (* 1800 )
- December 17th : Karl Arnold-Obrist , Swiss bishop (* 1796 )
- December 17th : Josef Franz Natterer , Austrian physician, photography pioneer and explorer (* 1819 )
- December 20 : James Pearce , American politician (* 1805 )
- December 25th : Adolph Kullak , German pianist and music writer (* 1823 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Joseph-Alphonse Adhémar , French mathematician (* 1797 )
- Carlos Anaya , Uruguayan politician (* 1777 )
- Bonaventura Carles Aribau i Farriols , Spanish writer, poet and economist (* 1798 )
- Louis Alfred Becquerel , French physicist and medic (* 1814 )
- John Thomas , British sculptor and architect (* 1813 )
- Johann Nepomuk Tröndlin , German piano maker (* 1790 )
- Maximilian Adolph Uhlemann , German Egyptologist (* 1829 )