Ludwig Uhland

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Portrait of Ludwig Uhland, after a painting by Gottlob Wilhelm Morff , oil on canvas , around 1818. Uhland's signature:
Signature Ludwig Uhland.PNG

Johann Ludwig "Louis" Uhland (born April 26, 1787 in Tübingen ; † November 13, 1862 there ) was a German poet , literary scholar , lawyer and politician . He made significant contributions to medieval studies , research into the Middle Ages, and was a member of the first all-German parliament, the Frankfurt National Assembly .


Origin and youth

Ludwig Uhland's birthplace , the stately half-timbered house Neckarhalde 24, in Tübingen
Entrance door to the birthplace with a memorial plaque

Johann Ludwig Uhland was born in Tübingen in the Duchy of Württemberg . The family tree of the scholarly Uhland family can be traced back to the 16th century. The Uhland family lived in Tübingen from 1720 (previously in Kleingartach ). Ludwig Uhland's grandfather Ludwig Joseph Uhland (1722–1803) worked as a deacon in Marbach . In 1761 he received a call to the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen for the chair of history, from 1776 he held the chair of theology there. Uhland's father, Johann Friedrich, was the university secretary. Uhland was inherently part of an "old Württemberg family of bourgeois-learned style".

Ludwig Uhland had three siblings, his eldest brother died soon after he was born, the second oldest, Friedrich, died of scarlet fever at the age of ten . His younger sister Luise (1795–1836) was born after Friedrich's death.

Ludwig Uhland grew up in Tübingen. The house where he was born at Tübingen Neckarhalde 24 has been preserved for posterity to this day, a listed building with an unchanged facade. A few months after Ludwig Uhland was born, the family moved to the house of their father's grandfather in Hafengasse. Ludwig Uhland lived in Stuttgart from the age of 25 (1812) . In 1831 Ludwig Uhland and his wife moved back to Tübingen, where they lived from 1836 in a classicist property that was located near the Neckar bridge below the Österberg . This building was destroyed by a bomb in 1944 during World War II.

From 1793 to 1801 Ludwig Uhland attended the Schola Anatolica - the former Latin school in Tübingen . He was gifted in language lessons and always got good reports; he was only at war with mathematics throughout his life. Friends from school often visited him because his mother didn't want him to be a loner.

Study and educational trip

In 1801 Uhland received a scholarship for the Tübinger Stift , where he mainly devoted himself to philological topics. In 1805 he began to study law . The reticent student was disciplined and eager.

This only changed when the medical student Justinus Kerner came to Tübingen in 1804 . Ludwig and he became good friends. They often went on long hikes with other comrades. In this context, some poems were written by Uhland, such as "The Chapel" (1805). The same attitude and the common direction of writing connected Uhland with his friends Gustav Schwab , Justinus Kerner and Karl Mayer , who were also literary and formed the so-called Swabian poet circle . They all stayed in contact with one another for life.

The Serach poets' circle in the Kernerhaus , colored engraving after an oil painting by Heinrich von Rustige

In 1809, the Habsburg Monarchy tried to end French supremacy over Germany in the fifth coalition war. In this context the Tyroleans , whose land had shortly before been given to Bavaria by Napoleon , were also raised . Bavaria was only able to suppress this uprising led by Andreas Hofer with difficulty . For a time it seemed as if Wuerttemberg troops were being drawn into the battle on Bavaria's side. At that time Uhland wrote his poem The Good Comrade , which was then sung a lot to a melody by Friedrich Silcher (1825) and in later times - up to National Socialism  - was often reinterpreted in the sense of patriotic awakening and the glorification of war. Uhland's text is far from all that; it deals - soberly and yet movingly - with loyalty to friends and the fate of the war. In any case, the event from which the poem emerged was hardly suitable for patriotic enthusiasm, as Germans fought here against Germans.

On April 3, 1810 Uhland became a doctor of law doctorate . A month later he went on an educational trip to Paris. He was interested in French and old German scripts. He carried out his written studies in the Paris National Library . However, from the father's point of view, the main purpose of the trip was to study the Code Napoléon , the French legal system . Here, for the first time, Uhland's rebellion against his father and against the legal profession, which was not particularly close to his heart, becomes apparent. On January 26, 1811, the son returned to Tübingen and opened a law firm there. At the same time he worked out his research results, whereby Gustav Schwab's knowledge was helpful to him.

During this time (March 21, 1812) Uhland's most famous poem, “Spring Faith”, was written. The romantic character of these verses and the choice of his lyrical themes (nature, the Middle Ages) must not hide the fact that their author can only be viewed as a romantic in a limited sense. Uhland's taciturn and sober manner is also reflected in his poems, which tend less to enthusiasm and outgrowths of emotions than to the concise, vivid, precise representation of facts. The tone is simple and unpathetic, often based on folk songs with which the author has also dealt scientifically; This is how Uhland becomes a folk poet, whose volumes of poetry are repeatedly reprinted and were part of the basic inventory of the German bookcase in the 19th century.

Stuttgart: Speaker of the state estates

Uhland monument by Gustav Adolph Kietz in Tübingen, photo taken around 1900, from Tübingen cultural monuments . Catalog of Tübingen cultural monuments. Tübingen photographs by Paul Sinner , Kunsthalle Tübingen

At the end of 1812, Uhland closed his office in Tübingen and moved to Stuttgart. He got a job as the second secretary of the Württemberg Minister of Justice, but this position was unpaid and could at best be viewed as a stepping stone for a subsequent career. Emilie Uhland quotes a letter from her friend Karl Roser in the biography of her husband , who addresses Uhland as "Olof" and offers him to help out with money:

“I still happily attached your letter, dear Olof, when the horses were already on the wagon, and if you really travel to Tubingen today, I wish you a happy journey from the bottom of my heart; but come back soon and then stay here with us. You will certainly get so many deals, within a year at the latest, that you can comfortably live on their earnings. Until then, you will of course have to add something at the beginning, but this too will surely replace the more abundant income of a few later years, and if you have an advance of two to three hundred guilders from me until this time has come would accept, I would take it as true evidence of your friendship. You would reimburse me this advance after how many years and in what way, as it would be right for you under the circumstances. And you can accept this offer all the more harmlessly as it does not result in any privation for me, as it is not even a gift, but a mere advance, of which it is, and as this proposal is made by your sincere, loyal friend K. Roser "

On May 11, 1814, she notes that Uhland has quit the job and discussed this decision with his parents beforehand:

“After a visit to his parents, Uhland declared his resignation from the previously provided position with their consent. The minister wanted to order him to stay for a while longer, only 4 to 6 weeks, but Uhland made a firm decision: not to wait any longer, and then received the required dismissal without any recognition of the services rendered. The minister seems to have been sensitive to his refusal to hold out any longer. "

In September 1813, Ludwig Uhland received a long-awaited invitation to the shadow society , an association of university students , in whose meetings and discussions he took part regularly from now on.

On December 15, 1814, Uhland mentioned Emilie Vischer from Calw for the first time in his diary, who was to become his future wife. In the same year one of Uhland's most famous ballads was created: “ Swabian Customer ”, which was inspired by the historical event of the Third Crusade , in which Emperor Friedrich I , also known as Emperor Barbarossa , took part and in whose endeavor Emperor Barbarossa drowned .

In the Napoleonic era, Württemberg was considerably enlarged by connecting the surrounding areas, especially in the south, in the region between the Danube and the Swiss border; The area and population had doubled. In this context, the Duke had in 1806 suspended the old state constitution , which was based on the participation of the bourgeoisie and the church in state politics. This was not against the law, since the vast new lands were outside this constitution; In order to enable the most effective integration into the old Württemberg, new regulations had to be worked out.

In 1815, Frederick I , who had accepted the title of king under the sovereignty of Napoleon Bonaparte , convened a general meeting of the estates to present a draft of a new constitution . Now there was a year-long struggle over the provisions of this Württemberg Basic Law, as the members of parliament wanted to adhere to the old rules. In this bitter dispute, Ludwig Uhland became the leading spokesman for the estates on July 26, 1815. For the cause of the "old law" he wrote a series of poems in which he laid out the principles of a constitution in the sense of the estates. Because his verses were recited at many meetings, his popularity grew even further.

It was only under the new King Wilhelm I that the discussions on the 1819 constitution were concluded with a compromise. Uhland, too, had to admit that it contained a lot of good things: tax approval by the state parliament and participation in legislation, establishment of a state court to protect the constitution, full freedom of the press. He could not approve of the division of the Landtag into two houses, the establishment of a chamber of nobility in addition to the traditional People's Chamber. The solemn proclamation of the Basic Law was celebrated on October 29, 1819 in Stuttgart with the performance of Uhland's drama Ernst, Duke of Swabia .

The lawyer had already terminated his employment relationship in May 1817: He was still refused payment, and he did not feel comfortable in a position in which he was supposed to work for the royal state. He now decided to become a freelance lawyer in Stuttgart. But here, too, he didn't earn much because with his shy, taciturn manner, he was hardly able to successfully represent his clients in court. So it is no coincidence that in many of his cases he appeared as a public defender of the poor. During this time he was in dire financial straits.

Marriage and employment in the state parliament

At the end of 1819, Uhland was re-elected to the state parliament without any special effort. One day after its opening, Uhland became engaged to Emilie Auguste Vischer on January 16, 1820 and was married to her on May 29 of the same year in the Stuttgart Hospital Church.

Emilie Vischer (1799–1881) was the daughter of Johann Martin Vischer (1751–1801), a wealthy merchant from Calw , and his wife Friederike Auguste Emilie born. Feuerlein (1776-1816). Her birthplace is the Palais Vischer in Calw, built according to the plans of her great-uncle Reinhard Ferdinand Heinrich Fischer . Her grandfather Carl Friedrich Feuerlein was a secret cabinet secretary in the service of Duke Karl Eugen von Württemberg. With her widowed mother she came from Calw to Stuttgart to the house of her grandfather Feuerlein and to her stepfather Ferdinand von Pistorius . Emilie Uhland later enabled her husband to work financially independently and took part in his activities. After his death she wrote the first biography about him. She survived him by 19 years and died in Stuttgart. The marriage had remained childless.

The young couple's honeymoon initially took them to Switzerland, where Uhland expanded his knowledge of medieval manuscripts in the Zurich library . On another occasion, the two went on an extensive Black Forest trip together . Here, the old ruins of the Hirsau monastery may have inspired the poet to create his “elm tree” (which was not written down until 1829).

Uhland was a member of the Württemberg state parliament until 1826. As with everything else, he proceeded extremely conscientiously and was absent only once during the entire period; even on his wedding day he appeared in the room. However, he soon found that the majority of MPs were all too willing to follow the government's plans and that interest in political events was clearly declining in the population. He himself was generally opposed and wanted more effective control of government activities without getting through. At the end of his term of office he withdrew from the state parliament in order to devote himself entirely to his scientific studies.

Tübingen: Professor and Member of the State Parliament

Ludwig Uhland photographed in Frankfurt am Main , calotype by Fritz and Julie Vogel, 1846

Uhland's attempt at a chair was not successful until the end of 1829. He was appointed professor for German language and literature at the University of Tübingen. The Uhland couple moved from Stuttgart to Tübingen in April 1830. An anecdote says that when he moved out of the state capital he got a laurel wreath, but he hung it on a tree in a forest because, according to him, nature deserves this honor rather than him.

On May 3, 1830, Uhland gave his first lecture. His students loved his personality. They sensed the enthusiasm with which he himself became interested in the topics he presented. Uhland worked intensively in the still young field of Germanic Medieval Studies (then known as "Old German Studies") and contributed to the triumph of this discipline. This led to an intensive exchange with the like-minded Joseph von Laßberg .

When a delegation of Stuttgart citizens called on him, the philologist was persuaded in 1832 to run again for the state parliament. Without a campaign of his own, he was elected by a two-thirds majority. After serious conflicts between the state parliament and the government, the state officials withdrew the leave they had previously granted for chamber meetings. With that, Uhland found himself in a dilemma, he had to choose between his professorship and the office of parliament. Against his inner inclination, he decided to stay in the state parliament because he did not want to be politically blackmailed. So he lost his beloved job at the Tübingen University.

Uhland was a member of the state parliament until 1838. Again he found himself on the side of the minority, who could not bring their reform proposals through and therefore could not achieve much politically. Uhland always spoke out in favor of great thrift and particularly wanted to cut back on military spending significantly. He regularly voted against the government's budget proposals. One might ask whether his work as a professor would not have given him greater public influence. In the state parliament he rarely took the floor, but then often on fundamental statements. When a noble, very pious MP once suggested that we pray before every session of the Chamber of Estates, he stood up with dignity and said, "I think that it will be more agreeable to God if we pray in our little chamber instead of in the chamber." such reparteeism did not really correspond to his usual lack of words. In this regard, his wife probably suffered from the husband. Contrary to the statement that everything has two sides, she once said that she knew something that always had only one side, namely the letters of her Ludwig.

Ludwig and Emilie Uhland on a calotype from 1846

During these years, the childless Uhland couple took in a nephew and the son of a deceased friend. In order to enable the enlarged family to live comfortably at home, a house was purchased in Tübingen in Gartenstrasse opposite the Neckar Bridge; the property also included a large orchard. Soon a separate vineyard with a house was added. Here Uhland worked in the fresh air on his collections and scientific studies in the summer. In addition, the couple made numerous trips throughout Germany and to neighboring countries. Most of the trips were used for scientific research and the collection of sources as well as meeting important authors. As a result, Uhland always had the opportunity to study manuscripts that were unknown to him in academic libraries. When Uhland left the political establishment in 1838, he worked as a private teacher.

Uhland was just as cautious about the publications of his old Germanist studies as he was as a private person. Most of his writings did not seem ready for printing. He hesitated and hesitated until others, such as Wilhelm Grimm or Karl Lachmann , got ahead of him, and thus took away a large part of the effect that he could have had if he had taken a more courageous approach. When the estate was published after his death, many things were already out of date.

Member of the German national parliament

The St. Paul Church in 1848 when she venue of the Pre-Parliament and the National Assembly was watercolor by Jean Nicolas Ventadour.1848

After ten years of retired research, Uhland stepped onto the political stage once again. In the revolutionary year of 1848 he was a member of the pre-parliament and was elected by the citizens of his hometown Tübingen with more than 90 percent of the votes as a member of the National Assembly , which had its seat in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt . There he was generally on the left, the Democrats, but did not join any political group. During the deliberations on an imperial constitution, he mostly remained silent, only occasionally made short contributions and usually kept himself in the role of a loner.

Uhland said that the success of the great work, the creation of a German nation-state on a democratic basis, was ultimately a question of power. An understanding with the princes seemed to him to weaken the position of parliament. In order to create a countervailing power, Uhland advocated arming the people. In addition, he spoke out in favor of the abolition of the nobility.

The Tübingen MP only gave lengthy speeches twice. One time it was about bringing together all Germans, including German-Austria, within common borders. He adhered to this Greater German idea even after the Habsburgs put down the revolution in Austria . The Danube Monarchy wanted to keep a foothold in Germany, but German Austria should not be merged into a German nation-state. So it was almost inevitable that the majority in the Paulskirche finally voted (against Uhland) for the small German solution .

In order to keep the accession of German Austria open at least for a later time, Uhland spoke out against the creation of a hereditary monarchy, which under the circumstances of 1849 had to result in a Prussian permanent solution. Instead, he proposed that an elected head of the Reich be installed above the princes, who were to remain in their position, albeit with a limited function, in the tradition of the old German electoral monarchy and thus from Uhland's position as an advocate of 'good old law' from quite consistently. Of course , such a structure had no chance against the form of the constitutional hereditary monarchy , which was advancing in the 19th century, during the deliberations in the Paulskirche.

However, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV rejected the imperial crown of the imperial constitution. The national assembly was illegally declared over by the big states. Most of the MPs therefore left Parliament. The democrats who remained in the so-called rump parliament called on the population to take action to save the constitution at the last minute. The text of this appeal was formulated by Uhland.

On May 30, 1849, the MPs decided to move the "trunk" from Frankfurt to Stuttgart in order to be closer to the south-west German rebellion. When the meeting room there was locked by the Württemberg government and the delegates were looking for another meeting place in a train through the city, with Uhland at the head, they were dispersed by the military on June 18. That was the end of Uhland's political activity. However, the Tübinger also occasionally criticized political events later.

Return to Tübingen

Ludwig Uhland on a lithograph by R. Hutsteiner, published in Die Gartenlaube , 1887

Uhland returned to Tübingen and worked as a private scholar again. He devoted himself again to his scientific studies, practiced mythology and traveled. At the instigation of Alexander von Humboldt in Berlin, he was to be awarded the Prussian order Pour le Mérite , which he rejected, however, as well as the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art . Uhland withdrew more and more from public life. His circle of friends thinned out. At almost 75 years of age, he attended the funeral of his best friend Justinus Kerner, who died on February 22, 1862 in Weinsberg. On that icy winter day, he caught a cold from which he should no longer be able to recover properly.

Ludwig Uhland is buried in the Tübingen city cemetery , the flags are lowered over the coffin , contemporary wood engraving

On April 26, 1862, Uhland celebrated his 75th birthday and the whole German people celebrated with him. He was very revered by the Germans because for many he embodied the ideal of national unity and freedom. Uhland linden and Uhland oak have been planted all over the country . In the last year of his life he was offered the honorary ribbon of the Tübingen fraternity Germania , which he gladly accepted.

Uhland's volume of poems, first published in 1815, reached 42 editions during his lifetime, which were continuously expanded. The editions prove Uhland's popularity and popularity, as well as the numerous settings of his poetry by composers such as Johannes Brahms , Max Bruch , Peter Cornelius , Heinrich von Herzogenberg , Conradin Kreutzer , Franz Liszt , Carl Loewe , Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Josef Gabriel Rheinberger , Othmar Schoeck , Franz Schubert , Robert Schumann , Richard Strauss , Carl Friedrich Zelter and others contributed.

In the summer of the year Uhland looked for refreshment in the brine bath Jagstfeld , but this did not improve his suffering.

The grave of Ludwig and Emilie Uhland in the Tübingen city cemetery , decorated with the tombs for the couple

Ludwig Uhland died on November 13, 1862 at the age of 75 and was buried in the Tübingen city cemetery. A classically simply hewn granite block, only bearing the name of Ludwig Uhlands and a crowning star-shaped rosette carved in stone, adorns the grave of the important poet and politician. A similar tombstone in a more delicate form was used as a tomb for his wife, Emilie Auguste Uhland, b. Vischer, who rests lying on his side, erected. Ludwig Uhland's grave is near the final resting place of Friedrich Hölderlin .


He was a member of the Germania Tübingen fraternity. He wrote the songs "Three boys probably crossed the Rhine" and "I had a comrade", which were included in the Austrian Kommersbuch.


Uhland on a GDR postage stamp, 1987
Ludwig Uhland as a lawyer, silhouette 1817 by Luise Duttenhofer
Uhland monument in Tübingen

Works (selection)

Poems (1815) ( digitized and full text in the German text archive )



Scientific work:

  • Walther von der Vogelweide, an old German poet (monograph, 1822)
  • The myth of Thôr according to Nordic sources (studies on Nordic mythology , 1836)
  • Legend research (1836)

See also


  • Eberhard Emil von Georgii-Georgenau : Biographical-genealogical sheets from and about Swabia , Verlag Emil Müller, Stuttgart 1879.
  • Georg Braungart, Stefan Knödler, Helmuth Mojem and Wiebke Ratzeburg (eds.): Ludwig Uhland. Tübingen radical left national poet. Tübingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-941818-14-9 (Tübingen catalogs, 95; publication on the occasion of an exhibition).
  • Heinz Krämer: Louis Uhland on the Neckar, on the Seine - and on the Feuerbach. A memory book for the poet and democrat Ludwig Uhland for the 100th anniversary of the city of Feuerbach in 2007. DRW-Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-87181-046-6 .
  • Armin Gebhardt: Swabian group of poets. Uhland, Kerner , Schwab , Hauff , Mörike . Tectum, Marburg 2004, ISBN 3-8288-8687-6 .
  • Georg Braungart: Ludwig Uhland: The singer's curse - attempt to rescue. In: Reading Experiences and Literature Experiences. Approaches to literary works from Luther to Enzensberger. Festschrift for Kurt Franz on his 60th birthday. Edited by Günter Lange. Baltmannsweiler 2001, pp. 128-139.
  • Victor G. Doerksen: Ludwig Uhland and the Critics. Camden House, Columbia, South Carolina 1994.
  • Hermann Bausinger (Ed.): Ludwig Uhland. Poet, politician, scholar. Attempto: Tübingen 1988.
  • Walter Jens : Our Uhland. Thinking about a forgotten classic , Tübingen 1987.
  • W. Scheffler: Ludwig Uhland 1787–1862. Poet, Germanist, politician , Marbach 1987.
  • Hartmut Froeschle : Ludwig Uhland and Romanticism. Böhlau: Cologne 1973.
  • Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume I: Politicians. Volume 6: T-Z. Winter, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-8253-5063-0 , pp. 77-80 and Volume II: Artists. Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6813-5 , pp. 697-699.
  • Frank Raberg : Biographical handbook of the Württemberg state parliament members 1815-1933 . On behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-17-016604-2 , p. 933 .
  • Burkhard Sauerwald: Ludwig Uhland and his composers. On the relationship between music and politics in works by Conradin Kreutzer, Friedrich Silcher, Carl Loewe and Robert Schumann , LIT, Berlin / Münster 2015 (Dortmunder Schriften zur Musikpädagogik und Musikwissenschaft, Volume 1), ISBN 978-3-643-13110-2 .
  • Hermann FischerLudwig Uhland . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 39, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1895, pp. 148-163.

Web links

Commons : Ludwig Uhland  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Ludwig Uhland  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Hermann FischerLudwig Uhland . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 39, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1895, pp. 148-163.
  2. ^ Emilie Uhland Vischer: Ludwig Uhland's life . Compiled by his widow Emma Uhland from his estate and from his own memory. Cotta, Stuttgart 1874, 479 pages. Chapter 1: The Childhood Years 1787–1801, p. 4
  3. The Swiss writer Marc Monnier described it in the Revue suisse in 1851 (p. 535 f.) After a visit as follows: “This cozy poet's nest is nicely and modestly at the foot of a hill, opposite the Neckar. In front a terrace, behind it the house: two floors with six windows each, above a kind of attic with a Greek front gable; Behind the house a garden that stretches up the whole hill in lovely bloom, on the left the door of an inn and a thick wall surmounted by green trees, all around roads and paths leading up the slope, in front of the house a square that slopes down to the bank. “Quoted from the translation from the French by Steffi Kuhn-Werner, In: Schwäbisches Tagblatt , April 25, 1987, special supplement Ludwig Uhland, p. 5.
  4. "were as English bomber pilots on March 15, 1944 just before 23:00 threatened by German fighters, they had ballast to get rid of and klinkten their explosives above the Österberg from." (Helmut Hornbogen: received in the people soul Where Ludwig Uhland was at home . In: Schwäbisches Tagblatt , April 25, 1987, special supplement Ludwig Uhland, p. 2)
  5. ^ Emilie Uhland: Ludwig Uhland's life . Chapter IV. Service in the Minister of Justice's office. 1813-1814. Letter from Karl Roser, p. 97 f.
  7. Feuerlein was president of the local charity association, law firm attorney, Geh. Cabinet Secretary and Order Registrar; Son of Willibald Feuerlein, heart. Württ. Government and War Council in Stuttgart, and the raisin Euphrosine Georgii, daughter of Council Georgii in Ansbach.
  8. ^ Emilie Uhland: Ludwig Uhland's life. Stuttgart 1874
  9. Federal Archives: Members of the Pre-Parliament and the Fifties Committee (PDF file; 79 kB)
  10. Speech of January 22, 1849
  11. ^ K. Philipp: Burschenschaft Germania Tübingen, complete list of the members since the foundation December 12, 1816 . Stuttgart 2008.
  12. ^ Lexicon of important fraternity members
  13. Österreichisches Kommersbuch 1984, pp. 601f
  14. Asking the DLA about Ludwig Uhland.
  15. ^ Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire de Strasbourg. Retrieved February 4, 2020 .