In surveying or geodesy, marking is understood to mean the permanent visualization and stabilization of a survey point in the field. The marking can also be complex, for example if underground fixed points of the state triangulation network have to be fixed and made permanent so that they remain visible. The distance between these fixed points is between 30 and 40 km and it must be possible to find them for at least 5 to 20 years.
Border points , however, serve the demarcation of corridor and land, are in the language regime of northern Germany abgemarkt . In several German countries , in Austria and in Switzerland, however, the technical introduction of these boundary marks is also referred to by the term marking.
Marking types are specified in Germany in DIN 18709.
Surveying over days
- Pillars for trigonometric points ; Above this there can be a three-sided pyramid-shaped frame that can be seen from afar, with a visual indicator (black rectangular board pieces) attached to the top.
- stone pillars for height control points , which are provided with a metal bolt, the so-called height bolt .
- Hewn stone, preferably granite or artificial stone (12 × 12 × 50 cm or 20 × 20 × 60 cm) with a carved cross.
- Tower bolts or height bolts for fixed height points are also used on permanent building walls, such as in church towers, train station buildings and town halls.
- Steel tube (8 - 50 cm long, 16 or 22 mm diameter) at the bottom with a conical metal tip, at the top with a labeled cap, is driven into the ground.
- " Vermarkungsnagel " (large nail or bolt with a shaft diameter of approx. 0.5 cm, head diameter 1 - 2.5 cm, 5 - 15 cm long), the heads of which are labeled accordingly (on paths, streets and surfaces with hard ground)
- Fork points , two eyelets set in concrete in the wall base at a certain distance into which horizontally aligned rods can be hooked
- Chisel cross also as a rock cross in natural rock.
- For soft floors, a plastic mark, also known as a punch mark (a head made of artificial stone into which a metal anchor (often with barbs) is cast)
- Pipe with internal thread, glued flush (in a building wall, supporting wall) and a white plastic molded part screwed into it with a stopper with a ball protruding from a 5 cm long stem (ø 1–1.5 cm)
- Eccentric - measuring point outside the direct polygon course , if the view is obstructed by trees or buildings.
- Wooden stake (usually 4 × 2 cm, 50 cm long) with a nail - for example, for setting out in the area of construction sites or to better find a measuring point.
- The so-called carrot or " carrot ", a clay or plastic cone in the shape of a carrot that is beaten into soft soil and later removed again. This marking is also used as permanent underground insurance for border points .
Clearly defined structural elements visible from afar (so-called high points) can signal measurement points ; consequently, these do not have to be marketed. Examples are:
- Church tower cross or tower ball (ball under the tower cross)
- Pyramid or triangulation column, summit cross (in the first-order network )
- Pole signal (5–10 cm thick, 3–5 m high metal tube with high-contrast target mark )
- red and white range pole - for almost every measurement, even in a pole tripod (temporarily on measuring points)
- Mire (a reference direction that can usually be illuminated with precise alignment to a measuring point)
In Markscheidewesen underground most of the common over days Vermarkungsarten can not be used because of the special mining situation, as they are introduced into the ground. This would be impractical or not feasible in mining, since the floor is blocked by devices such as tracks or conveyor belts or often has to be reworked due to convergence . Therefore, polygon and other survey points in mining are usually marketed in the roof .
The same types of markings are used in surface mining as in general geodesy.
- Martin Asbeck, Stefan Drüppel, Klaus Skindelies, Markus Stein: Surveying and Geoinformation . Specialist book for surveyors and geomatists. Ed .: Michael Gärtner. Gärtner, Solingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-00-038273-4 , p. 111-123 .
- Ludger Mintrop : Mine sheath studies . Introduction to the, with special consideration of coal mining. 2nd, improved edition. Springer, Berlin 1916, p. 215 .
- Heinz Meixner , Viktor A. Bukrinskij: Markscheidewesen for mining disciplines . 1st edition. German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1977, p. 411 .
- Bettina Schütze, Andreas Engler, Harald Weber: Textbook measurement - basic knowledge . 2nd, completely revised edition. Schulze Engler Weber, Dresden 2007, ISBN 978-3-936203-07-3 .
- Fork points for the multi-purpose map, city surveying Vienna